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# An effort to control the crippling poverty in Brazil's

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Status: worked for Kaplan's associates, but now on my own, free and flying
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Re: An effort to control the crippling poverty in Brazil's [#permalink]

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29 Dec 2015, 23:05
Always read the choices with the subject ‘an effort’. The subject ‘an effort’ can go with a preposition such as ‘to’ or ‘at’ without the intervening comma and can join the mainstream of the sentence. However, a past participle such as ‘begun’ has to be separated by a comma from its modified noun. Or else, it cannot be separated from the verb ‘has been partially’ with a comma. So, B and C are eliminated. In D, the modifier ‘begun almost 30 years ago, should be separated from the noun phrase by a comma. In E, that ‘has begun’ is a wrong tense. The effort began 30 years ago. Therefore, we need a simple past.

A is the best.
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Re: An effort to control the crippling poverty in Brazil's [#permalink]

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09 Feb 2018, 02:09
jsahni123 wrote:
Hi Guys,

It is a nice question which also focuses on the sentence structure as seen in choice E

Will try to take a shot to explain

Option A
An effort to control the crippling poverty in Brazil's interior cities, begun almost 30 years ago, has been partially successful, despite the setback of a major draught and the interruption of aid during an extended economic crisis.

Modifier : begun almost 30 years ago is a verb-ed modifier modifying an effort to control...... (per my understanding it is modfying the whole clause) and is the correct option.

Option E

That has begun almost 30 years ago to control the crippling effects of poverty in Brazil's interior cities,has been partially successful,

As per my understanding i feel there are two issues in this option
1) Effort is the subject here....now the verb of this clause ( has been partially successful) has been connected to the subject using the comma which is incorrect

For eg : Thomas, goes to the market this is incorrect here

what the clause is trying to accomplish here is by the means of modifier and a dpndt clause hiding the comma to connect the subject and the verb.

2)Secondly i feel that the phrase That has begun is incorrect (as per my understanding again )

As per the meaning of the sentence efforts began 30 yrs back and now finished by using the words "has been partially successful" but what option E is saying that efforts are still in the beginning phase by using the above mentioned phrase

Pls correct me if i'm missing some pt here.

Thanks
Jatin

Hi!!
As per my understanding Verb+ed modifiers modifies preceding noun and noun phrases so how "begun almost 30 years ago" can modify subject of the sentence??
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Re: An effort to control the crippling poverty in Brazil's [#permalink]

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10 Feb 2018, 05:25
please explain i think A has modifier error began 30 years ago must come after effort in coma isn't it please explain. thankyou
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An effort to control the crippling poverty in Brazil's [#permalink]

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15 Feb 2018, 06:11
rishabhmishra wrote:
please explain i think A has modifier error began 30 years ago must come after effort in coma isn't it please explain. thankyou

No, it is OK. Sometimes an important modifier (in Manhattan guide, mentioned as "mission critical" modifier) may fall between a modifier and the noun it refers. In such case, the separated modifier refers to the noun and the "mission critical" modifier as a whole.

Here "to control the crippling poverty in Brazil's interior cities" is a "mission critical" modifier, and the separated modifier "begun almost 30 years ago" refers to the part "An effort to control the crippling poverty in Brazil's interior cities" as a whole.
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Re: An effort to control the crippling poverty in Brazil's [#permalink]

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18 Feb 2018, 22:13
sddhrthsn wrote:
An effort to control the crippling poverty in Brazil's interior cities, begun almost 30 years ago, has been partially successful, despite the setback of a major draught and the interruption of aid during an extended economic crisis.

A. Same
B. Begun almost 30 years ago for controlling the crippling effects of poverty in Brazil's interior cities,
C. Begun for controlling the crippling effects of poverty in Brazil's interior cities almost 30 years ago,
D. At controlling the crippling effects of poverty in Brazil's interior cities begun almost 30 years ago,
E. That has begun almost 30 years ago to control the crippling effects of poverty in Brazil's interior cities,

Can someone pls explain the reason why the wrong choices are wrong?
My other question is about the usage of idioms: effort to, effort at & effort for. Apart from the above context, which of these idioms are always incorrect?

my take on this is "A".
Incorrect Reasons:
1.to control serves motive over here so for controlling is less appealing.
2.B,C,D are fragments over here the second clause has no subject to follow(,has....successful, despite[DC marker..])
3.E starts with a DC marker with no subject referent (what has begun?)
In A:
An effort(subject) to control the crippling poverty in Brazil's interior cities[VERB modifier (why?) ], begun almost 30 years ago[VERB modifier (when?) ], has been(verb) partially successful, despite the setback of a major draught and the interruption of aid during an extended economic crisis.

Verb modifiers can be placed in the sentence far from the verb it modifies unless it creates some ambiguity.
Re: An effort to control the crippling poverty in Brazil's   [#permalink] 18 Feb 2018, 22:13

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