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# An effort to control the crippling poverty in Brazil's

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An effort to control the crippling poverty in Brazil's [#permalink]

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08 Aug 2011, 15:16
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An effort to control the crippling poverty in Brazil's interior cities, begun almost 30 years ago, has been partially successful, despite the setback of a major draught and the interruption of aid during an extended economic crisis.

A. Same
B. Begun almost 30 years ago for controlling the crippling effects of poverty in Brazil's interior cities,
C. Begun for controlling the crippling effects of poverty in Brazil's interior cities almost 30 years ago,
D. At controlling the crippling effects of poverty in Brazil's interior cities begun almost 30 years ago,
E. That has begun almost 30 years ago to control the crippling effects of poverty in Brazil's interior cities,

Can someone pls explain the reason why the wrong choices are wrong?
My other question is about the usage of idioms: effort to, effort at & effort for. Apart from the above context, which of these idioms are always incorrect?
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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Re: SC: Effort to, for, at [#permalink]

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08 Aug 2011, 15:59
"Effort to" is idiomatic here.

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Re: SC: Effort to, for, at [#permalink]

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08 Aug 2011, 19:19
+1 for A.

The phrase "begun ...." is acting as a modifier to the effort.

An effort to control XXXX,begun 30 years ago, has been partially .....

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Re: SC: Effort to, for, at [#permalink]

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08 Aug 2011, 19:38
Can someone tell me why is E wrong?

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Re: SC: Effort to, for, at [#permalink]

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09 Aug 2011, 04:40
i didn't choose E because 'to control the crippling...' is far away from the phrase, 'an effort', it is trying to modify 'an effort'

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Re: SC: Effort to, for, at [#permalink]

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09 Aug 2011, 05:31
In option A,
Past participle always modifyies the closest noun ."begun almost 30 years ago" I hope this is participle so it will modify cities which is wrong.

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Re: SC: Effort to, for, at [#permalink]

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10 Aug 2011, 22:30
sddhrthsn wrote:
An effort to control the crippling poverty in Brazil's interior cities, begun almost 30 years ago, has been partially successful, despite the setback of a major draught and the interruption of aid during an extended economic crisis.

A. Same
B. Begun almost 30 years ago for controlling the crippling effects of poverty in Brazil's interior cities,
C. Begun for controlling the crippling effects of poverty in Brazil's interior cities almost 30 years ago,
D. At controlling the crippling effects of poverty in Brazil's interior cities begun almost 30 years ago,
E. That has begun almost 30 years ago to control the crippling effects of poverty in Brazil's interior cities,

Can someone pls explain the reason why the wrong choices are wrong?
My other question is about the usage of idioms: effort to, effort at & effort for. Apart from the above context, which of these idioms are always incorrect?

i guess the sentence here is taking about, controlling the poverty and not controlling the effects of poverty hence ruling out other options. Hence A
But if you see, "begun" is a past participle and should not be used alone. It should be accompanied by "have" or "has". So E seems correct. The only problem here seems that E talks about controlling the effects of poverty and not poverty itself

Really confused between A and E.

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Re: SC: Effort to, for, at [#permalink]

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13 Aug 2011, 00:17
LifeChanger wrote:
i didn't choose E because 'to control the crippling...' is far away from the phrase, 'an effort', it is trying to modify 'an effort'

That's precisely why i chose E..an effort...to control...
An effort THAT has begun TO control..

somebody pls explain, I may b wrong.

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Re: SC: Effort to, for, at [#permalink]

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13 Aug 2011, 07:50
Hi guys, thanks for the reply. Even i am confused between A & E.

The Princeton review guide says that E is wrong becsuse it introduces a Tense error. The idiom and other things seem to fine according to them.
I am not sure though.

Also, i wanted to ask, are 'Effort at' & 'effort for' always un-idiomatic?

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Re: SC: Effort to, for, at [#permalink]

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13 Aug 2011, 07:52
Quote:
i guess the sentence here is taking about, controlling the poverty and not controlling the effects of poverty hence ruling out other options. Hence A
But if you see, "begun" is a past participle and should not be used alone. It should be accompanied by "have" or "has". So E seems correct. The only problem here seems that E talks about controlling the effects of poverty and not poverty itself

Really confused between A and E.

They are referring to something like this i guess, but not sure...

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Re: An effort to control the crippling poverty in Brazil's [#permalink]

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19 Oct 2012, 13:40
Can anyone explain the difference between A & E?

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Re: An effort to control the crippling poverty in Brazil's [#permalink]

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19 Oct 2012, 20:17
A says -
An effort to control the crippling poverty in Brazil's interior cities, begun almost 30 years ago, has been partially successful, despite the setback of a major drought and the interruption of aid during an extended economic crisis.

E says -
An effort That has begun almost 30 years ago to control the crippling effects of poverty in Brazil's interior cities,has been partially successful ,despite the setback of of a major drought and the interruption of aid during an extended economic crisis.

Presence of comma after cities is a problem with E

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Re: An effort to control the crippling poverty in Brazil's [#permalink]

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22 Oct 2012, 20:53
vishu1414 wrote:
A says -
An effort to control the crippling poverty in Brazil's interior cities, begun almost 30 years ago, has been partially successful, despite the setback of a major drought and the interruption of aid during an extended economic crisis.

E says -
An effort That has begun almost 30 years ago to control the crippling effects of poverty in Brazil's interior cities,has been partially successful ,despite the setback of of a major drought and the interruption of aid during an extended economic crisis.

Presence of comma after cities is a problem with E

In E, you mean has been partially successful modifies / describes the effort that has begun almost 30 years? instead of control crippling effects?

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Re: An effort to control the crippling poverty in Brazil's [#permalink]

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22 Oct 2012, 21:33
Hi Guys,

It is a nice question which also focuses on the sentence structure as seen in choice E

Will try to take a shot to explain

Option A
An effort to control the crippling poverty in Brazil's interior cities, begun almost 30 years ago, has been partially successful, despite the setback of a major draught and the interruption of aid during an extended economic crisis.

Modifier : begun almost 30 years ago is a verb-ed modifier modifying an effort to control...... (per my understanding it is modfying the whole clause) and is the correct option.

Option E

That has begun almost 30 years ago to control the crippling effects of poverty in Brazil's interior cities,has been partially successful,

As per my understanding i feel there are two issues in this option
1) Effort is the subject here....now the verb of this clause ( has been partially successful) has been connected to the subject using the comma which is incorrect

For eg : Thomas, goes to the market this is incorrect here

what the clause is trying to accomplish here is by the means of modifier and a dpndt clause hiding the comma to connect the subject and the verb.

2)Secondly i feel that the phrase That has begun is incorrect (as per my understanding again )

As per the meaning of the sentence efforts began 30 yrs back and now finished by using the words "has been partially successful" but what option E is saying that efforts are still in the beginning phase by using the above mentioned phrase

Pls correct me if i'm missing some pt here.

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Re: An effort to control the crippling poverty in Brazil's [#permalink]

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22 Oct 2012, 21:54
Guys, let's try to be simple here. The issue here is very simple, it lies on the use of comma.

An effort (Subject) to control the crippling poverty in Brazil's interior cities, begun almost 30 years ago(modifier, the whole clause not the closest noun), has been(main verb) partially successful, despite the setback of a major draught and the interruption of aid during an extended economic crisis.

So the tense is: An effort (.....bla bla bla.....) has been (..... bla bla bla....)

A. Same
wrong B. Begun almost 30 years ago for controlling the crippling effects of poverty in Brazil's interior cities, - here begun is the main verb of the subject effort
wrong C. Begun for controlling the crippling effects of poverty in Brazil's interior cities almost 30 years ago, - here begun is the main verb of the subject effort
wrong D. At controlling the crippling effects of poverty in Brazil's interior cities begun almost 30 years ago, - here begun is the main verb of the subject effort
wrong E. That has begun almost 30 years ago to control the crippling effects of poverty in Brazil's interior cities, - here has begun is the main verb of the subject effort

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Re: An effort to control the crippling poverty in Brazil's [#permalink]

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29 Mar 2014, 16:21
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Question about A: "begun" 30 yrs ago. Shouldn't it be "began"? Plz if someone could answer it

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Re: An effort to control the crippling poverty in Brazil's [#permalink]

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31 Mar 2014, 11:49
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"Began" is a verb. You need a participle/adjective there--hence "begun".
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Re: An effort to control the crippling poverty in Brazil's [#permalink]

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27 Apr 2014, 02:16
Nice post sadf sdagf dsfg dsfg dsfg dsfg dsfg dsfg dfsg dsf gds fg

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Re: An effort to control the crippling poverty in Brazil's [#permalink]

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27 Apr 2014, 04:32
"Began" is a verb. You need a participle/adjective there--hence "begun".

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An effort to control the crippling poverty in Brazil's [#permalink]

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23 Dec 2014, 04:30
an effort (subject) .... has (verb)

modifier is placed correctly - begun almost 30 years ago ( -> I believe its -ed modifier)

So A is the correct answer. Hope it helps :

Now for option E , lets identify its clauses:

1. An effort that..... Brazil's interior cities
2. has been partially .....extended economic crises

Now if we see, the second clause is not having the subject ie subject is missing here for the second clause. So 'E' is wrong.

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An effort to control the crippling poverty in Brazil's   [#permalink] 23 Dec 2014, 04:30

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