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# Ancient hunter-gatherers developed instincts that

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Ancient hunter-gatherers developed instincts that [#permalink]

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17 Apr 2011, 18:40
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Ancient hunter-gatherers developed instincts that stigmatized selfishness, and voluntary cooperation was encouraged as well, whether it be within the group or also with outsiders.

(A) selfishness, and voluntary cooperation was encouraged as well, whether it be within the group or
(B) selfishness, encouraging voluntary cooperation as well, both within the group but
(C) selfishness and also encouraging voluntary cooperation, within the group and
(D) selfishness and they encouraged voluntary cooperation, whether it be within the group or
(E) selfishness and encouraged voluntary cooperation, not only within the group but

The question is easy; however, usually there are more than one error in each choice. In this sense, try to identify all the mistakes per choice. Always use this strategy during your daily practice.
If you find more than one mistake, please show it.
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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17 Apr 2011, 19:16
The correct choice asks for parallelism between verb forms "stigmatized & encouraged"
(A)The sentence wrongly uses passive voice for the second part...also it is not clear that "It" refers to what??
(B) Wrong use of gerund..
(C) Verbs are not parallel
(D) "It" does not have clear reference
(E) Best choice

metallicafan wrote:
Ancient hunter-gatherers developed instincts that stigmatized selfishness, and voluntary cooperation was encouraged as well, whether it be within the group or also with outsiders.

(A) selfishness, and voluntary cooperation was encouraged as well, whether it be within the group or
(B) selfishness, encouraging voluntary cooperation as well, both within the group but
(C) selfishness and also encouraging voluntary cooperation, within the group and
(D) selfishness and they encouraged voluntary cooperation, whether it be within the group or
(E) selfishness and encouraged voluntary cooperation, not only within the group but

The question is easy; however, usually there are more than one error in each choice. In this sense, try to identify all the mistakes per choice. Always use this strategy during your daily practice.
If you find more than one mistake, please show it.

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17 Apr 2011, 20:58
A: Unsymmetrical construction - 'stigmatized selfishness' is in active voice, and 'voluntary cooperation was encouraged' is in passive voice. should be 'encouraged voluntary cooperation. 2nd error - use of 'also' with 'whether'

B: Again, 2 errors: use of encouraging is un-parallel. secondly,use of 'but also' with 'both' . 'But also' has to follow 'not only' type of construction
C: Wrong use of 'encouraging'
D: Redundant use od 'they' before encouraged, and, use of 'also' with 'whether'

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20 Apr 2011, 22:05
The answer is E - Parallelism and Not only but also idiom.
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30 Apr 2011, 06:39
Ancient hunter-gatherers developed instincts that stigmatized selfishness, and voluntary cooperation was encouraged as well, whether it be within the group or also with outsiders.

(A) selfishness, and voluntary cooperation was encouraged as well, whether it be within the group or- stigmatized not parallel to cooperation, whether...also is not idiomatic
(B) selfishness, encouraging voluntary cooperation as well, both within the group but
"encouraging..." is modifying the main clause, therefore changing the meaning
"both..but..also" is not idiomatic
(C) selfishness and also encouraging voluntary cooperation, within the group and
-encouraging (not a verb) is not parallel to stigmatized
(D) selfishness and they encouraged voluntary cooperation, whether it be within the group or
ambiguous antecedent for "it"
(E) selfishness and encouraged voluntary cooperation, not only within the group but
stigmatized || encouraged, not only..but also is idiomatic, within the group|| with outsiders

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10 Jul 2011, 09:48
E is the only answer choice that is parallel. (stigmatized - encouraged)

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Re: Ancient hunter-gatherers developed instincts that [#permalink]

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19 Dec 2011, 20:39
Ancient hunter-gatherers developed instincts that stigmatized selfishness, and voluntary cooperation was encouraged as well, whether it be within the group or also with outsiders.

(A) selfishness, and voluntary cooperation was encouraged as well, whether it be within the group or
(B) selfishness, encouraging voluntary cooperation as well, both within the group but
(C) selfishness and also encouraging voluntary cooperation, within the group and
(D) selfishness and they encouraged voluntary cooperation, whether it be within the group or
(E) selfishness and encouraged voluntary cooperation, not only within the group

An attempt to identify the errors:

Parallelism: stigmatized-encouraged
Idiom: not only, but also
the ancient hunter gatherers did two things: stigmatized selfishness and encouraged voluntary cooperation
use of whether: diction

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Re: Ancient hunter-gatherers developed instincts that [#permalink]

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19 Dec 2011, 23:40
Yes I agree. This one was not that hard.
Easy to get to the correct answer E by maintaining proper parallelism between the past tense verbs and the "not only...but also" idiomatic construction.
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Re: Ancient hunter-gatherers developed instincts that [#permalink]

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21 Dec 2011, 02:26
parallelism. Not only --but also. E is the best choice.

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Re: Ancient hunter-gatherers developed instincts that [#permalink]

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05 Jun 2012, 02:18
metallicafan wrote:
Ancient hunter-gatherers developed instincts that stigmatized selfishness, and voluntary cooperation was encouraged as well, whether it be within the group or also with outsiders.

(A) selfishness, and voluntary cooperation was encouraged as well, whether it be within the group or
(B) selfishness, encouraging voluntary cooperation as well, both within the group but
(C) selfishness and also encouraging voluntary cooperation, within the group and
(D) selfishness and they encouraged voluntary cooperation, whether it be within the group or
(E) selfishness and encouraged voluntary cooperation, not only within the group but

The question is easy; however, usually there are more than one error in each choice. In this sense, try to identify all the mistakes per choice. Always use this strategy during your daily practice.
If you find more than one mistake, please show it.

i pick E. subjunctive was not tested here so A and are out, both.....with wrong idiomatic expression so B is out, the meaning of C is just convoluted
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Re: Ancient hunter-gatherers developed instincts that [#permalink]

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22 Sep 2012, 10:04
* A- faulty bze not following Not only...but also....Which is correct way to tackle this question.
* Same thing is repeated in option C and D.
* B is using gerund, while original sentence is in Past tense which is Wrong

** E is only best choice following Not only...but also... format and parallel one.

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Re: Ancient hunter-gatherers developed instincts that [#permalink]

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22 Sep 2012, 11:12
Can any Expert clear my doubt on the use of they in option D
it should refer to Huntergathers if i am not wrong we say it as ambigous because instincts which is also plural is present.....I am bit confused with the usage of they when two plural noun is present in the question.

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Re: Ancient hunter-gatherers developed instincts that [#permalink]

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20 May 2014, 17:01
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Re: Ancient hunter-gatherers developed instincts that [#permalink]

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16 Sep 2017, 08:29
Hello from the GMAT Club VerbalBot!

Thanks to another GMAT Club member, I have just discovered this valuable topic, yet it had no discussion for over a year. I am now bumping it up - doing my job. I think you may find it valuable (esp those replies with Kudos).

Want to see all other topics I dig out? Follow me (click follow button on profile). You will receive a summary of all topics I bump in your profile area as well as via email.

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Re: Ancient hunter-gatherers developed instincts that [#permalink]

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17 Sep 2017, 18:54
metallicafan wrote:
Ancient hunter-gatherers developed instincts that stigmatized selfishness, and voluntary cooperation was encouraged as well, whether it be within the group or also with outsiders.

(A) selfishness, and voluntary cooperation was encouraged as well, whether it be within the group or
(B) selfishness, encouraging voluntary cooperation as well, both within the group but
(C) selfishness and also encouraging voluntary cooperation, within the group and
(D) selfishness and they encouraged voluntary cooperation, whether it be within the group or
(E) selfishness and encouraged voluntary cooperation, not only within the group but

The question is easy; however, usually there are more than one error in each choice. In this sense, try to identify all the mistakes per choice. Always use this strategy during your daily practice.
If you find more than one mistake, please show it.

The correct construction is "not only x but [also] y"

In this problem, answer choice "e" uses the correct idiomatic construction and is grammatically correct.

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Re: Ancient hunter-gatherers developed instincts that [#permalink]

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02 Nov 2017, 19:42
Ancient hunter-gatherers developed instincts that stigmatized selfishness, and voluntary cooperation was encouraged as well, whether it be within the group or also with outsiders.

(A) selfishness, and voluntary cooperation was encouraged as well, whether it be within the group or
(B) selfishness, encouraging voluntary cooperation as well, both within the group but
(C) selfishness and also encouraging voluntary cooperation, within the group and
(D) selfishness and they encouraged voluntary cooperation, whether it be within the group or
(E) selfishness and encouraged voluntary cooperation, not only within the group but. Parallel: that stigmatized and (that) encouraged voluntary cooperation. Also parallel here not only....but also
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Re: Ancient hunter-gatherers developed instincts that   [#permalink] 02 Nov 2017, 19:42
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