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Since 1990 the percentage of bacterial sinus infections in AQADESTAN t

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Since 1990 the percentage of bacterial sinus infections in AQADESTAN that are resistant to the antibiotic perxicillin has increased substantially. Bacteria can quickly develop resistance to an antibiotic when it is prescribed indiscriminately or when patients fail to take it as prescribed. Since perxicillin has not been indiscriminately prescribed, health officials hypothesize that the increase in perxicillin resistant sinus infections is largely due to patients’ failure to take his medication as prescribed.

Which of the following, it true of Aqadestan, provides most support for the health officials' hypothesis:

A) Resistance to several other commonly prescribed antibiotics has not increased since 1990 in Aqadestan

B) A large number of Aqadestanis never seek medical help when they have a sinus infection.

C) When it first became available, perxicillin was much more effective in treating bacterial sinus infections than any other antibiotic used for such infections at the time.

D) Many patients who take perxicillin experience severe side effects within the first few days of their prescribed regimen

E) Aqadestani health clinics provide antibiotics to their patients at cost
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
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Re: Since 1990 the percentage of bacterial sinus infections in AQADESTAN t [#permalink]

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New post 13 Jun 2015, 03:46
shouldn't it be C?
Please explain
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Re: Since 1990 the percentage of bacterial sinus infections in AQADESTAN t [#permalink]

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Conclusion: Resistance due to patients not taking medicine

Question Stem asks about what strengthen statement.

C is irrelevant here. It does not affect conclusion at all. Just go back to conclusion and check again.
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Re: Since 1990 the percentage of bacterial sinus infections in AQADESTAN t [#permalink]

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vikasbansal227 wrote:
Since 1990 the percentage of bacterial sinus infections in AQADESTAN that are resistant to the antibiotic
perxicillin has increased substantially. Bacteria can quickly develop resistance to an antibiotic when it is
prescribed indiscriminately or when patients fail to take it as prescribed. Since perxicillin has not been
indiscrimhately prescrIbed, health officials hypothesize that the increase in perxicillin resistant sinus infections is
largely due to patients’ failure to take his medication as prescribed.
Which of the following, it true of Aqadestan, provides most support for the health oi1icials' hypothesis"

A) Resistance to several other commonly prescribed antibiotics Ins not increased since 1990 in Aoadestan. Other antibiotics are out of scope

B) A large number of Aqadestanis never seek medical help when they have a sinus infection. It is a trap. Maybe Aqadestanis do not cure at all

C) When it list became available, perxicillin was much more effective in treating bacterial sinus infections
than any other antibiotic used for such infections at the time. Out of scope. Effectivness is not discussed in the argument.

D] Many patients who take perxicillin experience severe side effects within the first few days of their
prescribed regimen. Correct. If antibiotics are not prescribed indiscriminately, then the only explanation of side-effects can be patients' failure to take as prescribed

E) Aqadestani health clinics provide antibiotics to their patients at cost. Doesn't help to explain

Lets look at he answer choices. Hope it helps!
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Re: Since 1990 the percentage of bacterial sinus infections in AQADESTAN t [#permalink]

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Since 1990 the percentage of bacterial sinus infections in AQADESTAN that are resistant to the antibiotic perxicillin has increased substantially. Bacteria can quickly develop resistance to an antibiotic when it is prescribed indiscriminately or when patients fail to take it as prescribed. Since perxicillin has not been indiscrimhately prescrIbed, health officials hypothesize that the increase in perxicillin resistant sinus infections is largely due to patients’ failure to take his medication as prescribed.

Premise : Resistant bacteria increase due to
1. when perxicillin is prescribed indiscriminately
2. when patients fail to take perxicillin as prescribed
But we know that perxicillin has not been indiscrimhately prescribed

Intended Hypothesis: perxicillin resistant sinus infections is largely due to patients’ failure to take his medication as prescribed and not because of indiscriminate prescription.

Which of the following, it true of Aqadestan, provides most support for the health officials hypothesis?
So we have to find choices that support our intended hypothesis and negate the once that oppose this.

A) Resistance to several other commonly prescribed antibiotics Ins not increased since 1990 in Aoadestan.
This is not related to the premise as the other antibiotics are not in consideration.

B) A large number of Aqadestanis never seek medical help when they have a sinus infection.
This might in some way lead to indiscriminate prescription, hence can be ruled out.

C) When it list became available, perxicillin was much more effective in treating bacterial sinus infections than any other antibiotic used for such infections at the time.
This talks about effectiveness and does not tell us anything related to the two cases at hand. Hence it can be ruled out.

D] Many patients who take perxicillin experience severe side effects within the first few days of their prescribed regimen.
This suggests that the patients might have stopped taking the antibiotic after the severe side effects. Hence the correct answer

E) Aqadestani health clinics provide antibiotics to their patients at cost.
Not related.
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Re: Since 1990 the percentage of bacterial sinus infections in AQADESTAN t [#permalink]

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what Ankurgupta03 is saying is here is totally correct( and ankur . I will just like to add on to option B.

B) A large number of Aqadestanis never seek medical help when they have a sinus infection.
This option can go in any of the ways mentioned below
i) Patients take perixicillin
ii) patients dont take perxiccilin but take some other medicine
iii) patients dont take medicine at all.

In all of those situations, it is very tough to make any decision
So B is inconclusive
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Re: Since 1990 the percentage of bacterial sinus infections in AQADESTAN t [#permalink]

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New post 09 Jul 2015, 08:41
Hello Waterflowsup,

I just want to add my point regarding B.

If we follow the rule of sticking to "conclusion" of argument we may even not require further reasoning regarding B. Lets see how.

Argument: There are two reasons X and Y for the certain outcome. There are very less changes of reason X, so reason Y would probably be reason behind outcome.

Question Stem: Strengthen?


Now if we consider B, it states "A large number of Aqadestanis never seek medical help when they have a sinus infection".

Option B and reasoning (patients’ failure to take his medication as prescribed) behind arguments is not same. If anything B is doing, it is just undermining the given premise by stating that medicines are generally not prescribed because people never seek medical help.

If we see choice B is actually out of scope.

Hope it helps.

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Re: Since 1990 the percentage of bacterial sinus infections in AQADESTAN t [#permalink]

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New post 05 Jun 2016, 08:25
Hi,

Thank you for posting such a good question . However I cant decide between C and D. As per my understanding C says : Initially the medicine was very effective when it first came in the market , all these issues are recent.Since there is no doubt on effectiveness of medicine hence it must be failure of patients to take these medicines as prescribed.

D] Many patients who take perxicillin experience severe side effects within the first few days of their prescribed regimen
They suffer side effects within first few days , it could be possibility that either side effects stopped after first few days or they continue to occur which force patients to not to take meds as prescribed. Assuming that because of side effects patients are not taking meds as prescribed isn't that little out of scope?

Please help with your reasoning how C is incorrect and D is correct. Would really appreciate.

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Re: Since 1990 the percentage of bacterial sinus infections in AQADESTAN t [#permalink]

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New post 17 Aug 2016, 10:49
I usually focus on the conclusion while selecting the correct answer. The conclusion on this question is failure to take medication (cause) led to sinus infection(effect). So I looked for an answer choice that supports this cause -effect relationship. But, the correct answer states the cause of the failure to take medication and not that failure to take medication resulted in sinus infection. i missed the answer choice due to this thought process.Is there something wrong in my approach?
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Re: Since 1990 the percentage of bacterial sinus infections in AQADESTAN t [#permalink]

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New post 20 Aug 2016, 02:40
manishcmu wrote:
I usually focus on the conclusion while selecting the correct answer. The conclusion on this question is failure to take medication (cause) led to sinus infection(effect). So I looked for an answer choice that supports this cause -effect relationship. But, the correct answer states the cause of the failure to take medication and not that failure to take medication resulted in sinus infection. i missed the answer choice due to this thought process.Is there something wrong in my approach?


Conclusion : the increase in perxicillin resistant sinus infections is largely due to patients’ failure to take his medication as prescribed. Note that Its not that they are not taking the medications but they are not taking as suggested.

The argument states Bacteria can develop resistance in two cases :
1) antibiotic prescribed indiscriminately
2) patients fail to take it as prescribed.

Now, Point 1 has been ruled out by the argument itself.

Hence, to strengthen the argument we need to strength that 2nd point happened.

Answer choice D clearly states that when they start taking the antibiotics, they experience severe side effects.Hence, telling us the reason that theu avoid such prescriptions. Hence a strengthener.
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Re: Since 1990 the percentage of bacterial sinus infections in AQADESTAN t [#permalink]

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New post 16 Nov 2016, 15:04
Slight variation:

What if answer choice C stated - Perxicillin was not effective in treating bacterial sinus infections than any other antibiotic used for such infections at the time.

Can we say that since Perxicillin was NOT EFFECTIVE that means patients did not take medications as prescribed because they felt they weren't effective?




ankurgupta03 wrote:
Since 1990 the percentage of bacterial sinus infections in AQADESTAN that are resistant to the antibiotic perxicillin has increased substantially. Bacteria can quickly develop resistance to an antibiotic when it is prescribed indiscriminately or when patients fail to take it as prescribed. Since perxicillin has not been indiscrimhately prescrIbed, health officials hypothesize that the increase in perxicillin resistant sinus infections is largely due to patients’ failure to take his medication as prescribed.

Premise : Resistant bacteria increase due to
1. when perxicillin is prescribed indiscriminately
2. when patients fail to take perxicillin as prescribed
But we know that perxicillin has not been indiscrimhately prescribed

Intended Hypothesis: perxicillin resistant sinus infections is largely due to patients’ failure to take his medication as prescribed and not because of indiscriminate prescription.

Which of the following, it true of Aqadestan, provides most support for the health officials hypothesis?
So we have to find choices that support our intended hypothesis and negate the once that oppose this.

A) Resistance to several other commonly prescribed antibiotics Ins not increased since 1990 in Aoadestan.
This is not related to the premise as the other antibiotics are not in consideration.

B) A large number of Aqadestanis never seek medical help when they have a sinus infection.
This might in some way lead to indiscriminate prescription, hence can be ruled out.

C) When it list became available, perxicillin was much more effective in treating bacterial sinus infections than any other antibiotic used for such infections at the time.
This talks about effectiveness and does not tell us anything related to the two cases at hand. Hence it can be ruled out.

D] Many patients who take perxicillin experience severe side effects within the first few days of their prescribed regimen.
This suggests that the patients might have stopped taking the antibiotic after the severe side effects. Hence the correct answer

E) Aqadestani health clinics provide antibiotics to their patients at cost.
Not related.
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Re: Since 1990 the percentage of bacterial sinus infections in AQADESTAN t [#permalink]

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New post 23 Mar 2017, 09:31
ankurgupta03 wrote:
Since 1990 the percentage of bacterial sinus infections in AQADESTAN that are resistant to the antibiotic perxicillin has increased substantially. Bacteria can quickly develop resistance to an antibiotic when it is prescribed indiscriminately or when patients fail to take it as prescribed. Since perxicillin has not been indiscrimhately prescrIbed, health officials hypothesize that the increase in perxicillin resistant sinus infections is largely due to patients’ failure to take his medication as prescribed.

Premise : Resistant bacteria increase due to
1. when perxicillin is prescribed indiscriminately
2. when patients fail to take perxicillin as prescribed
But we know that perxicillin has not been indiscrimhately prescribed

Intended Hypothesis: perxicillin resistant sinus infections is largely due to patients’ failure to take his medication as prescribed and not because of indiscriminate prescription.

Which of the following, it true of Aqadestan, provides most support for the health officials hypothesis?
So we have to find choices that support our intended hypothesis and negate the once that oppose this.

A) Resistance to several other commonly prescribed antibiotics Ins not increased since 1990 in Aoadestan.
This is not related to the premise as the other antibiotics are not in consideration.

B) A large number of Aqadestanis never seek medical help when they have a sinus infection.
This might in some way lead to indiscriminate prescription, hence can be ruled out.

C) When it list became available, perxicillin was much more effective in treating bacterial sinus infections than any other antibiotic used for such infections at the time.
This talks about effectiveness and does not tell us anything related to the two cases at hand. Hence it can be ruled out.

D] Many patients who take perxicillin experience severe side effects within the first few days of their prescribed regimen.
This suggests that the patients might have stopped taking the antibiotic after the severe side effects. Hence the correct answer

E) Aqadestani health clinics provide antibiotics to their patients at cost.
Not related.


I selected B thinking that as many are using medicine without going to the doctor, they would not know the prescribed regimen and hence would not be following it. Please tell how this is wrong
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Re: Since 1990 the percentage of bacterial sinus infections in AQADESTAN t [#permalink]

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New post 26 Mar 2017, 16:14
D - as it provides an explanation, which supports the researcher's hypothesis
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Re: Since 1990 the percentage of bacterial sinus infections in AQADESTAN t [#permalink]

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New post 03 Apr 2017, 06:12
KARISHMA315 wrote:
ankurgupta03 wrote:
Since 1990 the percentage of bacterial sinus infections in AQADESTAN that are resistant to the antibiotic perxicillin has increased substantially. Bacteria can quickly develop resistance to an antibiotic when it is prescribed indiscriminately or when patients fail to take it as prescribed. Since perxicillin has not been indiscrimhately prescrIbed, health officials hypothesize that the increase in perxicillin resistant sinus infections is largely due to patients’ failure to take his medication as prescribed.

Premise : Resistant bacteria increase due to
1. when perxicillin is prescribed indiscriminately
2. when patients fail to take perxicillin as prescribed
But we know that perxicillin has not been indiscrimhately prescribed

Intended Hypothesis: perxicillin resistant sinus infections is largely due to patients’ failure to take his medication as prescribed and not because of indiscriminate prescription.

Which of the following, it true of Aqadestan, provides most support for the health officials hypothesis?
So we have to find choices that support our intended hypothesis and negate the once that oppose this.

A) Resistance to several other commonly prescribed antibiotics Ins not increased since 1990 in Aoadestan.
This is not related to the premise as the other antibiotics are not in consideration.

B) A large number of Aqadestanis never seek medical help when they have a sinus infection.
This might in some way lead to indiscriminate prescription, hence can be ruled out.

C) When it list became available, perxicillin was much more effective in treating bacterial sinus infections than any other antibiotic used for such infections at the time.
This talks about effectiveness and does not tell us anything related to the two cases at hand. Hence it can be ruled out.

D] Many patients who take perxicillin experience severe side effects within the first few days of their prescribed regimen.
This suggests that the patients might have stopped taking the antibiotic after the severe side effects. Hence the correct answer

E) Aqadestani health clinics provide antibiotics to their patients at cost.
Not related.


I selected B thinking that as many are using medicine without going to the doctor, they would not know the prescribed regimen and hence would not be following it. Please tell how this is wrong


Hi,
The conclusion here is ' the increase in perxicillin resistant sinus infections is largely due to patients’ failure to take his medication as prescribed. '
To support this point the paraphrase would be that though doctor has asked patient to take medicine as per prescription the patient is not taking as per prescription.

In option B patients are not consulting doctor , so they do not have any prescribed regimen to take medicine at first place. Option D states the gap to reach the conclusion ( why conclusion could be true) . If patients will feel severe side effects from the prescribed regimen then they would certainly going to not follow it as prescribed. Basically you have to choose best among the others my friend :) . No other choice come close to the conclusion as option D.
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Re: Since 1990 the percentage of bacterial sinus infections in AQADESTAN t [#permalink]

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New post 03 Apr 2017, 08:18
WillGetIt wrote:
Since 1990 the percentage of bacterial sinus infections in AQADESTAN that are resistant to the antibiotic perxicillin has increased substantially. Bacteria can quickly develop resistance to an antibiotic when it is prescribed indiscriminately or when patients fail to take it as prescribed. Since perxicillin has not been indiscriminately prescribed, health officials hypothesize that the increase in perxicillin resistant sinus infections is largely due to patients’ failure to take his medication as prescribed.

Which of the following, it true of Aqadestan, provides most support for the health officials' hypothesis:

A) Resistance to several other commonly prescribed antibiotics has not increased since 1990 in Aqadestan

B) A large number of Aqadestanis never seek medical help when they have a sinus infection.

C) When it first became available, perxicillin was much more effective in treating bacterial sinus infections than any other antibiotic used for such infections at the time.

D) Many patients who take perxicillin experience severe side effects within the first few days of their prescribed regimen

E) Aqadestani health clinics provide antibiotics to their patients at cost
This a strengthen question...Conclusion is necessary.in choice D..if people stopped using perxicillin after having some side effect..then it will not work....this is the most contender.
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Re: Since 1990 the percentage of bacterial sinus infections in AQADESTAN t [#permalink]

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New post 28 Apr 2017, 11:24
D) seems odd, because you have to make the assumption that these side effects are not a part of the ordinary course of taking this medication... If I told you I'm prescribing you medication X that has side effects of Y, and you end up experiencing these side effects, how can you make the call that the drug was not taken as prescribed?

Seems like B) is a better answer, which confirms that the drug is not widespread.

What am I missing here?
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Re: Since 1990 the percentage of bacterial sinus infections in AQADESTAN t [#permalink]

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New post 25 May 2017, 03:23
You always have to see what is the conclusion ...

"Since perxicillin has not been indiscriminately prescribed, health officials hypothesize that the increase in perxicillin resistant sinus infections is largely due to patients’ failure to take his medication as prescribed"

Since its not X, it should be Y.

Any strength choice should validate Y more than X. B doesnt concern X or Y, its out of scope. What does it matter if patients doesnt come to get medical attention or not? At the most, they will suffer the symptoms. It does not in any way address the conclusion regarding antibiotic resistant infections.

Hope this helps!
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Re: Since 1990 the percentage of bacterial sinus infections in AQADESTAN t [#permalink]

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New post 23 Aug 2017, 09:37
D is correct. These side effects would discourage patients from taking perxicillin as prescribed, so their existence provides evidence that many patients are not taking it as prescribed.
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Re: Since 1990 the percentage of bacterial sinus infections in AQADESTAN t [#permalink]

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WillGetIt wrote:
Since 1990 the percentage of bacterial sinus infections in AQADESTAN that are resistant to the antibiotic perxicillin has increased substantially. Bacteria can quickly develop resistance to an antibiotic when it is prescribed indiscriminately or when patients fail to take it as prescribed. Since perxicillin has not been indiscriminately prescribed, health officials hypothesize that the increase in perxicillin resistant sinus infections is largely due to patients’ failure to take his medication as prescribed.

Which of the following, it true of Aqadestan, provides most support for the health officials' hypothesis:

A) Resistance to several other commonly prescribed antibiotics has not increased since 1990 in Aqadestan

B) A large number of Aqadestanis never seek medical help when they have a sinus infection.

C) When it first became available, perxicillin was much more effective in treating bacterial sinus infections than any other antibiotic used for such infections at the time.

D) Many patients who take perxicillin experience severe side effects within the first few days of their prescribed regimen

E) Aqadestani health clinics provide antibiotics to their patients at cost


I couldn't find a proper explanation for option B. Besides that I was quite demotivated to choose the wrong answer. I choose option B.
But after re-reading the conclusion part, the increase in perxicillin resistant sinus infections is largely due to patients’ failure to take his medication as prescribed
I finally got some clue.
If you notice that the above conclusion mentions "...as prescribed.". What it might mean is that the patients about whom the author concludes might have already consulted the doctor. So, the scope of the argument is only "patients who have consulted the doctor".
This clearly makes option B out of scope.
I hope this helps others.
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Since 1990 the percentage of bacterial sinus infections in AQADESTAN t [#permalink]

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New post 06 Sep 2017, 21:39
Conclusion: Since 1990 the percentage of bacterial sinus infections in AQADESTAN that are resistant to the antibiotic perxicillin has increased substantially.

Premise : This problem has occurred because of
A) when perxicillin is prescribed indiscriminately.
B) when patients fail to take perxicillin as prescribed.

Additional Premise: Perxicillin has not been indiscriminately prescribed.
To support the author's claim, we must find a statement that supports premise A.

A) Resistance to several other commonly prescribed antibiotics has not increased since 1990 in Aqadestan.
Out of scope, as we are not talking about any other antibiotics.

B) A large number of Aqadestanis never seek medical help when they have a sinus infection.
out of scope, as we are not discussing about people who never seek medical help for their sinus infection.

C) When it first became available, perxicillin was much more effective in treating bacterial sinus infections than any other antibiotic used for such infections at the time.
This actually weakens the argument. This statement implies that bacteria has grown used to perxicillin and perxicillin is not as effective as it was back then.

D) Many patients who take perxicillin experience severe side effects within the first few days of their prescribed regimen.
Yes, This is the answer. It implies that many patients stopped taking perxicillin because of initial side effects; that means they did not complete the course as prescribed.

E) Aqadestani health clinics provide antibiotics to their patients at cost.
out scope. Eliminate it.

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