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# Antigenic shift refers to the combination of two different

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Antigenic shift refers to the combination of two different  [#permalink]

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28 Jul 2008, 17:09
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Antigenic shift refers to the combination of two different strains of influenza; in contrast, antigenic drift refers to the natural mutation of a single strain of influenza.
(A) influenza; in contrast, antigenic drift refers to the natural mutation of a single strain of influenza
(B) influenza, different than the natural mutation of a single strain, known as antigenic drift
(C) influenza, in contrast to the natural mutation of a single strain, known as antigenic drift
(D) influenza, different than antigenic drift, which refers to the natural mutation of a single strain of influenza
(E) influenza; in contrast to antigenic drift, which refers to the natural mutation of a single strain of influenza

Edit: This is an MGMAT question, from one of their CATs --Mike McGarry
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Re: Antigenic shift refers to the combination of two different  [#permalink]

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28 Jul 2008, 19:42
marshpa wrote:
Antigenic shift refers to the combination of two different strains of influenza; in contrast, antigenic drift refers to the natural mutation of a single strain of influenza.
influenza; in contrast, antigenic drift refers to the natural mutation of a single strain of influenza
influenza, different than the natural mutation of a single strain, known as antigenic drift
influenza, in contrast to the natural mutation of a single strain, known as antigenic drift
influenza, different than antigenic drift, which refers to the natural mutation of a single strain of influenza
influenza; in contrast to antigenic drift, which refers to the natural mutation of a single strain of influenza

A. two independent clauses.

different than is wrong.
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Re: Antigenic shift refers to the combination of two different  [#permalink]

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28 Jul 2008, 20:42
marshpa wrote:
Antigenic shift refers to the combination of two different strains of influenza; in contrast, antigenic drift refers to the natural mutation of a single strain of influenza.
influenza; in contrast, antigenic drift refers to the natural mutation of a single strain of influenza
influenza, different than the natural mutation of a single strain, known as antigenic drift
influenza, in contrast to the natural mutation of a single strain, known as antigenic drift
influenza, different than antigenic drift, which refers to the natural mutation of a single strain of influenza
influenza; in contrast to antigenic drift, which refers to the natural mutation of a single strain of influenza

B, C .. it not clear.. what is "known as antigenic drift".

single strain ---> antigenic drif
mutation of single straint --> antigenc drift
differnt than the naturla mutation of a single strain ---> antigenic drif...

E .. after semicolon.. it should be idependent clause ( Subject and Verb)
E lacks ver..
in contrast to antigenic drift ( sentence ends) -> not a complete clause..
"which refers..... " non essential clause

Between A and D.
.
A looks better..
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Re: Antigenic shift refers to the combination of two different  [#permalink]

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28 Jul 2008, 21:26
Does the second clause qualify to stand on its own? If I read it again, A doesn't sound right. Damn! I am all confused now. I hate GMAT..
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Re: Antigenic shift refers to the combination of two different  [#permalink]

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30 Jul 2008, 06:57
1
Why is "different than" incorrect?

GMAT TIGER wrote:
marshpa wrote:
Antigenic shift refers to the combination of two different strains of influenza; in contrast, antigenic drift refers to the natural mutation of a single strain of influenza.
influenza; in contrast, antigenic drift refers to the natural mutation of a single strain of influenza
influenza, different than the natural mutation of a single strain, known as antigenic drift
influenza, in contrast to the natural mutation of a single strain, known as antigenic drift
influenza, different than antigenic drift, which refers to the natural mutation of a single strain of influenza
influenza; in contrast to antigenic drift, which refers to the natural mutation of a single strain of influenza

A. two independent clauses.

different than is wrong.

Different from is more idiomatic.

§ 98. different from / different than
The phrases different from and different than are both common in British and American English. The British also use the construction different to. Since the 18th century, language critics have singled out different than as incorrect, though it is well attested in the works of reputable writers. If you want to follow traditional guidelines, use from when the comparison is between two persons or things: My book is different from (not than) yours. Different than is more acceptably used, particularly in American usage, where the object of comparison is expressed by a full clause: The campus is different than it was twenty years ago. You can use different from with a clause if the clause starts with a conjunction and so functions as a noun: The campus is different from how it was twenty years ago. 1
Sometimes people interpret a simple noun phrase following different than as elliptical for a clause, which allows for a subtle distinction in meaning between the two constructions. How different this seems from Paris suggests that the object of comparison is the city of Paris itself, whereas How different this seems than Paris suggests that the object of comparison is something like “the way things were in Paris” or “what happened in Paris.”

http://www.bartleby.com/64/C003/098.html
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Re: Antigenic shift refers to the combination of two different  [#permalink]

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30 Jul 2008, 08:48
Well the OA is A. But I would like to know whats wrong in D, cause I selected D on the test.
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Re: Antigenic shift refers to the combination of two different  [#permalink]

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31 Jul 2008, 04:04
influenza; in contrast, antigenic drift refers to the natural mutation of a single strain of influenza
== CORRECT

influenza, different than the natural mutation of a single strain, known as antigenic drift
== WRONG; should be “different from” instead of “different than”

influenza, in contrast to the natural mutation of a single strain, known as antigenic drift
== WRONG; first and second sentences are not parallel

influenza, different than antigenic drift, which refers to the natural mutation of a single strain of influenza
== WRONG; should be “different from” instead of “different than”

influenza; in contrast to antigenic drift, which refers to the natural mutation of a single strain of influenza
== WRONG; if you remove the non-restrictive clause, you can see the sentence structure is wrong
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Re: Antigenic shift refers to the combination of two different  [#permalink]

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31 Jul 2011, 20:49
x2suresh wrote:
marshpa wrote:
Antigenic shift refers to the combination of two different strains of influenza; in contrast, antigenic drift refers to the natural mutation of a single strain of influenza.
influenza; in contrast, antigenic drift refers to the natural mutation of a single strain of influenza
influenza, different than the natural mutation of a single strain, known as antigenic drift
influenza, in contrast to the natural mutation of a single strain, known as antigenic drift
influenza, different than antigenic drift, which refers to the natural mutation of a single strain of influenza
influenza; in contrast to antigenic drift, which refers to the natural mutation of a single strain of influenza

B, C .. it not clear.. what is "known as antigenic drift".

single strain ---> antigenic drif
mutation of single straint --> antigenc drift
differnt than the naturla mutation of a single strain ---> antigenic drif...

E .. after semicolon.. it should be idependent clause ( Subject and Verb)
E lacks ver..
in contrast to antigenic drift ( sentence ends) -> not a complete clause..
"which refers..... " non essential clause

Between A and D.
.
A looks better..

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Re: Antigenic shift refers to the combination of two different  [#permalink]

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31 Jul 2011, 21:38
I thought "in contrast to" is the right idiom and chose E but then as already stated in this thread, the use of which spoils the option E. So many contradicting rules.. Or am I missing something here...

But is "in contrast" correct???
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Re: Antigenic shift refers to the combination of two different  [#permalink]

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02 Aug 2011, 02:45
+1 for A
Independent clauses + Idiom( Differ from )
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Re: Antigenic shift refers to the combination of two different  [#permalink]

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07 Oct 2012, 20:49
Is contrast to qrong idiom
Writing simply contarast is right or wrong
I think the construction in A is X contrast Y refers to

to is for refers and it requires either a which or comma after Y
pls help confused
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Re: Antigenic shift refers to the combination of two different  [#permalink]

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07 Oct 2012, 22:22
Antigenic shift refers to the combination of two different strains of influenza; in contrast, antigenic drift refers to the natural mutation of a single strain of influenza.
influenza; in contrast, antigenic drift refers to the natural mutation of a single strain of influenza
influenza, different than the natural mutation of a single strain, known as antigenic drift
influenza, in contrast to the natural mutation of a single strain, known as antigenic drift
influenza, different than antigenic drift, which refers to the natural mutation of a single strain of influenza
influenza; in contrast to antigenic drift, which refers to the natural mutation of a single strain of influenza

This is a parallelism question. A puts the sentence in correct ||ism. Question stem : ABC refers to....;in contract XYZ refers to.....
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Re: Antigenic shift refers to the combination of two different  [#permalink]

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07 Oct 2012, 22:44
I think E doesnt voilates any IIism

X in contrast to Y

Moreover A lacks the to with Contrast
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Re: Antigenic shift refers to the combination of two different  [#permalink]

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07 Oct 2012, 23:24
Antigenic shift refers to the combination of two different strains of influenza; in contrast, antigenic drift refers to the natural mutation of a single strain of influenza.

A has clear ||ism. In E the intended meaning is changing. More ever the idiom you are referring to doesn't have any punctuation in between.
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Re: Antigenic shift refers to the combination of two different  [#permalink]

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07 Oct 2012, 23:44
YOu mean to say the correct construction of idiom is X,in contrast to,Y
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Re: Antigenic shift refers to the combination of two different  [#permalink]

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09 Oct 2012, 15:45
2
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Archit143 wrote:
I think E doesnt voilates any IIism
X in contrast to Y
Moreover A lacks the to with Contrast

I am responding to a pm from Archit143. First of all, Archit143 --- are you aware how many spelling mistakes you make in your post? This is not counting your own idiosyncratic abbreviations like "IIism." If you want to reach GMAT SC standards, I would highly recommend: make it your ongoing habit, in everything you say, and in everything your write, to conform at all times to the very highest principles of the English language. It believe it is a grave mistake to think of the GMAT as a hoop consisting of arbitrary standards, and once you jump through it you will never need to concern yourself with those standards again. Rather, the standards of the GMAT are the standard of business school and they are the standards of success in the corporate world. Do you want to succeed in that world? Then make excellence in all things a habit. ----- A fellow GC user right now might, in 15 years, be the person who is a position to make a lucrative deal with your future company --- suppose that person remembers your spelling mistakes here and thereby has a lowered opinion of you, and suppose that affects the deal. Would the 10 seconds it takes now to correct your spelling seem worth it? In life, we only get one chance to make a first impression on anyone; moreover, in our modern hyper-connected world, we never know when something we put out into cyberspace might be making that first impression in our name. All psychological studies show that first impressions are massively influential --- if someone forms a bad first impression of you, you practically have to walk on water to change that. You can't afford ever to put less than your very best out into the world. Does that make sense?

OK, in this sentence --- I think your discussion is missing the main points.
Antigenic shift refers to the combination of two different strains of influenza; in contrast, antigenic drift refers to the natural mutation of a single strain of influenza.
(A) influenza; in contrast, antigenic drift refers to the natural mutation of a single strain of influenza
(B) influenza, different than the natural mutation of a single strain, known as antigenic drift
(C) influenza, in contrast to the natural mutation of a single strain, known as antigenic drift
(D) influenza, different than antigenic drift, which refers to the natural mutation of a single strain of influenza
(E) influenza; in contrast to antigenic drift, which refers to the natural mutation of a single strain of influenza

You are concerned about the idioms involving the world "contrast" --- there's no problem there. In (A), the adverbial phrase "in contrast" is perfectly fine. The phrase "in contrast to" is also correct in and of itself, although something is funny about the way it's used in (C) & (E). Typically, the "in contrast to" prepositional phrases would be juxtaposed with the subject of the independent clause in that same part of the sentence. For example:
Obama believes in X, in contrast to Romney, who believes in Y.
That's a direct and clear use of the "in contrast to" construction.

One definite idiom --- "different from" is correct, and "different than" is 100% wrong. (B) and (D) are wrong because of that.

Big grammar idea --- when we divide a sentence with a semicolon, each side of the semicolon must be a full independent clause, capable of standing on its own as a completely sentence. Look at what follows the semicolon in (E) ---"in contrast to antigenic drift, which refers to the natural mutation of a single strain of influenza." That is not a complete sentence on its own. That is not an independent clause. That's why (E) is wrong. It can't stand on its own following the semicolon.

Now, we are down to (A) and (C). In the overall flow of the sentence, we want to compare "antigenic shift" to "antigenic drift" --- the clearest and most effective way to demonstrate this is to make them both subjects in their respective independent clauses, which is exactly what (A) does. (C), on the other hand, is very indirect, and makes it harder to see --- what's the contrast? what's the comparison? Clear, powerful, direct --- that's exactly what the GMAT SC likes, and that's what (A) gives here. (A) is by far the best answer.

Does all this make sense?

Mike
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Re: Antigenic shift refers to the combination of two different  [#permalink]

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09 Oct 2012, 23:48
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Re: Antigenic shift refers to the combination of two different  [#permalink]

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21 Apr 2015, 16:48
Hello

The reason I did not select A in this answer is that the semicolon seemed unnecessary. Unnecessary why?

My rationale:
Gmat rule: semicolon should create two independent clauses.

In this sentence I see "; in contrast,"

So my brain says "Well, in contract to what?" which leads me to believe that these are not independent due to the dependence implicit in a comparison (to what).

Could someone please lend a hand in correcting my brain on why I am wrong and allow me to catch this in the future.

Thank you
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Re: Antigenic shift refers to the combination of two different  [#permalink]

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22 Apr 2015, 10:51
excitedNumber wrote:
Hello
The reason I did not select A in this answer is that the semicolon seemed unnecessary. Unnecessary why?

My rationale: Gmat rule: semicolon should create two independent clauses. In this sentence I see "; in contrast," So my brain says "Well, in contract to what?" which leads me to believe that these are not independent due to the dependence implicit in a comparison (to what). Could someone please lend a hand in correcting my brain on why I am wrong and allow me to catch this in the future.

Thank you

Dear excitedNumber,
I'm happy to respond.

In some ways, we have to be as precise in your thinking on GMAT SC as we have to be on GMAT mathematics. There is a really mathematical side to grammar and syntax, and subtle changes make a world of difference.

The idiom "in contrast to" is a preposition, and would be followed by a noun. It would be used to compare two nouns:
In contrast to bees, wasps don't make honey.
In contrast to Switzerland, Belgium has essentially no mountains.

The idiom "in contrast" is an adverbial phrase used to connect two independent clauses: these clause can be in two separate sentences, or can be linked by a semicolon.
Switzerland has high mountains. In contrast, Belgian is almost entirely flat.
The GRE tests obscure vocabulary and essentially ignores grammar; in contrast, the GMAT tests grammar.

Now, consider choice (A), which is the OA of this MGMAT SC problem:
Antigenic shift refers to the combination of two different strains of influenza; in contrast, antigenic drift refers to the natural mutation of a single strain of influenza.
What follows the semicolon is indeed a full, stand-by-itself, independent clause:
antigenic drift = MAIN SUBJECT of the independent clause
refers = MAIN VERB of the independent clause
to the natural mutation = prepositional phrase
of a single strain = prepositional phrase
of influenza = prepositional phrase

My friend, here is an idiom eBook I think you will find helpful:
https://magoosh.com/gmat/2013/gmat-idiom-ebook/
You can access that same information in flashcard form here:
https://gmat.magoosh.com/flashcards/idioms

Does all this make sense?
Mike
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Re: Antigenic shift refers to the combination of two different  [#permalink]

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12 Aug 2016, 08:35
mikemcgarry wrote:
Archit143 wrote:
I think E doesnt voilates any IIism
X in contrast to Y
Moreover A lacks the to with Contrast

I am responding to a pm from Archit143. First of all, Archit143 --- are you aware how many spelling mistakes you make in your post? This is not counting your own idiosyncratic abbreviations like "IIism." If you want to reach GMAT SC standards, I would highly recommend: make it your ongoing habit, in everything you say, and in everything your write, to conform at all times to the very highest principles of the English language. It believe it is a grave mistake to think of the GMAT as a hoop consisting of arbitrary standards, and once you jump through it you will never need to concern yourself with those standards again. Rather, the standards of the GMAT are the standard of business school and they are the standards of success in the corporate world. Do you want to succeed in that world? Then make excellence in all things a habit. ----- A fellow GC user right now might, in 15 years, be the person who is a position to make a lucrative deal with your future company --- suppose that person remembers your spelling mistakes here and thereby has a lowered opinion of you, and suppose that affects the deal. Would the 10 seconds it takes now to correct your spelling seem worth it? In life, we only get one chance to make a first impression on anyone; moreover, in our modern hyper-connected world, we never know when something we put out into cyberspace might be making that first impression in our name. All psychological studies show that first impressions are massively influential --- if someone forms a bad first impression of you, you practically have to walk on water to change that. You can't afford ever to put less than your very best out into the world. Does that make sense?

OK, in this sentence --- I think your discussion is missing the main points.
Antigenic shift refers to the combination of two different strains of influenza; in contrast, antigenic drift refers to the natural mutation of a single strain of influenza.
(A) influenza; in contrast, antigenic drift refers to the natural mutation of a single strain of influenza
(B) influenza, different than the natural mutation of a single strain, known as antigenic drift
(C) influenza, in contrast to the natural mutation of a single strain, known as antigenic drift
(D) influenza, different than antigenic drift, which refers to the natural mutation of a single strain of influenza
(E) influenza; in contrast to antigenic drift, which refers to the natural mutation of a single strain of influenza

You are concerned about the idioms involving the world "contrast" --- there's no problem there. In (A), the adverbial phrase "in contrast" is perfectly fine. The phrase "in contrast to" is also correct in and of itself, although something is funny about the way it's used in (C) & (E). Typically, the "in contrast to" prepositional phrases would be juxtaposed with the subject of the independent clause in that same part of the sentence. For example:
Obama believes in X, in contrast to Romney, who believes in Y.
That's a direct and clear use of the "in contrast to" construction.

One definite idiom --- "different from" is correct, and "different than" is 100% wrong. (B) and (D) are wrong because of that.

Big grammar idea --- when we divide a sentence with a semicolon, each side of the semicolon must be a full independent clause, capable of standing on its own as a completely sentence. Look at what follows the semicolon in (E) ---"in contrast to antigenic drift, which refers to the natural mutation of a single strain of influenza." That is not a complete sentence on its own. That is not an independent clause. That's why (E) is wrong. It can't stand on its own following the semicolon.

Now, we are down to (A) and (C). In the overall flow of the sentence, we want to compare "antigenic shift" to "antigenic drift" --- the clearest and most effective way to demonstrate this is to make them both subjects in their respective independent clauses, which is exactly what (A) does. (C), on the other hand, is very indirect, and makes it harder to see --- what's the contrast? what's the comparison? Clear, powerful, direct --- that's exactly what the GMAT SC likes, and that's what (A) gives here. (A) is by far the best answer.

Does all this make sense?

Mike

If B and D had Different from instead of Different than would that be correct?
Re: Antigenic shift refers to the combination of two different   [#permalink] 12 Aug 2016, 08:35

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