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# Archaeologists in Ireland believe that a recently discovered

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Re: Archaeologists in Ireland believe that a recently discovered [#permalink]

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22 Jul 2014, 01:27
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Re: Archaeologists in Ireland believe that a recently discovered [#permalink]

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22 Jul 2014, 05:03
To understand the logic, why B > C ?,refer MGMAT SC Chapter 13, Page 255, Infinitives.

A. Chalice was probably buried to keep from being stolen by invaders. --- Same error as in C.
B. Chalice was probably buried to keep it from being stolen by invaders. --- here pronoun it makes building (subject) object of infinitive "to keep"; such construction is fine.
C. Chalice was probably buried to avoid being stolen by invaders. -- Chalice is the subject of "to avoid ..." but Chalice can not intentionally do anything to avoid. Thus it is illogical.
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Re: Archaeologists in Ireland believe that a recently discovered [#permalink]

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22 Jul 2014, 23:41
To understand the logic, why B > C ?,refer MGMAT SC Chapter 13, Page 255, Infinitives.

A. Chalice was probably buried to keep from being stolen by invaders. --- Same error as in C.
B. Chalice was probably buried to keep it from being stolen by invaders. --- here pronoun it makes building (subject) object of infinitive "to keep"; such construction is fine.
C. Chalice was probably buried to avoid being stolen by invaders. -- Chalice is the subject of "to avoid ..." but Chalice can not intentionally do anything to avoid. Thus it is illogical.

Hello Piyush,

The infinitive part highlights the intention of burying the chalice. The intention is to keep "chalice" from being stolen and not keep "ABC" from being stolen. If "it" is removed from the sentence then the intended meaning of the sentence is not clear. I have used this reasoning to eliminate other choices and choose B as the answer. Do you find any flaw in my reasoning?

Thanks Anuj!
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Re: Archaeologists in Ireland believe that a recently discovered [#permalink]

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23 Jul 2014, 01:30
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anujag24 wrote:
Hello Piyush,

The infinitive part highlights the intention of burying the chalice. The intention is to keep "chalice" from being stolen and not keep "ABC" from being stolen. If "it" is removed from the sentence then the intended meaning of the sentence is not clear. I have used this reasoning to eliminate other choices and choose B as the answer. Do you find any flaw in my reasoning?

Thanks Anuj!

Pronoun it reflects the intention of those who buried the chalice not the chalice's desire to get buried with such intention.
In choice A and C chalice is the subject of the sentence thus purpose of action expressed by infinitive appears to be intention of chalice, but that is not the case.
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Archaeologists in Ireland believe that a recently discovered [#permalink]

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23 Jul 2014, 01:59
PiyushK wrote:
anujag24 wrote:
Hello Piyush,

The infinitive part highlights the intention of burying the chalice. The intention is to keep "chalice" from being stolen and not keep "ABC" from being stolen. If "it" is removed from the sentence then the intended meaning of the sentence is not clear. I have used this reasoning to eliminate other choices and choose B as the answer. Do you find any flaw in my reasoning?

Thanks Anuj!

Pronoun it reflects the intention of those who buried the chalice not the chalice's desire to get buried with such intention.
In choice A and C chalice is the subject of the sentence thus purpose of action expressed by infinitive appears to be intention of chalice, but that is not the case.

That's exactly my point. When I mentioned intention, I referred to the intention of the people who buried chalice and not the chalice itself. My earlier post might be abstruse.
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Re: Archaeologists in Ireland believe that a recently discovered [#permalink]

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23 Jul 2014, 06:55
PiyushK wrote:
To understand the logic, why B > C ?,refer MGMAT SC Chapter 13, Page 255, Infinitives.

C. Chalice was probably buried to avoid being stolen by invaders. -- Chalice is the subject of "to avoid ..." but Chalice can not intentionally do anything to avoid. Thus it is illogical.

Hi Piyush, I don't have MGMAT handy, but I am curious how C reflects that Chalice intentionally buried itself. Since the sentence says: Chalice was buried, this seems to correctly suggest that someone else buried the Chalice (and Chalice did not intentionally bury itself).

Would be interesting if you can summarize what in MGMAT suggests the way you are interpreting it.
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Re: Archaeologists in Ireland believe that a recently discovered [#permalink]

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23 Jul 2014, 07:40
EducationAisle wrote:
PiyushK wrote:
To understand the logic, why B > C ?,refer MGMAT SC Chapter 13, Page 255, Infinitives.

C. Chalice was probably buried to avoid being stolen by invaders. -- Chalice is the subject of "to avoid ..." but Chalice can not intentionally do anything to avoid. Thus it is illogical.

Hi Piyush, I don't have MGMAT handy, but I am curious how C reflects that Chalice intentionally buried itself. Since the sentence says: Chalice was buried, this seems to correctly suggest that someone else buried the Chalice (and Chalice did not intentionally bury itself).

Would be interesting if you can summarize what in MGMAT suggests the way you are interpreting it.

Following is the snippet from mgmat guide: I interpreted following description in my comment above.

Wrong-->> The building was demolished TO AVOID falling down accidentally.

The subject of the clause is the noun building, which is also 'the implied
subject of the infinitive to avoid. However, a building cannot avoid something intentionally.
The sentence above is nonsensical.

Right--->> The building was demolished TO KEEP IT from falling down accidentally,

The subject building would normally be the implied subject of the infinitive to keep.
However, it refers to building. Since building is the object of the infinitive, the version above
is fine as written.
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Re: Archaeologists in Ireland believe that a recently discovered [#permalink]

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23 Jul 2014, 08:29
PiyushK wrote:
Following is the snippet from mgmat guide: I interpreted following description in my comment above.

Wrong-->> The building was demolished TO AVOID falling down accidentally.

The subject of the clause is the noun building, which is also 'the implied
subject of the infinitive to avoid. However, a building cannot avoid something intentionally.
The sentence above is nonsensical.

Thanks for reproducing the snippet Piyush. I find this interpretation of MGMAT odd, to say the least.

Let's take a simpler example:

Jack was given driving lessons to avoid accidents.

This does not explicitly indicate that it was Jack's intent to avoid accidents. On the other hand, if we have the following sentence:

Jack took driving lessons to avoid accidents.

This does clearly indicate that it was Jack's intent to avoid accidents.
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Re: Archaeologists in Ireland believe that a recently discovered [#permalink]

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23 Jul 2014, 11:34
EducationAisle wrote:
Thanks for reproducing the snippet Piyush. I find this interpretation of MGMAT odd, to say the least.

Let's take a simpler example:

Jack was given driving lessons to avoid accidents.

This does not explicitly indicate that it was Jack's intent to avoid accidents. On the other hand, if we have the following sentence:

Jack took driving lessons to avoid accidents.

This does clearly indicate that it was Jack's intent to avoid accidents.

I interpret your sentence in tandem with what MGMAT described in following manner: I think Jack is in the capacity of avoiding accident and Jack can avoid accident, whereas building is not in capacity to avoid collapse.

Though this concept just slipped over my head, I tried to inherit it the way author described it. Really I found it difficult to relate/understand it with my knowledge.
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Re: Archaeologists in Ireland believe that a recently discovered [#permalink]

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23 Jan 2015, 10:30
(C) to avoid
(D) in order that it would avoid

OA explanations for D and C are the same and GMAC reasons "This (option C and opt. D) suggests that the chalice acts to prevent its own theft.". I don't understand OA explanation. Please help to clarify!

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Re: Archaeologists in Ireland believe that a recently discovered [#permalink]

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03 Feb 2015, 08:57
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Beat720 wrote:
(C) to avoid
(D) in order that it would avoid

OA explanations for D and C are the same and GMAC reasons "This (option C and opt. D) suggests that the chalice acts to prevent its own theft.". I don't understand OA explanation. Please help to clarify!

Many thanks + kudos!

Let me take a swing at this one, as I'll try to keep this one as simple as possible

The problem with Choices C and D is that the way the sentences are structured, it sounds as if the chalice did all the work in digging itself.
Both choices, once they're respectively replaced into the original sentence, are followed by verbs. This makes it sound as if the chalice dug itself into hiding.

Choice C:

[The Chalice] was probably buried to avoid being stolen by invaders. --- There's nothing there to suggest that someone did the actual burying.
If it were said, "to avoid it from" --- We need the pronoun and the preposition to suggest that the burying was done by something other than the actual relic.

Choice D:

[The Chalice] was probably buried in order that it would avoid being stolen by invaders. --- "...it would avoid being stolen" suggests that the chalice is trying to nonsensically avoid from being stolen. That's just illogical, and probably spooky! We need to clearly show that the chalice was buried so that it would avoid from being stolen by some thief.

Hope that helped!

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Re: Archaeologists in Ireland believe that a recently discovered [#permalink]

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06 May 2015, 15:52
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Re: Archaeologists in Ireland believe that a recently discovered [#permalink]

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06 May 2015, 16:03
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Ask yourself who buried the chalice and why. They buried it "to keep it from being stolen", not "to keep from being stolen". The second example sounds like they buried the chalice because they didn't want themselves to be stolen..
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Re: Archaeologists in Ireland believe that a recently discovered [#permalink]

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26 Sep 2015, 21:37
"being stolen" is a verb in a passive voice. All the verbs in the sentence have subjects, except the "being stolen" verb. Thus answer choice B is correct, which provides the verb with a subject in a concise way.

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Re: Archaeologists in Ireland believe that a recently discovered [#permalink]

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29 Sep 2016, 12:21
Hello from the GMAT Club VerbalBot!

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Re: Archaeologists in Ireland believe that a recently discovered [#permalink]

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04 Jan 2017, 23:58
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The OA is correct.

Option A: From the phrase to keep from being stolen, it cannot be understood what might be stolen.
Option B: Introducing the pronoun "it" (referring to "chalice") resolves the above issue.

Hence B is better than A.

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Re: Archaeologists in Ireland believe that a recently discovered [#permalink]

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25 Feb 2017, 13:48
Archaeologists in Ireland believe that a recently discovered chalice, which dates from the eighth century, was probably buried to keep from being stolen by invaders.

Issue: Idiom

(A) to keep from
- Ambiguous

(B) to keep it from

(C) to avoid
- missing "it"
- also this options suggest that chalice can avoid it's own theft -> illogical'

(D) in order that it would avoid
- also this options suggest that chalice can avoid it's own theft -> illogical'

(E) in order to keep from
- Also I think "to keep" implies "in order", so "in order" might be redundant.
- "it" missing -> less clear

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Re: Archaeologists in Ireland believe that a recently discovered [#permalink]

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05 Mar 2017, 15:25
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I would go for C: to keep it from. it is fine, because the object it refers is chalice

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Re: Archaeologists in Ireland believe that a recently discovered [#permalink]

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11 Mar 2017, 16:54
Archaeologists in Ireland believe that a recently discovered chalice, which dates from the eighth century, was probably buried to keep from being stolen by invaders.

(A) to keep from(what was kept form being stolen? a pronoun should be used here)
(B) to keep it from
(C) to avoid (who or what is avoiding?)
(D) in order that it would avoid(the chalice whould avoid? not chalice itself should be avoided from being stolen)
(E) in order to keep from ( same as A)

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Re: Archaeologists in Ireland believe that a recently discovered [#permalink]

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11 Mar 2017, 18:02
Archaeologists in Ireland believe that a recently discovered chalice, which dates from the eighth century, was probably buried to keep from being stolen by invaders.

(A) to keep from (unclear meaning need pronoun )
(B) to keep it from( correct choice)
(C) to avoid (what or who is avoiding needs to be meantioned,currtly it is implying that chalice is used for avoiding)
(D) in order that it would avoid(chalice would not avoid,change in meaning)
(E) in order to keep from (same as A)

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Re: Archaeologists in Ireland believe that a recently discovered   [#permalink] 11 Mar 2017, 18:02

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