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# Archaeologists should make greater use of satellite images

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Archaeologists should make greater use of satellite images [#permalink]

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16 Mar 2013, 13:28
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Archaeologists should make greater use of satellite images in their search for Mayan ruins in the jungles of Guatemala. Though satellite photographs have proven unhelpful because of their inability to penetrate the dense tree canopy, infrared imaging translates heat signatures into distinct colors, making previously-undiscovered ruins visible.

The conclusion above is based on which of the following assumptions?

a)Infrared imaging is helpful because the heat signature of ruin sites is different from the heat signature of the surrounding jungle.
b)Archeologists in the field have not been able to discover many ruins because the jungle is impenetrable.
c)Archaeologists use both satellite technology and local folklore to theorize the location of ruins.
d)Archaeologists require special training in order to read maps produced by infrared imaging.
e) Satellite photography has not produced images of sufficient detail to locate ruins in the jungle.

I chose (e) since , "Satellite photography has not produced images of sufficient detail to locate ruins in the jungle, infrared imaging translates heat signatures into distinct colors..

[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
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Re: Archaeologists should make greater use of satellite images [#permalink]

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16 Mar 2013, 16:13
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guerrero25 wrote:
Archaeologists should make greater use of satellite images in their search for Mayan ruins in the jungles of Guatemala. Though satellite photographs have proven unhelpful because of their inability to penetrate the dense tree canopy, infrared imaging translates heat signatures into distinct colors, making previously-undiscovered ruins visible.

The conclusion above is based on which of the following assumptions?

a)Infrared imaging is helpful because the heat signature of ruin sites is different from the heat signature of the surrounding jungle.
b)Archeologists in the field have not been able to discover many ruins because the jungle is impenetrable.
c)Archaeologists use both satellite technology and local folklore to theorize the location of ruins.
d)Archaeologists require special training in order to read maps produced by infrared imaging.
e) Satellite photography has not produced images of sufficient detail to locate ruins in the jungle.

Facts:
Archaeologists should make greater use of satellite images.
Though satellite photographs have proven unhelpful because of their inability to penetrate the dense tree canopy.

Conclusion:
Infrared imaging translates heat signatures into distinct colors, making previously-undiscovered ruins visible.

The conclusion is based on the fact that infrared images give us more information than satellite photographs do.
Therefore we are looking for such assumption, and the only one that guarantes so is option A.
a)Infrared imaging is helpful because the heat signature of ruin sites is different from the heat signature of the surrounding jungle. so infrared images will make "previously-undiscovered ruins visible".
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Re: Archaeologists should make greater use of satellite images [#permalink]

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16 Mar 2013, 18:48
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guerrero25 wrote:
Archaeologists should make greater use of satellite images in their search for Mayan ruins in the jungles of Guatemala. Though satellite photographs have proven unhelpful because of their inability to penetrate the dense tree canopy, infrared imaging translates heat signatures into distinct colors, making previously-undiscovered ruins visible.

The conclusion above is based on which of the following assumptions?

a)Infrared imaging is helpful because the heat signature of ruin sites is different from the heat signature of the surrounding jungle.
b)Archeologists in the field have not been able to discover many ruins because the jungle is impenetrable.
c)Archaeologists use both satellite technology and local folklore to theorize the location of ruins.
d)Archaeologists require special training in order to read maps produced by infrared imaging.
e) Satellite photography has not produced images of sufficient detail to locate ruins in the jungle.

I chose (e) since , "Satellite photography has not produced images of sufficient detail to locate ruins in the jungle, infrared imaging translates heat signatures into distinct colors..

If you apply the assumption negation technique, you may mistakenly choose (E). But it's incorrect.

Let's try the GMATPill approach. First focus on topic relevancy. Then apply assumption negation where necessary.

Topic relevancy. This depends on conclusion. What is the conclusion?

It's actually not the first sentence here. "Archaeologists should make greater use of satellite images..."

No, it's not that. It's more subtle here. It's:
"Infrared....makes previously-undiscovered ruins visible"

Essentially, the passage changes direction and makes a new statement in favor of Infrared. Infrared is better than satellite because it "makes previously-undiscovered ruins visible".

Thus, the eliminate answer choices that don't affect "Infrared being a useful choice"

"Infrared" better than "satellite" because of this heat signature advantage. But for this to be true, a "Mayan ruin" should indicate a heat signature and non-Mayan objects should not. That way if we do see a heat signal, we know it is a Mayan ruin.

But without that, let's go through the answer choices.

GMATPill Steps
Step 1:Check relevancy
Step 2: Then apply assumption negation if necessary:

(A)
Is (A) relevant to "Infrared being a useful choice"? Yes. Now, apply assumption negation.
Original: Infrared imaging is helpful because the heat signature of ruin sites is different from the heat signature of the surrounding jungle.
Opposite: Infrared imaging is helpful because the heat signature of ruin sites is NOT different from the heat signature of the surrounding jungle.

Opposite.....? ok well, if the heat signature of ruin sites is the SAME as the heat signature from surrounding jungle, then when we see our infrared results, we won't be able to distinguish what is Mayan, and what is jungle. We are UNABLE to distinguish and make visible the ruins. How does this compare to the conclusion of the original argument? It's opposite.

Thus assumption negation worked.
Original -> Infrared helpful, ruins visible
Opposite -> Infrared not helpful, ruins not visible

Thus (A) is a good answer choice.

Is (E) relevant to "Infrared being a useful choice"? No.

No....(E) is actually talking about the "+" points of satellite photography...NOT about the "+" points about Infrared..which is what the argument's topic is. Thus...it's not a valid contender to apply assumption negation.

If you do mistakenly apply the assumption negation, you'll see that it might be a contender too. But that would be wrong, it fails GMATPill's step 1, rule of relevancy.
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Re: Archaeologists should make greater use of satellite images [#permalink]

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12 Nov 2014, 03:42
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Re: Archaeologists should make greater use of satellite images [#permalink]

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06 Jun 2016, 23:39
Hello from the GMAT Club VerbalBot!

Thanks to another GMAT Club member, I have just discovered this valuable topic, yet it had no discussion for over a year. I am now bumping it up - doing my job. I think you may find it valuable (esp those replies with Kudos).

Want to see all other topics I dig out? Follow me (click follow button on profile). You will receive a summary of all topics I bump in your profile area as well as via email.
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Re: Archaeologists should make greater use of satellite images [#permalink]

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06 Jun 2016, 23:54
guerrero25 wrote:
Archaeologists should make greater use of satellite images in their search for Mayan ruins in the jungles of Guatemala. Though satellite photographs have proven unhelpful because of their inability to penetrate the dense tree canopy, infrared imaging translates heat signatures into distinct colors, making previously-undiscovered ruins visible.

The conclusion above is based on which of the following assumptions?

a)Infrared imaging is helpful because the heat signature of ruin sites is different from the heat signature of the surrounding jungle.
b)Archeologists in the field have not been able to discover many ruins because the jungle is impenetrable.
c)Archaeologists use both satellite technology and local folklore to theorize the location of ruins.
d)Archaeologists require special training in order to read maps produced by infrared imaging.
e) Satellite photography has not produced images of sufficient detail to locate ruins in the jungle.

I chose (e) since , "Satellite photography has not produced images of sufficient detail to locate ruins in the jungle, infrared imaging translates heat signatures into distinct colors..

The argument states that satellite images have proven unhelpful, primarily because of dense canopies . The argument then mentions that infrared imaging would be helpful.
Now we have to choose that option which highlights "exactly what is the aspect that makes infrared imagery a viable option"

Let us review options:

A) This option highlights a distinct advantage of Infrared imaging. We would able to discern between canopies and ruin sites. Hold.
b) Premise being repeated. No additional info. Out.
c) This gives no info about Infrared imagery and focuses on the premise part. Out.
d) This option discusses about training aspects. No comment on why Infrared is better. Leave it.
e) This is highlighting a shortcoming of satellite imagery. We already know that satellite imagery is not good enough. This is a premise booster. Reject this option.

(A) is the correct option.
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Re: Archaeologists should make greater use of satellite images [#permalink]

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07 Jun 2016, 11:13
guerrero25 wrote:
Archaeologists should make greater use of satellite images in their search for Mayan ruins in the jungles of Guatemala. Though satellite photographs have proven unhelpful because of their inability to penetrate the dense tree canopy, infrared imaging translates heat signatures into distinct colors, making previously-undiscovered ruins visible.

The conclusion above is based on which of the following assumptions?

a)Infrared imaging is helpful because the heat signature of ruin sites is different from the heat signature of the surrounding jungle.
b)Archeologists in the field have not been able to discover many ruins because the jungle is impenetrable.
c)Archaeologists use both satellite technology and local folklore to theorize the location of ruins.
d)Archaeologists require special training in order to read maps produced by infrared imaging.
e) Satellite photography has not produced images of sufficient detail to locate ruins in the jungle.

 Satellite images : Not helpful discovering Mayan ruins because images can not in penetrate dense tree canopyInfrared imaging : Uses distinct colors as heat signatures ----> helpful in discovering Mayan ruins

Try to negate option (A)

Infrared imaging is helpful because the heat signature of ruin sites is as that of heat signature of the surrounding jungle.

It will not be helpful to discover previously undiscovered Mayan ruins visible.

b)Archeologists in the field have not been able to discover many ruins because the jungle is impenetrable.

Irrelevant

c)Archaeologists use both satellite technology and local folklore to theorize the location of ruins.

Out of scope and irrelevant to the discussion.

d)Archaeologists require special training in order to read maps produced by infrared imaging.

Out of scope of current discussion

e) Satellite photography has not produced images of sufficient detail to locate ruins in the jungle.

This has already been stated in the first premises , and the statement is just a repetition of what has already been stated in different words...

Hence IMHO (A)

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Re: Archaeologists should make greater use of satellite images   [#permalink] 07 Jun 2016, 11:13
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