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# Archaeology as a profession faces two major problems. First, it is the

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Updated on: 11 Aug 2019, 03:44
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The Official Guide for GMAT Review 10th Edition, 2003

Practice Question
Question No.: RC 7 ~ 12
Page: 322

Archaeology as a profession faces two major problems. First, it is the poorest of the poor. Only paltry sums are available for excavating and even less is available for publishing the results and preserving the sites once excavated. Yet archaeologists deal with priceless objects every day. Second, there is the problem of illegal excavation, resulting in museum-quality pieces being sold to the highest bidder.

I would like to make an outrageous suggestion that would at one stroke provide funds for archaeology and reduce the amount of illegal digging. I would propose that scientific archeological expeditions and governmental authorities sell excavated artifacts on the open market. Such sales would provide substantial funds for the excavation and preservation of archaeological sites and the publication of results. At the same time, they would break the illegal excavator’s grip on the market, thereby decreasing the inducement to engage in illegal activities.

You might object that professionals excavate to acquire knowledge, not money. Moreover, ancient artifacts are part of our global cultural heritage, which should be available for all to appreciate, not sold to the highest bidder. I agree. Sell nothing that has unique artistic merit or scientific value. But, you might reply everything that comes out of the ground has scientific value. Here we part company. Theoretically, you may be correct in claiming that every artifact has potential scientific value. Practically, you are wrong.

I refer to the thousands of pottery vessels and ancient lamps that are essentially duplicates of one another. In one small excavation in Cyprus, archaeologists recently uncovered 2,000 virtually indistinguishable small jugs in a single courtyard. Even precious royal seal impressions known as l’melekh handles have been found in abundance—more than 4,000 examples so far.

The basements of museums are simply not large enough to store the artifacts that are likely to be discovered in the future. There is not enough money even to catalogue the finds; as a result, they cannot be found again and become as inaccessible as if they had never been discovered. Indeed, with the help of a computer, sold artifacts could be more accessible than are the pieces stored in bulging museum basements. Prior to sale, each could be photographed and the list of the purchasers could be maintained on the computer. A purchaser could even be required to agree to return the piece if it should become needed for scientific purposes.

It would be unrealistic to suggest that illegal digging would stop if artifacts were sold on the open market. But the demand for the clandestine product would be substantially reduced. Who would want an unmarked pot when another was available whose provenance was known, and that was dated stratigraphically by the professional archaeologist who excavated it?
1. The primary purpose of the passage is to propose

(A) an alternative to museum display of artifacts
(B) a way to curb illegal digging while benefiting the archaeological profession
(C) a way to distinguish artifacts with scientific value from those that have no such value
(D) the governmental regulation of archaeological sites
(E) a new system for cataloguing duplicate artifacts

2. The author implies that all of the following statements about duplicate artifacts are true EXCEPT:

(A) A market for such artifacts already exists.
(B) Such artifacts seldom have scientific value.
(C) There is likely to be a continuing supply of such artifacts.
(D) Museums are well supplied with examples of such artifacts.
(E) Such artifacts frequently exceed in quality those already catalogued in museum collections.

3. Which of the following is mentioned in the passage as a disadvantage of storing artifacts in museum basements?

(B) Space that could be better used for display is taken up for storage.
(C) Artifacts discovered in one excavation often become separated from each other.
(D) Such artifacts are often damaged by variations in temperature and humidity.
(E) Such artifacts’ often remain uncatalogued and thus cannot be located once they are put in storage.

4. The author mentions the excavation in Cyprus (lines 31-34) to emphasize which of the following points?

(A) Ancient lamps and pottery vessels are less valuable, although more rare, than royal seal impressions.
(B) Artifacts that are very similar to each other present cataloguing difficulties to archaeologists.
(C) Artifacts that are not uniquely valuable, and therefore could be sold, are available in large quantities.
(D) Cyprus is the most important location for unearthing large quantities of salable artifacts.
(E) Illegal sales of duplicate artifacts are wide-spread, particularly on the island of Cyprus.

5. The author’s argument concerning the effect of the official sale of duplicate artifacts on illegal excavation is based on which of the following assumptions?

(A) Prospective purchasers would prefer to buy authenticated artifacts.
(B) The price of illegally excavated artifacts would rise.
(C) Computers could be used to trace sold artifacts.
(D) Illegal excavators would be forced to sell only duplicate artifacts.
(E) Money gained from selling authenticated artifacts could be used to investigate and prosecute illegal excavators.

The author's argument concerning the effect of the official sale of duplicate artifacts on illegal excavation appears in lines 51-52, in which the author predicts that such official sale would reduce demand for "the clandestine product."

The rhetorical question that follows (lines 52-55) indicates that the author finds it unlikely that any purchaser would prefer objects of unknown provenance to objects of known origin, or, to rephrase, the author assumes that most people would prefer to purchase objects of authenticated provenance, as choice A states.

The author's argument concerning the effect of such sales on illegal excavation does not assume any of the other answer choices.

6. The author anticipates which of the following initial objections to the adoption of his proposal?

(A) Museum officials will become unwilling to store artifacts.
(B) An oversupply of salable artifacts will result and the demand for them will fall.
(C) Artifacts that would have been displayed in public places will be sold to private collectors.
(D) Illegal excavators will have an even larger supply of artifacts for resale.
(E) Counterfeiting of artifacts will become more commonplace.

The best answer is C. The author begins the third paragraph by saying "You might object..." in order to anticipate possible objections to the adoption of his proposal. In the next sentence the author asserts that "ancient artifacts...should be available for all to appreciate, not sold to the highest bidder" (lines 21-24), acknowledging an opponent's fear that individuals might be allowed to purchase objects that ought to be displayed in public institutions. This objection is paraphrased in choice C. Choice A alludes to a situation that shows the benefits, not the drawbacks, of the author's proposal; B, D, and E describe situations that are not discussed in the passage.

7. The author implies that which of the following would occur if duplicate artifacts were sold on the open market?

I. Illegal excavation would eventually cease completely.
II. Cyprus would become the primary source of marketable duplicate artifacts.
III. Archaeologists would be able to publish the results of their excavations more frequently than they currently do.

(A) I only
(B) III only
(C) I and II only
(D) II and III only
(E) I, II, and III

Originally posted by nitya34 on 03 Mar 2009, 09:33.
Last edited by SajjadAhmad on 11 Aug 2019, 03:44, edited 4 times in total.
Updated - Complete topic (118).
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Re: Archaeology as a profession faces two major problems. First, it is the  [#permalink]

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05 Oct 2014, 22:18
9
Explanation for Q6.

As stated in the passage "You might object that professionals excavate to acquire knowledge, not money. Moreover, ancient artifacts are part of our global cultural heritage, which should be available for all to appreciate, not sold to the highest bidder."

Option C says 'Artifacts that would have been displayed in public places will be sold to private collectors' . This option says that there could be an objection that artifacts would be would now not be displayed but sold. That's the initial objection that one can have for the author's suggestion.
##### General Discussion
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Joined: 04 Jan 2008
Posts: 591
Re: Archaeology as a profession faces two major problems. First, it is the  [#permalink]

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03 Mar 2009, 23:15
1
I tried too
It Was easy(atleast I got one such type in Real exam)
5 mins to read the passage and 4 mins for the 7 Qs

BBEC ACB
will post the OAs in few Hours
Might post RC no 2 soon
thanks guys for all the Kind words and support
nitya34 wrote:
=======================7 Qs..lets take 13 mins=======================================
Passage 11 (11/63)
Archaeology as a profession faces two major problems. First, it is the poorest of the poor. Only paltry sums are available for excavating and even less is available for publishing the results and preserving the sites once excavated. Yet archaeologists deal with priceless objects every day. Second, there is the problem of illegal excavation, resulting in museum-quality pieces being sold to the highest bidder.
I would like to make an outrageous suggestion that would at one stroke provide funds for archaeology and reduce the amount of illegal digging. I would propose that scientific archeological expeditions and governmental authorities sell excavated artifacts on the open market. Such sales would provide substantial funds for the excavation and preservation of archaeological sites and the publication of results. At the same time, they would break the illegal excavator’s grip on the market, thereby decreasing the inducement to engage in illegal activities.
You might object that professionals excavate to acquire knowledge, not money. Moreover, ancient artifacts are part of our global cultural heritage, which should be available for all to appreciate, not sold to the highest bidder. I agree. Sell nothing that has unique artistic merit or scientific value. But, you might reply everything that comes out of the ground has scientific value. Here we part company. Theoretically, you may be correct in claiming that every artifact has potential scientific value. Practically, you are wrong.
I refer to the thousands of pottery vessels and ancient lamps that are essentially duplicates of one another. In one small excavation in Cyprus, archaeologists recently uncovered 2,000 virtually indistinguishable small jugs in a single courtyard, Even precious royal seal impressions known as l’melekh handles have been found in abundance—more than 4,000 examples so far.
The basements of museums are simply not large enough to store the artifacts that are likely to be discovered in the future. There is not enough money even to catalogue the finds; as a result, they cannot be found again and become as inaccessible as if they had never been discovered. Indeed, with the help of a computer, sold artifacts could be more accessible than are the pieces stored in bulging museum basements. Prior to sale, each could be photographed and the list of the purchasers could be maintained on the computer. A purchaser could even be required to agree to return the piece if it should become needed for scientific purposes.
It would be unrealistic to suggest that illegal digging would stop if artifacts were sold on the open market. But the demand for the clandestine product would be substantially reduced. Who would want an unmarked pot when another was available whose provenance was known, and that was dated stratigraphically by the professional archaeologist who excavated it?
1. The primary purpose of the passage is to propose
(A) an alternative to museum display of artifacts
(B) a way to curb illegal digging while benefiting the archaeological profession
(C) a way to distinguish artifacts with scientific value from those that have no such value
(D) the governmental regulation of archaeological sites
(E) a new system for cataloguing duplicate artifacts
2. The author implies that all of the following statements about duplicate artifacts are true EXCEPT:
(A) A market for such artifacts already exists.
(B) Such artifacts seldom have scientific value.
(C) There is likely to be a continuing supply of such artifacts.
(D) Museums are well supplied with examples of such artifacts.
(E) Such artifacts frequently exceed in quality those already catalogued in museum collections.
3. Which of the following is mentioned in the passage as a disadvantage of storing artifacts in museum basements?
(B) Space that could be better used for display is taken up for storage.
(C) Artifacts discovered in one excavation often become separated from each other.
(D) Such artifacts are often damaged by variations in temperature and humidity.
(E) Such artifacts’ often remain uncatalogued and thus cannot be located once they are put in storage.
4. The author mentions the excavation in Cyprus (lines 31-34) to emphasize which of the following points?
(A) Ancient lamps and pottery vessels are less valuable, although more rare, than royal seal impressions.
(B) Artifacts that are very similar to each other present cataloguing difficulties to archaeologists.
(C) Artifacts that are not uniquely valuable, and therefore could be sold, are available in large quantities.
(D) Cyprus is the most important location for unearthing large quantities of salable artifacts.
(E) Illegal sales of duplicate artifacts are wide-spread, particularly on the island of Cyprus.
5. The author’s argument concerning the effect of the official sale of duplicate artifacts on illegal excavation is based on which of the following assumptions?
(A) Prospective purchasers would prefer to buy authenticated artifacts.
(B) The price of illegally excavated artifacts would rise.
(C) Computers could be used to trace sold artifacts.
(D) Illegal excavators would be forced to sell only duplicate artifacts.
(E) Money gained from selling authenticated artifacts could be used to investigate and prosecute illegal excavators.
6. The author anticipates which of the following initial objections to the adoption of his proposal?
(A) Museum officials will become unwilling to store artifacts.
(B) An oversupply of salable artifacts will result and the demand for them will fall.
(C) Artifacts that would have been displayed in public places will be sold to private collectors.
(D) Illegal excavators will have an even larger supply of artifacts for resale.
(E) Counterfeiting of artifacts will become more commonplace.
7. The author implies that which of the following would occur if duplicate artifacts were sold on the open market?
I. Illegal excavation would eventually cease completely.
II. Cyprus would become the primary source of marketable duplicate artifacts.
III. Archaeologists would be able to publish the results of their excavations more frequently than they currently do.
(A) I only
(B) III only
(C) I and II only
(D) II and III only
(E) I, II, and III
=============================
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Re: Archaeology as a profession faces two major problems. First, it is the  [#permalink]

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10 Nov 2012, 01:35
Discussed in detail at the below mentioned link
archaeology-as-a-profession-faces-two-major-problems-first-76231.html#p573931

Archaeology as a profession faces two major problems.
First, it is the poorest of the poor. Only paltry
sums are available for excavating and even less is available
for publishing the results and preserving the sites
once excavated. Yet archaeologists deal with priceless
objects every day. Second, there is the problem of illegal
excavation, resulting in museum-quality pieces being
sold to the highest bidder.

I would like to make an outrageous suggestion that
would at one stroke provide funds for archaeology and
reduce the amount of illegal digging. I would propose
that scientific archaeological expeditions and governmental
authorities sell excavated artifacts on the open
market. Such sales would provide substantial funds for
the excavation and preservation of archaeological sites
and the publication of results. At the same time, they
would break the illegal excavator's grip on the market,
thereby decreasing the inducement to engage in illegal
activities.

You might object that professionals excavate to
acquire knowledge, not money. Moreover, ancient artifacts
are part of our global cultural heritage, which
should be available for all to appreciate, not sold to the
highest bidder. I agree. Sell nothing that has unique
artistic merit or scientific value. But, you might reply,
everything that comes out of the ground has scientific
value. Here we part company. Theoretically, you may be
correct in claiming that every artifact has potential scientific
value. Practically, you are wrong.

I refer to the thousands of pottery vessels and ancient
lamps that are essentially duplicates of one another. In
one small excavation in Cyprus, archaeologists recently
uncovered 2,000 virtually indistinguishable small jugs in
a single courtyard. Even precious royal seal impressions
known as/melekh handles have been found in abundance --
more than 4,000 examples so far.

The basements of museums are simply not large
enough to store the artifacts that are likely to be discovered
in the future. There is not enough money even to
catalogue the finds; as a result, they cannot be found
again and become as inaccessible as if they had never
been discovered. Indeed, with the help of a computer,
sold artifacts could be more accessible than are the
pieces stored in bulging museum basements. Prior to
sale, each could be photographed and the list of the
purchasers could be maintained on the computer. A
purchaser could even be required to agree to return the
piece if it should become needed for scientific purposes.
It would be unrealistic to suggest that illegal digging
would stop if artifacts were sold on the open market.
But the demand for the clandestine product would be
substantially reduced. Who would want an unmarked
pot when another was available whose provenance was
known, and that was dated stratigraphically by the
professional archaeologist who excavated it?

Hi,
I'm reading this passage and having issues identifying the correct answer choice for the following questions. If you could help me guide through the answer choices, that be great.
Many thanks!

*********************

The author implies that all of the following statements about duplicate artifacts are true EXCEPT:

A) A market for such artifacts already exists.

B) Such artifacts seldom have scientific value.

C) There is likely to be a continuing supply of such artifacts.

D) Museums are well supplied with examples of such artifacts.

E) Such artifacts frequently exceed in quality those already catalogued in museum collections.

---------------------------------

The author's argument concerning the effect of the official sale of duplicate artifacts on illegal excavation is based on which of the following assumptions?

A) Prospective purchasers would prefer to buy authenticated artifacts.

B) The price of illegally excavated artifacts would rise.

C) Computers could be used to trace sold artifacts.

D) Illegal excavators would be forced to sell only duplicate artifacts.

E) Money gained from selling authenticated artifacts could be used to investigate and prosecute illegal excavators.

----------------------------------

The author mentions the excavation in Cyprus (lines 31-34) to emphasize which of the following points?

A) Ancient lamps and pottery vessels are less valuable, although more rare, than royal seal impressions.

B) Artifacts that are very similar to each other present cataloguing difficulties to archaeologists.

C) Artifacts that are not uniquely valuable, and therefore could be sold, are available in large quantities.

D) Cyprus is the most important location for unearthing large quantities of salable artifacts.

E) Illegal sales of duplicate artifacts are wide-spread, particularly on the island of Cyprus.
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Re: Archaeology as a profession faces two major problems. First, it is the  [#permalink]

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15 Nov 2012, 11:35
1
Archaeology is the study of past in the presence of physical evidences. In fact it explains the past. It is different from history subject because Archaeology helps us the built pages of history where as history depends on pages. Where history fails to provide the answers of our question, it helps us to find out our answers. I am also of the view that Archaeology profession is facing problems. It is time consuming and demands more money. Archaeologists spend most of their time in surveying and in surface collection. As you said Archaeologists deal with priceless objects every day and it can save sites from grave hunters too.You suggestion of providing funds for excavations is 100 % awesome and it can stopped illegal digging and John Marshal made good progress In this field. He provided Grid-Box pattern to make scientific excavations. If you know about the Marshal’s work in Archaeology then please share it with me.
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Concentration: Marketing, Finance
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Re: Archaeology as a profession faces two major problems. First, it is the  [#permalink]

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27 Jan 2013, 03:56
7
1
P1: 2 Major Problems (1) lack of funds and (2) illegal excavation

P2: Outrageous suggestion on how to solve both problems in P1

P3: Possible objection that archaelogical excavation is to acquire knowledge, not money; The author qualified the artifacts for open market as those with no unique artistic merit or scientific value; not all artifacts have scientific value

P4: Example of duplicate artifacts in large number

P5: storage problem in museum; difficult to catalogue; so sell those in duplicates; marked artifacts are preferred over illegally excavated artifacts

*********************

The author implies that all of the following statements about duplicate artifacts are true EXCEPT:

A) A market for such artifacts already exists.
there are bidders in the illegal market - Yes!

B) Such artifacts seldom have scientific value.
duplicate and not rare items come in super large quantities... Go to Paragraph 3 and then followed by examples in Paragraph 4 -Yes!

C) There is likely to be a continuing supply of such artifacts.
The author mentioned: "The basements of museums are simply not large enough to store the artifacts that are likely to be discovered
in the future." - Yes!

D) Museums are well supplied with examples of such artifacts.
This one is a bit tricky. They mentioned an excavation in Cyprus with large supplies of duplicate artifacts. It wasn't mentioned that they were placed in Museum.. So I keep this - Yet I had doubt that this could be correct...

E) Such artifacts frequently exceed in quality those already catalogued in museum collections.
Now, quality.. this waasn't mentioned anywhere in the museum... The issue with catalogue was the difficulty of doing so..

The author's argument concerning the effect of the official sale of duplicate artifacts on illegal excavation is based on which of the following assumptions?

A) Prospective purchasers would prefer to buy authenticated artifacts.
This is in the last paragraph. "Who would want an unmarked
pot when another was available whose provenance was
known, and that was dated stratigraphically by the
professional archaeologist who excavated it?
"

B) The price of illegally excavated artifacts would rise.
Pricing was not mentioned anywhere... There was a mention of so called to the highest bidder but no such prediction of rising in price

C) Computers could be used to trace sold artifacts.
This is not one of the effects.... This was just mentioned to rest assure that sold artifacts are retrievable... This is something already occuring even before the proposal...

D) Illegal excavators would be forced to sell only duplicate artifacts.
The goal is to make illegal excavators decrease and not to sway them to sell a type of artifacts...

E) Money gained from selling authenticated artifacts could be used to investigate and prosecute illegal excavators.
Wow! This is nice but not mentioned.

The author mentions the excavation in Cyprus (lines 31-34) to emphasize which of the following points?

A) Ancient lamps and pottery vessels are less valuable, although more rare, than royal seal impressions.
These were mentioned to show the large supply of these artifacts.... Not to compare their value...

B) Artifacts that are very similar to each other present cataloguing difficulties to archaeologists.
Catalogue difficulty is because of lack of money

C) Artifacts that are not uniquely valuable, and therefore could be sold, are available in large quantities.
Bingo!

D) Cyprus is the most important location for unearthing large quantities of salable artifacts.
Wow! Not mentioned!

E) Illegal sales of duplicate artifacts are wide-spread, particularly on the island of Cyprus.[/quote]
Wow! No such association was made!

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Re: Archaeology as a profession faces two major problems. First, it is the  [#permalink]

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22 Jun 2013, 16:45
suryanshg wrote:
1 .B
2. A
3. E
??
Am I correct? OA Pls

Questions 1 and 3 are right -- as for question 2:

(A) A market for such artifacts already exists
- this is implied most strongly at the end of the passage:
"The demand.. would be.. reduced. Who would want an unmarked pot when another was available..?"

(B) Such artifacts seldom have scientific value
- Paragraphs 3 and 4:
"Theoretically, you may be correct in claiming that every artifact has scientific value. Practically, you are wrong."
"... thousands of pottery vessels... essentially duplicates of one another"

(C) There is likely to be a continuing supply
- Paragraph 5:
"museums... not large enough to store the artifacts.. discovered in the future"

(D) Museums are well supplied with examples of such artifacts
- Paragraph 4:
"pottery vessels and ancient lamps... 2,000... small jugs... I'melekh handles... 4,000 examples..."

(E) is correct, as nothing is stated about quality.

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Re: Archaeology as a profession faces two major problems. First, it is the  [#permalink]

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17 Nov 2018, 10:55
GMATNinja

Question 1 -- how to differentiate between A and B ...

I selected A but the OA is B ..

OA says A is wrong because "While explaining in paragraph 5 that museums often store countless artifacts unseen in their basement , the author proposes no alternative for museum display of these artifacts"

But isn't the author proposing -- that

a) excavators sell privately
b) (implying : less artifacts will be available for the museum to display once this practice is underway)
c) (implying: this activity will be in a way an alternative to museum display as there will be less artifacts to display for the museum)
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Re: Archaeology as a profession faces two major problems. First, it is the  [#permalink]

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26 Nov 2018, 20:44
jabhatta@umail.iu.edu wrote:
GMATNinja

Question 1 -- how to differentiate between A and B ...

I selected A but the OA is B ..

OA says A is wrong because "While explaining in paragraph 5 that museums often store countless artifacts unseen in their basement , the author proposes no alternative for museum display of these artifacts"

But isn't the author proposing -- that

a) excavators sell privately
b) (implying : less artifacts will be available for the museum to display once this practice is underway)
c) (implying: this activity will be in a way an alternative to museum display as there will be less artifacts to display for the museum)

The question asks what the primary purpose of the passage is, so the correct answer must tell us the overall purpose of the entire passage, not the purpose of a single paragraph.

Quote:
(A) an alternative to museum display of artifacts

Sure, we could say that (A) is wrong because it focuses on an alternative to the museum display of artifacts, while paragraph 5 focuses on an alternative to storing artifacts in museum basements (which is quite different from putting artifacts on display). But a much simpler reason to eliminate (A) is that it's too narrow to represent the primary purpose of the passage.

The question asks us why the author wrote this passage. Choice (A) tells us why the author wrote paragraph 5, and gets a key detail wrong as well. That's why we eliminate it.

Quote:
(B) a way to curb illegal digging while benefiting the archaeological profession

Choice (B), on the other hand, is a succinct expression of the passage's purpose. The author is verbose, but ultimately wrote this whole thing to offer a way to fund archaeologists' work while reducing the negative effects of illegal excavation. The author identifies these two problems right up front, then spends the rest of the passage explaining how the act of selling excavated artifacts can solve both.

I hope this helps!
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Re: Archaeology as a profession faces two major problems. First, it is the  [#permalink]

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24 Jul 2019, 22:34
5. The author’s argument concerning the effect of the official sale of duplicate artifacts on illegal excavation is based on which of the following assumptions?

(A) Prospective purchasers would prefer to buy authenticated artifacts.
(B) The price of illegally excavated artifacts would rise.
(C) Computers could be used to trace sold artifacts.
(D) Illegal excavators would be forced to sell only duplicate artifacts.
(E) Money gained from selling authenticated artifacts could be used to investigate and prosecute illegal excavators.

Hi
I have a question regarding Q5. It asks the assumption but option (A) is clearly mentioned in the last paragraph of the passage , how can it be assumption. Assumption is something that is unstated. because of this reason I did not mark this option. Yes I agree that other options are cannot be correct but option A has confused me a bit. Can someone explain where am I going wrong . Or am I just over-analyzing
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Re: Archaeology as a profession faces two major problems. First, it is the  [#permalink]

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27 Jul 2019, 12:04
1

Question 7

Jiggy11 wrote:
Hello,
Can someone please explain the OA given for Q.7.?

Posted from my mobile device

Quote:
7. The author implies that which of the following would occur if duplicate artifacts were sold on the open market?

I. Illegal excavation would eventually cease completely.
II. Cyprus would become the primary source of marketable duplicate artifacts.
III. Archaeologists would be able to publish the results of their excavations more frequently than they currently do.

(A) I only
(B) III only
(C) I and II only
(D) II and III only
(E) I, II, and III

Let's take these three statements one at a time:

Quote:
I. Illegal excavation would eventually cease completely.

The author admits, "It would be unrealistic to suggest that illegal digging would stop if artifacts were sold on the open market." This suggests that illegal excavation would NOT cease completely, so we can eliminate the first statement.

Quote:
II. Cyprus would become the primary source of marketable duplicate artifacts.

One SMALL excavation in Cyprus is mentioned as an example, but the author's idea (to sell excavated artifacts on the open market) would apply to excavations all over the world, not just in Cyprus. We have no reason to believe that Cyprus, and not some other country, would become the primary source of marketable duplicate artifacts. Eliminate II.

Quote:
III. Archaeologists would be able to publish the results of their excavations more frequently than they currently do.

We are told that, "Only paltry sums are available for excavating and even less is available for publishing the results and preserving the sites once excavated." But if artifacts were sold on the open market, "such sales would provide substantial funds for the excavation and preservation of archaeological sites and the publication of results."

Archaeologists currently do not have a lot of money to spend on publishing results. But if they sell duplicate artifacts on the open market, those sales will provide funding to publish results. This suggests that archaeologists would be able to publish the results of their excavations more frequently than they currently do. Keep III.

Only III works, so (B) is the answer!

Question 5

zac123 wrote:
5. The author’s argument concerning the effect of the official sale of duplicate artifacts on illegal excavation is based on which of the following assumptions?

(A) Prospective purchasers would prefer to buy authenticated artifacts.
(B) The price of illegally excavated artifacts would rise.
(C) Computers could be used to trace sold artifacts.
(D) Illegal excavators would be forced to sell only duplicate artifacts.
(E) Money gained from selling authenticated artifacts could be used to investigate and prosecute illegal excavators.

Hi
I have a question regarding Q5. It asks the assumption but option (A) is clearly mentioned in the last paragraph of the passage , how can it be assumption. Assumption is something that is unstated. because of this reason I did not mark this option. Yes I agree that other options are cannot be correct but option A has confused me a bit. Can someone explain where am I going wrong . Or am I just over-analyzing

The author basically says, in the form of a question, that if buyers have a choice between an unmarked pot and another whose provenance (place of origin) was known and that was dated by a professional archaeologist, they will choose the latter. The author talks about what buyers would choose, not what buyers would prefer.

If the author had said, "Based on extensive survey data, we know that buyers prefer artifacts whose provenance is known and that are dated by professional archaelogists.", then, yes, (A) would be a repeat of information in the passage. The author's statement (err, question) is basically a hypothesis -- one that is based on the ASSUMPTION that buyers would prefer to buy authenticated artifacts.

The author's question is similar to something like this: "If we offer pizza and spam, who wouldn't want the pizza??" Behind that rhetorical question is the assumption that people prefer pizza over spam. If that assumption is incorrect, then the implied argument -- that most or all people would choose pizza -- would be weakened.

I hope that helps!
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Re: Archaeology as a profession faces two major problems. First, it is the  [#permalink]

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02 Aug 2019, 11:21
kitipriyanka wrote:
11 min 5/7 correct

can someone explain Q4
"excavation in Cyprus"

Question 4

Quote:
4. The author mentions the excavation in Cyprus (lines 31-34) to emphasize which of the following points?
(A) Ancient lamps and pottery vessels are less valuable, although more rare, than royal seal impressions.
(B) Artifacts that are very similar to each other present cataloguing difficulties to archaeologists.
(C) Artifacts that are not uniquely valuable, and therefore could be sold, are available in large quantities.
(D) Cyprus is the most important location for unearthing large quantities of salable artifacts.
(E) Illegal sales of duplicate artifacts are wide-spread, particularly on the island of Cyprus.

We are told that, "in one small excavation in Cyprus, archaeologists recently uncovered 2,000 virtually indistinguishable small jugs in a single courtyard." This example reinforces the point made in the preceding sentence: that there are "thousands of pottery vessels and ancient lamps that are essentially duplicates of one another."

The author is trying to counter the objection that "everything that comes out of the ground has scientific value." If we have 2,000 virtually indistinguishable small jugs, does each one have scientific value? According to the author, no. Sure, we might want to study a few of those jugs and put a few on display at museums. But most of those duplicates will just wind up lost in a museum basement, "as inaccessible as if they had never been discovered" (because they have not been properly cataloged).

The Cyprus excavation is just one example of a large quantity of artifacts that, because they are not uniquely valuable, could be sold (to provide funds for archaeology and reduce the amount of illegal digging).

This fits with choice (C): The author mentions the excavation in Cyprus (lines 31-34) to emphasize the point that (C) artifacts that are not uniquely valuable, and therefore could be sold, are available in large quantities.
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Re: Archaeology as a profession faces two major problems. First, it is the   [#permalink] 02 Aug 2019, 11:21
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