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# Art historians are using a process known as infrared

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Re: Art historians are using a process known as infrared [#permalink]

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10 Mar 2015, 03:02
Art historians are using a process known as infrared scanning in analyzing the Mona Lisa to determine if it has been altered since completion and if Leonardo da Vinci first sketched the figure in black, as done by many artists of the time.

(A) if it has been altered since completion and if Leonardo da Vinci first sketched the figure in black, as done
if_clause is used inappropriately to express the intended meaning of the sentence
"done" must be converted to "did"

(B) if it had been altered since completion and if Leonardo da Vinci first sketched the figure in black, a practice employed

(C) whether it has been altered since completion and whether Leonardo da Vinci first sketched the figure in black, a practice employed

(D) whether it was altered since completion and whether Leonardo da Vinci first sketched the figure in black, as was done

(E) whether it had been altered since completion and whether Leonardo da Vinci first sketched the figure in black, a practice done

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Re: Art historians are using a process known as infrared [#permalink]

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15 Apr 2015, 06:57
gijoedude wrote:
Confused between C and E. Messed up the "has been" and "had been". Can someone please explain the difference between the two and when to use what?

The sentence says artists uses particular tech. to determine whether or not the Mona Lisa was altered in past. If it were altered the then the effect would still be present . As we are supposed to use Present perfect for the processes/events started in past and still continuing or if they have effect which is still present. Thus present perfect is apt to use.

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Re: Art historians are using a process known as infrared [#permalink]

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15 Apr 2015, 07:40
Art historians are using a process known as infrared scanning in analyzing the Mona Lisa to determine
if it has been altered since completion and if Leonardo da Vinci first sketched the figure in black, as done by many artists of the time.

(A) if it has been altered since completion and if Leonardo da Vinci first sketched the figure in black, as done
Use of "IF" to show uncertainty is not correct. Whether is more appropriate here. "As done" introduces a comparison in a new clause, nevertheless the clause does not have a subject.

(B) if it had been altered since completion and if Leonardo da Vinci first sketched the figure in black, a practice employed
this choice has the same error - if. Furthermore, this choice replaces present perfect (has been..) with past perfect (had been..). To show an action started in the past, but with effects in the present, present perfect must be used.

(C) whether it has been altered since completion and whether Leonardo da Vinci first sketched the figure in black, a practice employed
this is the correct answers. The uncertainty is presented with "whether". The entities are parallel: whether Pronoun+verb || whether Noun+verb.
In addition, this answer choice corrects the error from the original sentence by changing the clause "as done.." with "a practice employed", which is a noun+noun modifier.

(D) whether it was altered since completion and whether Leonardo da Vinci first sketched the figure in black, as was done
although this answer choice corrects the IF error, it replaces present perfect with past passive voice "was altered". the error with clause at the end of the sentence still persists.

(E) whether it had been altered since completion and whether Leonardo da Vinci first sketched the figure in black, a practice done
same error as in B with past perfect.

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Re: Art historians are using a process known as infrared [#permalink]

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26 May 2016, 23:42
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Re: Art historians are using a process known as infrared [#permalink]

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02 Jun 2016, 03:38
nitya34 wrote:
Art historians are using a process known as infrared scanning in analyzing the Mona Lisa to determine if it has been altered since completion and if Leonardo da Vinci first sketched the figure in black, as done by many artists of the time.

(A) if it has been altered since completion and if Leonardo da Vinci first sketched the figure in black, as done
(B) if it had been altered since completion and if Leonardo da Vinci first sketched the figure in black, a practice employed
(C) whether it has been altered since completion and whether Leonardo da Vinci first sketched the figure in black, a practice employed
(D) whether it was altered since completion and whether Leonardo da Vinci first sketched the figure in black, as was done
(E) whether it had been altered since completion and whether Leonardo da Vinci first sketched the figure in black, a practice done

If is used to show a cause-effect relationship, which is not the intended meaning here. Hence, A & B are eliminated.

The usage of 'since' indicates that present perfect tense should be used. Thus, eliminating D & E

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Re: Art historians are using a process known as infrared [#permalink]

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04 Jun 2016, 02:47
jainu wrote:
Art historians are using a process known as infrared scanning in analyzing the Mona Lisa to determine if it has been altered since completion and if Leonardo da Vinci first sketched the figure in black, as done by many artists of the time.
(A) if it has been altered since completion and if Leonardo da Vinci first sketched the figure in black, as done
(B) if it had been altered since completion and if Leonardo da Vinci first sketched the figure in black, a practice employed
(C) whether it has been altered since completion and whether Leonardo da Vinci first sketched the figure in black, a practice employed
(D) whether it was altered since completion and whether Leonardo da Vinci first sketched the figure in black, as was done
(E) whether it had been altered since completion and whether Leonardo da Vinci first sketched the figure in black, a practice done

The structure of sentence clearly implies that scientists are trying to determine something and hence we need to use 'whether'. Secondly, usage of since demands that we use present perfect tense because the action has not completed. Hence C is right..

look at choice c.
i think both present perfect and past simple is ok, both c and d can be correct at this point. because we can say alter as an action whose effect lingers until present or an action terminating in the past.

so, the reason to eliminate choice d is that "as was.. " refer to subject of preceding clause. no logic.
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Re: Art historians are using a process known as infrared [#permalink]

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27 Jun 2016, 04:01
My problem with 'Option C' is that with the usage of word 'has been' it indicates an action that started in the past and is still ongoing. How can the alteration be a continuous process since completion.?

I do agree that 'the practice employed' sounds way better than other options.

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Re: Art historians are using a process known as infrared [#permalink]

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28 Jun 2016, 19:43
if is for one condition , whether is for two choices. confused !
Lets look at tenses first. below is an explanation for that.

(A) if it has been altered since completion and if Leonardo da Vinci first sketched the figure in black, as done - not OK with done, did can be used.
(B) if it had been altered since completion and if Leonardo da Vinci first sketched the figure in black, a practice employed - Had been altered is not correct.
(C) whether it has been altered since completion and whether Leonardo da Vinci first sketched the figure in black, a practice employed - tense is right in all the clases.
(D) whether it was altered since completion and whether Leonardo da Vinci first sketched the figure in black, as was done - not OK with done, did can be used.
(E) whether it had been altered since completion and whether Leonardo da Vinci first sketched the figure in black, a practice - not OK with done, did can be used.

i would have prefered B if they have used' has in place of had.

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Re: Art historians are using a process known as infrared [#permalink]

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31 Aug 2017, 02:37
Was stuck between C and D and picked D. At the time, this was my reasoning - I want to know how its wrong - and what is error in the recognition of tenses:

C) whether it has been altered since completion and whether Leonardo da Vinci first sketched the figure in black, a practice employed - has been - present perfect - this means this alteration started now and still is happening. So how is it right? Isn't the investigation for figuring out of was altered at some point in the past, not the present?
(D) whether it was altered since completion and whether Leonardo da Vinci first sketched the figure in black, as was done 'was altered' - meant the alteration happened and finished as well - why is this wrong?

Would love to read a detailed explanation on this!

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Art historians are using a process known as infrared [#permalink]

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31 Aug 2017, 02:54
narendran1990 wrote:
My problem with 'Option C' is that with the usage of word 'has been' it indicates an action that started in the past and is still ongoing. How can the alteration be a continuous process since completion.?

I do agree that 'the practice employed' sounds way better than other options.

Hello narendran1990,

I am not sure if you still have this doubt. Nonetheless, I would be glad to present my two cents here.

Present perfect tense is also used:

1. for an action that took place in the recent past and the effect of which is felt or relevant in the present.

2. for an action that has taken place for sure but the time frame of which is not definite.

Use of has been altered is correct in Choice C as the sentence intends to say whether any changes have been made to Mona Lisa after it was completed. The alteration was done in the past sometime but still stays and hence is relevant in the present.

Hope this helps.
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Re: Art historians are using a process known as infrared [#permalink]

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31 Aug 2017, 03:07
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Was stuck between C and D and picked D. At the time, this was my reasoning - I want to know how its wrong - and what is error in the recognition of tenses:

C) whether it has been altered since completion and whether Leonardo da Vinci first sketched the figure in black, a practice employed - has been - present perfect - this means this alteration started now and still is happening. So how is it right? Isn't the investigation for figuring out of was altered at some point in the past, not the present?
(D) whether it was altered since completion and whether Leonardo da Vinci first sketched the figure in black, as was done 'was altered' - meant the alteration happened and finished as well - why is this wrong?

Would love to read a detailed explanation on this!

Please read my response to narendran1990 right above this post to know why usage of has been altered is correct in Choice C.

In Choice D, use of simple past tense verb was altered in incorrect because with since, we use present perfect tense verb to show the relevance of the action in the present.

Also the expression a practice employed by many artists is way better than as was done by many artists. In fact, the subject for the verb was done is not clear.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
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Re: Art historians are using a process known as infrared   [#permalink] 31 Aug 2017, 03:07

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