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Art restorers who have been studying the factors that cause Renaissanc

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Art restorers who have been studying the factors that cause Renaissanc  [#permalink]

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Official Guide for GMAT Verbal Review, 2nd Edition

Practice Question
Question No.: 33
Page: 128

Art restorers who have been studying the factors that cause Renaissance oil paintings to deteriorate physically when subject to climatic changes have found that the oil paint used in these paintings actually adjusts to these changes well. The restorers therefore hypothesize that it is a layer of material called gesso, which is under the paint, that causes the deterioration.

Which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the restorers’ hypothesis?

(A) Renaissance oil paintings with a thin layer of gesso are less likely to show deterioration in response to climatic changes than those with a thicker layer.

(B) Renaissance oil paintings are often painted on wooden panels, which swell when humidity increases and contract when it declines.

(C) Oil paint expands and contracts readily in response to changes in temperature, but it absorbs little water and so is little affected by changes in humidity.

(D) An especially hard and nonabsorbent type of gesso was the raw material for moldings on the frames of Renaissance oil paintings.

(E) Gesso layers applied by Renaissance painters typically consisted of a coarse base layer onto which several increasingly fine-grained layers were applied.

Originally posted by WaterFlowsUp on 16 Oct 2013, 06:40.
Last edited by hazelnut on 17 May 2018, 15:12, edited 3 times in total.
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Re: Art restorers who have been studying the factors that cause Renaissanc  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Oct 2013, 20:27
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(A) Renaissance oil paintings with a thin layer of gesso are less likely to show deterioration in response to climatic changes than those with a thicker layer.--- CORRECT, because this shows that the less the gesso, the less deterioration.
More gesso leads to more deterioration.

(B) Renaissance oil paintings are often painted on wooden panels, which swell when humidity increases and contract when it declines.--- Weakening the hypothesis because this says wood panels could be to blame for deterioration.
(C) Oil paint expands and contracts readily in response to changes in temperature, but it absorbs little water and so is little affected by changes in humidity. --- This supports but only talks about oil paint. But the hypothesis is about Gesso and not oil paints.
(D) An especially hard and nonabsorbent type of gesso was the raw material for moldings on the frames of Renaissance oil paintings.--- Type of gesso is irrelevant. We are only concerned about how it affects the deterioration.
(E) Gesso layers applied by Renaissance painters typically consisted of a coarse base layer onto which several increasingly fi ne-grained layers were applied.--- Irrelevant. Does not show us the effect of Gesso.
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Re: Art restorers who have been studying the factors that cause Renaissanc  [#permalink]

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Ankita1122 wrote:
Hi there, quick one:

I'm trying to understand why option D is an option anyway? What are they trying to test with that option? Even if they trick you to believe that there is a connection between the gesso used in the frames and the gesso used under the oil paint - why would the qualities of "hard and nonabsorbent type" trick you... Not sure if I am missing something here or if this option is HIGHLY irrelevant... Thanks in advance.


Good question - and actually I love "why is <wrong answer> even an answer anyway?" The more you can do that, the easier these are! I've often found in teaching classes one of the unanticipated challenges is trying to explain certain wrong answers...when there are so many things wrong with them, you don't really want to try to make them "close," you know?

On this one I think there's a "Think Like the Tentmaker" kind of lesson here with D. One reason it's there is that people who don't really get (or take the time to understand) the argument often choose answers that "feel familiar," and an easy way to do that is just to repeat language from the passage. D has "Renaissance," "gesso" - all the important words from the stimulus, so you'll get people who just think on feel that "hey this is really similar to the passage" and pick it, especially if in a rush.

But more interesting to me - take a look at that modifier "which is under the paint" in the conclusion. Without that modifier, I think I'd see one of the gaps in the argument as "hey how do we even know there's gesso in these paintings?" Gesso is first introduced in the conclusion sentence itself, so I could see someone who doesn't take note of that modifier thinking "I want to find an answer that establishes that gesso is in these Renaissance paintings to begin with," and D does do that. Of course, the argument itself has already established that these paintings include gesso, but if you don't see that you're right to be looking for that connection.

And this is something I've seen the testmaker do a fair bit - a trap answer to a strengthen question can restate information you already had (Data Sufficiency does this too), so it definitely feels relevant...it just doesn't add any new value to the argument, so it doesn't strengthen it.
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Re: Art restorers who have been studying the factors that cause Renaissanc  [#permalink]

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akashb106 wrote:
(A) Renaissance oil paintings with a thin layer of gesso are less likely to show deterioration in response to climatic changes than those with a thicker layer.--- CORRECT, because this shows that the less the gesso, the less deterioration.
More gesso leads to more deterioration.

(B) Renaissance oil paintings are often painted on wooden panels, which swell when humidity increases and contract when it declines.--- Weakening the hypothesis because this says wood panels could be to blame for deterioration.
(C) Oil paint expands and contracts readily in response to changes in temperature, but it absorbs little water and so is little affected by changes in humidity. --- This supports but only talks about oil paint. But the hypothesis is about Gesso and not oil paints.
(D) An especially hard and nonabsorbent type of gesso was the raw material for moldings on the frames of Renaissance oil paintings.--- Type of gesso is irrelevant. We are only concerned about how it affects the deterioration.
(E) Gesso layers applied by Renaissance painters typically consisted of a coarse base layer onto which several increasingly fi ne-grained layers were applied.--- Irrelevant. Does not show us the effect of Gesso.

How does the amount of gesso count? There is no such information in the stem. It says, used gesso => less resistant.
IMO D could be a good candidate, since it infers that to mold the frames they had to use gesso, although it speaks of a specific type of gesso which makes it less appealing.
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Re: Art restorers who have been studying the factors that cause Renaissanc  [#permalink]

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NandishSS wrote:
WaterFlowsUp wrote:
Official Guide for GMAT Verbal Review, 2nd Edition

Practice Question
Question No.: 33
Page: 128
Difficulty:


Art restorers who have been studying the factors that cause Renaissance oil paintings to deteriorate physically when subject to climatic changes have found that the oil paint used in these paintings actually adjusts to these changes well. The restorers therefore hypothesize that it is a layer of material called gesso,which is under the paint, that causes the deterioration.

Which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the restorers’ hypothesis?

(A) Renaissance oil paintings with a thin layer of gesso are less likely to show deterioration in response to climatic changes than those with a thicker layer.
(B) Renaissance oil paintings are often painted on wooden panels, which swell when humidity increases and contract when it declines.
(C) Oil paint expands and contracts readily in response to changes in temperature, but it absorbs little water and so is little affected by changes in humidity.
(D) An especially hard and nonabsorbent type of gesso was the raw material for moldings on the frames of Renaissance oil paintings.
(E) Gesso layers applied by Renaissance painters typically consisted of a coarse base layer onto which several increasingly fine-grained layers were applied.


Hi Experts,

How can (A) supports ? More or less how does it matter. Use Gesso ---> Cause deterioration.

Thanks
Nandish


Hi NandishSS ,
(A) Renaissance oil paintings with a thin layer of gesso are less likely to show deterioration in response to climatic changes than those with a thicker layer.
- On using negation test on answer A, the argument falls apart. If Gesso was not responsible for the deterioration, then the amount of Gesso used in an Oil painting will have no effect on deterioration. But since as per A, the likelihood to show deterioration does increase with the amount of Gesso used.

Hope this helps!! :)
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Re: Art restorers who have been studying the factors that cause Renaissanc  [#permalink]

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Art restorers who have been studying the factors that cause Renaissance oil paintings to deteriorate physically when subject to climatic changes have found that the oil paint used in these paintings actually adjusts to these changes well. The restorers therefore hypothesize that it is a layer of material called gesso,which is under the paint, that causes the deterioration.

Which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the restorers’ hypothesis?

(A) Renaissance oil paintings with a thin layer of gesso are less likely to show deterioration in response to climatic changes than those with a thicker layer.
(B) Renaissance oil paintings are often painted on wooden panels, which swell when humidity increases and contract when it declines.
(C) Oil paint expands and contracts readily in response to changes in temperature, but it absorbs little water and so is little affected by changes in humidity.
(D) An especially hard and nonabsorbent type of gesso was the raw material for moldings on the frames of Renaissance oil paintings.
(E) Gesso layers applied by Renaissance painters typically consisted of a coarse base layer onto which several increasingly fi ne-grained layers were applied.

Stimulus : Contains Argument with conclusion that "gesso causes deterioration of paintings".

Argument type : strong.

Question stem : Take answer choices to be true : Family 2 ( Assumption / strengthen / resolve the paradox).

Keeping this in mind lets attack the answer choices.

(A) Renaissance oil paintings with a thin layer of gesso are less likely to show deterioration in response to climatic changes than those with a thicker layer.
Change in gesso layer thickness results in change in resistance, New information is ok for family 2 : Contender

(B) Renaissance oil paintings are often painted on wooden panels, which swell when humidity increases and contract when it declines.
Gives us cause other than geeso : Incorrect

(C) Oil paint expands and contracts readily in response to changes in temperature, but it absorbs little water and so is little affected by changes in humidity.
Talk only of the oil paint and why oil paints are little effected by humidity : Incorrect

(D) An especially hard and nonabsorbent type of gesso was the raw material for moldings on the frames of Renaissance oil paintings.
especially hard and nonabsorbent type gesso does not make it prone to deterioration. Incorrect

(E) Gesso layers applied by Renaissance painters typically consisted of a coarse base layer onto which several increasingly fi ne-grained layers were applied.
coarse base layer .... etc .. does not make gesso prone to deterioration Incorrect.

A is the answer
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Re: Art restorers who have been studying the factors that cause Renaissanc  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Jun 2018, 05:38
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Option A most strongly supports the restorers’ hypothesis that a layer of material called gesso, which is under the paint, that causes the deterioration.

Option A says just that in GMAT language however if you simplify this option says - More Gesso -> More Deterioration.
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Re: Art restorers who have been studying the factors that cause Renaissanc  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Apr 2019, 10:25
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Leonaann wrote:
why does the thickness of the layer of gesso matter? please help.

The restorers hypothesize that "it is a layer of material called gesso, which is under the paint, that causes the deterioration" of Renaissance oil paintings.

To answer the question, we are looking for the answer choice that "most strongly supports" this hypothesis.

Take a look at answer choice (A):
Quote:
(A) Renaissance oil paintings with a thin layer of gesso are less likely to show deterioration in response to climatic changes than those with a thicker layer.

This answer choice tells us that paintings with less gesso (a thinner layer), are less likely to show deterioration. Or, in other words, paintings with more gesso (a thicker layer), are more likely to deteriorate. This information supports the idea that gesso is the culprit causing the paintings to deteriorate, because there is a direct relationship between the amount of gesso used and the deterioration of the painting. (A) is the correct answer.

I hope that helps!
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Re: Art restorers who have been studying the factors that cause Renaissanc  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Jun 2019, 09:25
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Hi everyone! I see lots of great responses to questions, so I'm just adding my thoughts here. If for whatever reason you would still like another perspective, my thoughts are below.

Quote:
Art restorers who have been studying the factors that cause Renaissance oil paintings to deteriorate physically when subject to climatic changes have found that the oil paint used in these paintings actually adjusts to these changes well. The restorers therefore hypothesize that it is a layer of material called gesso, which is under the paint, that causes the deterioration.

Which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the restorers’ hypothesis?

(A) Renaissance oil paintings with a thin layer of gesso are less likely to show deterioration in response to climatic changes than those with a thicker layer.
(B) Renaissance oil paintings are often painted on wooden panels, which swell when humidity increases and contract when it declines.
(C) Oil paint expands and contracts readily in response to changes in temperature, but it absorbs little water and so is little affected by changes in humidity.
(D) An especially hard and nonabsorbent type of gesso was the raw material for moldings on the frames of Renaissance oil paintings.
(E) Gesso layers applied by Renaissance painters typically consisted of a coarse base layer onto which several increasingly fine-grained layers were applied.

1. Read and compartmentalize - I read the question first before the stem. I find that by reading the question first, I change the perspective from which I read the passage. If you're a fairly fast reader, I think this is a beneficial way to approach CR and the redundancy of potentially reading the question twice should not make any material difference in time management. Onto the meat - fairly straight forward passage with 2 sentences in the structure of premise followed-up by conclusion.

2. Pre-think when possible - always! The first thing I think of is 'mo Gesso, mo problems'. It's actually the only thing that immediately pops into my head and I don't like to spend time pre-thinking for really more than 10 seconds so I move on to the choices with the questions in mind.

3. Find 4 wrong answers
    (A) Renaissance oil paintings with a thin layer of gesso are less likely to show deterioration in response to climatic changes than those with a thicker layer. - Bingo! This hits the nail on the head right away. It's so spot on with my rethinking that I'm a touch suspect. However, the fact that the Gesso is under the painting and the quantity of gesso is positively correlated with the amount of deterioration confirms the conclusion, which is the restorers' hypothesis.

    (B) Renaissance oil paintings are often painted on wooden panels, which swell when humidity increases and contract when it declines.This does not have any impact on the restorers' hypothesis that the amount of Gesso under a painting is positively correlated to the amount of deterioration exhibited. This answer choice doesn't even touch the topic of deterioration.

    (C) Oil paint expands and contracts readily in response to changes in temperature, but it absorbs little water and so is little affected by changes in humidity. Again, this does not address what gesso has to do with deterioration. Oil paint's sensitivity to temperature changes may be true; however, this activity does not touch on what gesso has to do with deterioration.

    (D) An especially hard and nonabsorbent type of gesso was the raw material for moldings on the frames of Renaissance oil paintings.- The characteristics of gesso here has not been linked to the deterioration of oil paintings. If you were tempted by this answer choice, I think that the chances are that you did not have the conclusion in mind, and were tempted by the similar language of the answer choice. I've found that it's easiest to make a mistake like this when you haven't fully absorbed/understood the passage.

    (E) Gesso layers applied by Renaissance painters typically consisted of a coarse base layer onto which several increasingly fine-grained layers were applied - This may have been a regular practice, but it is not linked to the deterioration of oil paintings. I also realize I now sound like a broken record here =)


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Re: Art restorers who have been studying the factors that cause Renaissanc  [#permalink]

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uc26 wrote:
Hi nightblade354,

I have a quick question. I marked the correct answer to this question but i unfortunately eliminated B for the wrong reason. I noticed that it does not mention anything about gesso having any impact on the paintings. So cannot be a candidate.
I, however, now notice that B presents an alternate cause for the deterioration and this infact weakens the argument. So that is why it is out.
My question is- Could B have been another strengthener if it said: "Renaissance oil paintings are often painted on wooden panels, which respond well to climatic changes"
Because in this case, it would mean eliminating an alternate cause for the deterioration thereby strengthening the argument, correct?

Thanks and Regards,
Udit


I'd like to not speculate as to whether this would be a true strengthener. Does it help? To a certain extent. It certainly doesn't weaken the argument. But certain assumptions would need to be made to make it a strengthener (such as assuming that we only have paint, gesso, and the wooden frame on the painting).
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New post 08 Dec 2014, 02:47
Hi,

All D is trying to say is the type of material that gesso is, it in no way supports the hypothesis. That is why D is wrong.
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New post 14 Apr 2016, 09:56
Conclusion: Guesso causes deterioration of paintings
Premise: Paint adjusts well to climatic changes

Something which says guesso doesn't adjust well to climatic changes will support the conclusion.
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New post 04 May 2016, 15:08
Prethink: Need a statement that says something about how Gesso causes the damage.

A. Less Gesso = less damage
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Re: Art restorers who have been studying the factors that cause Renaissanc  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Jan 2017, 19:19
WaterFlowsUp wrote:
Official Guide for GMAT Verbal Review, 2nd Edition

Practice Question
Question No.: 33
Page: 128
Difficulty:


Art restorers who have been studying the factors that cause Renaissance oil paintings to deteriorate physically when subject to climatic changes have found that the oil paint used in these paintings actually adjusts to these changes well. The restorers therefore hypothesize that it is a layer of material called gesso,which is under the paint, that causes the deterioration.

Which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the restorers’ hypothesis?

(A) Renaissance oil paintings with a thin layer of gesso are less likely to show deterioration in response to climatic changes than those with a thicker layer.
(B) Renaissance oil paintings are often painted on wooden panels, which swell when humidity increases and contract when it declines.
(C) Oil paint expands and contracts readily in response to changes in temperature, but it absorbs little water and so is little affected by changes in humidity.
(D) An especially hard and nonabsorbent type of gesso was the raw material for moldings on the frames of Renaissance oil paintings.
(E) Gesso layers applied by Renaissance painters typically consisted of a coarse base layer onto which several increasingly fine-grained layers were applied.


Hi Experts,

How can (A) supports ? More or less how does it matter. Use Gesso ---> Cause deterioration.

Thanks
Nandish
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Re: Art restorers who have been studying the factors that cause Renaissanc  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Jan 2017, 10:27
NandishSS wrote:
WaterFlowsUp wrote:
Official Guide for GMAT Verbal Review, 2nd Edition

Practice Question
Question No.: 33
Page: 128
Difficulty:


Art restorers who have been studying the factors that cause Renaissance oil paintings to deteriorate physically when subject to climatic changes have found that the oil paint used in these paintings actually adjusts to these changes well. The restorers therefore hypothesize that it is a layer of material called gesso,which is under the paint, that causes the deterioration.

Which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the restorers’ hypothesis?

(A) Renaissance oil paintings with a thin layer of gesso are less likely to show deterioration in response to climatic changes than those with a thicker layer.
(B) Renaissance oil paintings are often painted on wooden panels, which swell when humidity increases and contract when it declines.
(C) Oil paint expands and contracts readily in response to changes in temperature, but it absorbs little water and so is little affected by changes in humidity.
(D) An especially hard and nonabsorbent type of gesso was the raw material for moldings on the frames of Renaissance oil paintings.
(E) Gesso layers applied by Renaissance painters typically consisted of a coarse base layer onto which several increasingly fine-grained layers were applied.


Hi Experts,

How can (A) supports ? More or less how does it matter. Use Gesso ---> Cause deterioration.

Thanks
Nandish


The post by Skywalker18 explains your query. I would just add that for strengthening question, negation of the correct option need not break down the argument - it just weakens the argument. Only for assumption type question such breaking down test is required. Moreover my personal experience is that easy and moderate CR's can be solved faster if negation tests are NOT used - it is more efficient to use negation ONLY for tough assumption questions in which the last two options after elimination of the rest cannot be decided on. However solving strategy may vary from person to person, and one needs to select the best suited for himself / herself.
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New post 16 Aug 2017, 21:42
Renaissance paintings are subject to deterioration due to changes in climate, but their actual paint is not a factor in this deterioration. Statement 'A' supports the hypothesis.
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Re: Art restorers who have been studying the factors that cause Renaissanc  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Aug 2017, 06:23
WaterFlowsUp wrote:
Official Guide for GMAT Verbal Review, 2nd Edition

Practice Question
Question No.: 33
Page: 128
Difficulty:


Art restorers who have been studying the factors that cause Renaissance oil paintings to deteriorate physically when subject to climatic changes have found that the oil paint used in these paintings actually adjusts to these changes well. The restorers therefore hypothesize that it is a layer of material called gesso,which is under the paint, that causes the deterioration.

Which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the restorers’ hypothesis?

(A) Renaissance oil paintings with a thin layer of gesso are less likely to show deterioration in response to climatic changes than those with a thicker layer.
(B) Renaissance oil paintings are often painted on wooden panels, which swell when humidity increases and contract when it declines.
(C) Oil paint expands and contracts readily in response to changes in temperature, but it absorbs little water and so is little affected by changes in humidity.
(D) An especially hard and nonabsorbent type of gesso was the raw material for moldings on the frames of Renaissance oil paintings.
(E) Gesso layers applied by Renaissance painters typically consisted of a coarse base layer onto which several increasingly fi ne-grained layers were applied.


(A) Renaissance oil paintings with a thin layer of gesso are less likely to show deterioration in response to climatic changes than those with a thicker layer. Supports the hypothesis. Gesso impacts the deterioration.
(B) Renaissance oil paintings are often painted on wooden panels, which swell when humidity increases and contract when it declines. Irrelevant to the problem in hand.
(C) Oil paint expands and contracts readily in response to changes in temperature, but it absorbs little water and so is little affected by changes in humidity. Irrelevant.
(D) An especially hard and nonabsorbent type of gesso was the raw material for moldings on the frames of Renaissance oil paintings. Good to know. But does not tell how it leads or does not lead to deterioration.
(E) Gesso layers applied by Renaissance painters typically consisted of a coarse base layer onto which several increasingly fine-grained layers were applied Not concerned about how the gesso layers are applied. We only want to know how it impacts the deterioration.
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Re: Art restorers who have been studying the factors that cause Renaissanc  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Nov 2017, 10:58
this question is important b/c the source is from OV Guide.
The question is hard b/c D is a good trap. D is correct if D has one more assumption that connects the nonabsorbent type and the deterioration.
On the other hand, A is a common pattern that gives a correlation between gesso and the deterioration.
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Art restorers who have been studying the factors that cause Renaissanc  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 18 Aug 2018, 05:57
Hi mikemcgarry, GMATNinjaTwo, GMATNinja, MagooshExpert Carolyn,
sayantanc2
VeritasPrepKarishma

I struggle with B , I genuinely need your helps.
I read lots of explanations, which say that B weakens the argument because B implies another cause.
However, I think of B as strengthen.
in the argument, oil paint can adjust to the climate change, and author eliminates oil paint as the cause of deterioration.
similarly,B states that wooden panels, like oil paint, are good at adjusting to the climate. so wooden panels, as oil paint does, help adjusting to the climate changes, B eliminates one possible cause deterioration.


experts, please help.


thanks in advance

Have a nice day

>_~

Originally posted by zoezhuyan on 18 Aug 2018, 05:00.
Last edited by zoezhuyan on 18 Aug 2018, 05:57, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Art restorers who have been studying the factors that cause Renaissanc  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Aug 2018, 05:23
A

Strengthens the argument, when a thick layer of gesso is applied, it causes more deterioration.
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Re: Art restorers who have been studying the factors that cause Renaissanc   [#permalink] 18 Aug 2018, 05:23

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