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As a baby emerges from the darkness of the womb with a rudimentary sen

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As a baby emerges from the darkness of the womb with a rudimentary sen  [#permalink]

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As a baby emerges from the darkness of the womb with a rudimentary sense of vision, it would be rated about 20/500, or legally blind if it were an adult with such vision.


(A) As a baby emerges from the darkness of the womb with a rudimentary sense of vision, it would be rated about 20/500, or legally blind if it were an adult with such vision.

(B) A baby emerges from the darkness of the womb with a rudimentary sense of vision that would be rated about 20/500, or legally blind as an adult.

(C) As a baby emerges from the darkness of the womb, its rudimentary sense of vision would be rated about 20/500; qualifying it to be legally blind if an adult.

(D) A baby emerges from the darkness of the womb with a rudimentary sense of vision that would be rated about 20/500; an adult with such vision would be deemed legally blind.

(E) As a baby emerges from the darkness of the womb, its rudimentary sense of vision, which would be deemed legally blind for an adult, would be rated about 20/500.




Spoiler: :: ARTICLE
August 15, 1983 | Vol. 122 No. 7

http://content.time.com/time/subscriber/article/0,33009,949745-4,00.html

The baby emerges from the darkness of the womb with a rudimentary sense of vision — it would be rated about 20/500, or "legally blind," as one expert puts it, but eyesight develops rapidly. Newborns start by looking at the edges of things, exploring. Even when the lights are turned out, as infra-red cameras show, an infant's eyes open wide to carry on its investigation of its surroundings. At eight weeks, it can differentiate between shapes of objects as well as colors (generally preferring red, then blue); at three months, it begins to develop stereoscopic vision.

Originally posted by souvik101990 on 10 Dec 2005, 02:16.
Last edited by Bunuel on 30 Sep 2018, 04:24, edited 6 times in total.
Renamed the topic and edited the question.
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Re: As a baby emerges from the darkness of the womb with a rudimentary sen  [#permalink]

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New post 30 Aug 2017, 13:01
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A. As a baby emerges from the darkness of the womb with a rudimentary sense of vision, it would be rated about 20/500, or legally blind if it were an adult with such vision.

That first “it” looks like a problem to me. Because it is the subject of the second clause, “it” will generally refer back to the subject of the first clause – in this case, “a baby.” (For more on this, check out our YouTube webinar on pronouns, or keep an eye on our Topic of the Week list for more articles about GMAT pronouns.)

Anyway, if that first “it” refers to “a baby”, it’s illogical: “a baby would be rated about 20/500…” That doesn’t make sense. It’s the vision that’s rated 20/500. (A) is gone.

Quote:
B. A baby emerges from the darkness of the womb with a rudimentary sense of vision that would be rated about 20/500, or legally blind as an adult.

The pronoun thing isn’t an issue anymore, but the meaning is still warped: “… a rudimentary sense of vision that would be… legally blind as an adult.” The vision wouldn’t be legally blind; the baby would. (B) is out, too.

Quote:
C. As a baby emerges from the darkness of the womb, its rudimentary sense of vision would be rated about 20/500; qualifying it to be legally blind if an adult.

I think we could argue about that “it” after the semicolon. It arguably refers to “vision” here, and that wouldn’t make sense.

But far more importantly, the semicolon doesn’t work, because “qualifying it to be legally blind if an adult” is just a modifier, not a full independent clause. (C) can be eliminated.

Quote:
D. A baby emerges from the darkness of the womb with a rudimentary sense of vision that would be rated about 20/500; an adult with such vision would be deemed legally blind.

Hm, this seems fine. The vision is “rated about 20/500”, and that makes sense. We have full independent clauses on each side of the semicolon. It’s a little bit funky to see the last clause (“an adult with such vision would be deemed legally blind”) so radically transformed from the other answer choices, but there’s nothing at all wrong with it. It’s as clear as it gets. Keep (D).

Quote:
E. As a baby emerges from the darkness of the womb, its rudimentary sense of vision, which would deemed legally blind for an adult, would be rated about 20/500.

Again, we have a “rudimentary sense of vision, which would be deemed legally blind for an adult…” And that makes no sense. (E) can be eliminated, and (D) is the correct answer.
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Re: As a baby emerges from the darkness of the womb with a rudimentary sen  [#permalink]

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New post 13 Mar 2008, 10:52
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As a baby emerges from the darkness of the womb with a rudimentary sense of vision, it would be rated about 20/500, or legally blind if it were an adult with such vision.

A] As a baby emerges form the darkness of the womb with a rudimentary sense of vision, it would be rated about 20/500, or legally blind if it were an adult with such vision.
B] A baby emerges from the darkness of the womb with a rudimentary sense of vision that would be rated about 20/500, or legally blind as an adult.
C] As a baby emerges from the darkness of the womb, its rudimentary sense of vision would be rated about 20/500; qualifying it to be legally blind if an adult.
D] A baby emerges from the darkness of the womb with a rudimentary sense of vision that would be rated about 20/500; an adult with such vision would be deemed legally blind.
E] As a baby emerges from the darkness of the womb, its rudimentary sense of vision, which would be deemed legally blind for an adult, would be rated about 20/500.
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Re: As a baby emerges from the darkness of the womb with a rudimentary sen  [#permalink]

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New post 21 May 2010, 06:06
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[quote]As a baby emerges from the darkness of the womb with a rudimentary sense of vision, it would be rated about 20/500, or legally blind if it were an adult with such vision.

A. As a baby emerges from the darkness of the womb with a rudimentary sense of vision, it would be rated about 20/500, or legally blind if it were an adult with such vision.
B. A baby emerges from the darkness of the womb with a rudimentary sense of vision that would be rated about 20/500, or legally lind as an adult.
C. As a baby emerges from the darkness of the womb, its rudimentary sense of vision would be rated about 20/500; qualifying it to be legally blind if an adult.
D. A baby emerges from the darkness of the womb with a rudimentary sense of vision that would be rated about 20/500; an adult with such vision would be deemed legally blind.
E. As a baby emerges from the darkness of the womb, its rudimentary sense of vision, which would deemed legally blind for an adult, would be rated about 20/500./quote]

A. is out. the 'it' is not clear as to its antecedent. This same unclear pronoun is later repeated. beginning with as and then the subject is 'it.'
B. This is better than A. Still the second part (or legally blind as an adult is referring to vision not the baby).
C. Also begins with as forcing the subject to be sense. Then it has a semicolon followed by a less than complete second part.
D. Good. We have the baby as the subject. then the second part is very clear with a clear subject.
E. The subject again is sense. The core of the sentence is "sense would be rated" The modifiers should not overwhelm the core of the sentence.

D. is best of the five. B is the least worst of the remainders.

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Re: As a baby emerges from the darkness of the womb with a rudimentary sen  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Aug 2013, 04:21
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As a baby emerges from the darkness of the womb with a rudimentary sense of vision, it would be rated about 20/500, or legally blind if it were an adult with such vision.
(A) As a baby emerges from the darkness of the womb with a rudimentary sense of vision, it would be rated about 20/500, or legally blind if it were an adult with such vision. 'it' may refer to sense of vision as well as a baby, and vision cannot 'be blind'
(B) A baby emerges from the darkness of the womb with a rudimentary sense of vision that would be rated about 20/500, or legally blind as an adult. same as A
(C) As a baby emerges from the darkness of the womb, its rudimentary sense of vision would be rated about 20/500; qualifying it to be legally blind if an adult. An integrate sentences should follow a semicolon
(D) A baby emerges from the darkness of the womb with a rudimentary sense of vision that would be rated about 20/500; an adult with such vision would be deemed legally blind. correct. semicolon here can separate two sentence with interlinked meaning.
(E) As a baby emerges from the darkness of the womb, its rudimentary sense of vision, which would be deemed legally blind for an adult, would be rated about 20/500. same as A
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Re: As a baby emerges from the darkness of the womb with a rudimentary sen  [#permalink]

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New post 24 Aug 2018, 22:17
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proabhinav wrote:
Dear All

While D is the correct answer, please can you help me understand the phrase after the semi colon.

Reason am asking is that I understand semi colon should have independent clauses before and after and within D, after colon, an adult such vision .... isn't such vision something unclear or does not have precedent , hence fragment or incorrect sentence.

(D) A baby emerges from the darkness of the womb with a rudimentary sense of vision that would be rated about 20/500; an adult with such vision would be deemed legally blind.

An independent clause must be able to stand on its own grammatically. It doesn't mean that you can't refer to another clause to understand it.

Think of the way you learned to structure a paragraph when you were introduced to formal essay-writing in school. The first sentence introduces an idea. The next one elaborates on this idea, or provides an example to illustrate it. It may well be the case that the second sentence doesn't make sense without the first, but that doesn't mean that there's a grammatical error in it!

Similarly, we'll often use a pronoun in one clause to refer to an antecedent in another. You can basically think about the usage of "such vision" that way - it refers to "20/500," and that's perfectly fine.

I hope that helps!
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Re: As a baby emerges from the darkness of the womb with a rudimentary sen  [#permalink]

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(D). This problem is testing whether or not we understand how to use the semicolon. Both sentences can stand alone.
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Re: As a baby emerges from the darkness of the womb with a rudimentary sen  [#permalink]

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New post 29 Nov 2013, 09:35
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conty911 wrote:
I am also confused about: As a baby emerges from the darkness of the "womb with a rudimentary" ....
"a rudimentary" seems to modify womb rather than baby?
Please clarify this construction.Thanks.


You are reading it as:

"As a baby emerges from the darkness of the (womb with a rudimentary sense of vision"

When you should be grouping it differently as such:

"As a baby {emerges from the (darkness of the womb) } with a rudimentary sense of vision"

How do we know to do this?

We apply the "Cut the Fluff" technique and identify key prepositional words:

1. OF THE WOMB = fluff
2. FROM THE DARKNESS = fluff

The keywords OF and FROM - indicate additional details that you can ignore.

Once you ignore these details, the skeleton becomes:

"As a baby {emerges from the (darkness of the womb) } with a rudimentary sense of vision"

which is:

"As a baby emerges with a rudimentary sense of vision"

So use our "Cut the Fluff" technique to help you find the barebone skeleton of the sentence. Then from there, you can more easily do your analysis.

A video explanation has been provided here:

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Re: As a baby emerges from the darkness of the womb with a rudimentary sen  [#permalink]

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New post 02 Oct 2014, 02:49
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As a baby emerges from the darkness of the womb with a rudimentary sense of vision, it would be rated about 20/500, or legally blind if it were an adult with such vision.

A. As a baby emerges from the darkness of the womb with a rudimentary sense of vision, it would be rated about 20/500, or legally blind if it were an adult with such vision.
B. A baby emerges from the darkness of the womb with a rudimentary sense of vision that would be rated about 20/500, or legally lind as an adult.
C. As a baby emerges from the darkness of the womb, its rudimentary sense of vision would be rated about 20/500; qualifying it to be legally blind if an adult.
D. A baby emerges from the darkness of the womb with a rudimentary sense of vision that would be rated about 20/500; an adult with such vision would be deemed legally blind.
E. As a baby emerges from the darkness of the womb, its rudimentary sense of vision, which would deemed legally blind for an adult, would be rated about 20/500.

Here's my take on the question:

1. As a baby emerges from the darkness of the womb with a rudimentary sense of vision, it would be rated about 20/500, or legally blind if it were an adult with such vision. - No clue what does this IT refers to. It could refer to emergence of baby or to the rudimentary sense of vision.

2. A baby emerges from the darkness of the womb with a rudimentary sense of vision that would be rated about 20/500, or legally blind as an adult. - Improper construction

3. As a baby emerges from the darkness of the womb, its rudimentary sense of vision would be rated about 20/500; qualifying it to be legally blind if an adult. - Its may refer to baby or to womb. The second issue is that after semicolon, there's a fragment.

4. A baby emerges from the darkness of the womb with a rudimentary sense of vision that would be rated about 20/500; an adult with such vision would be deemed legally blind. THAT clearly refers to rudimentary sense of vision. A semicolon is used before an independent clause. Sentence is correct.

5. As a baby emerges from the darkness of the womb, its rudimentary sense of vision, which would deemed legally blind for an adult, would be rated about 20/500. Its is a possessive pronoun, so it must have a noun before it to which it can refer to. As a baby emerges is not a noun.

Hope this helps you.
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Re: As a baby emerges from the darkness of the womb with a rudimentary sen  [#permalink]

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New post 02 Oct 2014, 03:05
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russ9 wrote:
Can someone please explain why, in C, "qualifying it to be legally blind if an adult" -- why is that not a complete sentence?

It - Subject
To Be - Verb

Why is that a fragment?
Thanks!


Dear Russ9,

Here's my take on the question:

As a baby emerges from the darkness of the womb with a rudimentary sense of vision, it would be rated about 20/500, or legally blind if it were an adult with such vision.

A. As a baby emerges from the darkness of the womb with a rudimentary sense of vision, it would be rated about 20/500, or legally blind if it were an adult with such vision.
B. A baby emerges from the darkness of the womb with a rudimentary sense of vision that would be rated about 20/500, or legally lind as an adult.
C. As a baby emerges from the darkness of the womb, its rudimentary sense of vision would be rated about 20/500; qualifying it to be legally blind if an adult.
D. A baby emerges from the darkness of the womb with a rudimentary sense of vision that would be rated about 20/500; an adult with such vision would be deemed legally blind.
E. As a baby emerges from the darkness of the womb, its rudimentary sense of vision, which would deemed legally blind for an adult, would be rated about 20/500.



1. As a baby emerges from the darkness of the womb with a rudimentary sense of vision, it would be rated about 20/500, or legally blind if it were an adult with such vision. - No clue what does this IT refers to. It could refer to emergence of baby or to the rudimentary sense of vision.

2. A baby emerges from the darkness of the womb with a rudimentary sense of vision that would be rated about 20/500, or legally blind as an adult. - Improper construction

3. As a baby emerges from the darkness of the womb, its rudimentary sense of vision would be rated about 20/500; qualifying it to be legally blind if an adult. - Its may refer to baby or to womb. The second issue is that after semicolon, there's a fragment.

It is a fragment because, there is no proper noun to which it can refer to and if an adult is incomplete. The correct formation could be, if it were an adult. Though the answer would still be wrong, because of It.

4. A baby emerges from the darkness of the womb with a rudimentary sense of vision that would be rated about 20/500; an adult with such vision would be deemed legally blind. THAT clearly refers to rudimentary sense of vision. A semicolon is used before an independent clause. Sentence is correct.

5. As a baby emerges from the darkness of the womb, its rudimentary sense of vision, which would deemed legally blind for an adult, would be rated about 20/500. Its is a possessive pronoun, so it must have a noun before it to which it can refer to. As a baby emerges is not a noun.

Hope this helps you.
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Re: As a baby emerges from the darkness of the womb with a rudimentary sen  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 13 Sep 2016, 09:39
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No one seems to read my post as to why E is incorrect and then are unnecessarily wasting their precious preparation time in getting confused :roll:
There is a concise and well written grammar rule that tells us exactly why E is wrong and i have explained the same rule in great detail in my earlier post.
I will explain it again here by pasting my earlier post as well as throwing more light on the rule.


The correct answer is D

E is blatantly wrong because of the rules of comma (bet you don't know that :) )
I am sure Gmat would never hinge a correct answer only based on commas, there would be more mistakes in a wrong option apart from an incorrect comma
SO the rule of comma, states that a phrase bound by commas is akin to a parenthetical element
Meaning, if there is a phrase in between two commas, then treat that particular phrase as if it is inside a bracket. For all practical purposes, such a phrase conveys non essential or additional information - information that is not of great importance to the reader.

SO Option E is essential saying :-
As a baby emerges from the darkness of the womb, its rudimentary sense of vision,which would deemed legally blind for an adult, would be rated about 20/500.

Now in essence the sentence can be read as:-
As a baby emerges from the darkness of the womb would be rated about 20/500.
This is an absurd sentence with no regard for grammar rules.


We need the phrase "IT"S RUDIMENTARY SENSE OF VISION" as well as "which would deemed legally blind for an adult" because these two phrases tells us that the baby is blind in legal terms. These two phrases are important to grasp the full meaning of the sentence and hence cannot be bound by commas.

Hence E IS WRONG

MORE EXPLANATION ABOUT THE RULE

Use a pair of commas in the middle of a sentence to set off clauses, phrases, and words that are not essential to the meaning of the sentence. Use one comma before to indicate the beginning of the pause and one at the end to indicate the end of the pause.

Here are some clues to help you decide whether the sentence element is essential:

If you leave out the clause, phrase, or word, does the sentence still make sense?
Does the clause, phrase, or word interrupt the flow of words in the original sentence?
If you move the element to a different position in the sentence, does the sentence still make sense?

If you answer "NO" to one or more of these questions, then the element in question is Essential and should NOT EVER be set off with commas like it is done in option E here.

Here are some example sentences with nonessential elements in which we can easily remove the phrase and it will still make complete sense as far as the meaning of the sentence is concerned.

Clause: That Tuesday, which happens to be my birthday, is the only day when I am available to meet.

Phrase: This restaurant has an exciting atmosphere. The food, on the other hand, is rather bland.

Word: I appreciate your hard work. In this case, however, you seem to have over-exerted yourself.

THIS IS THE ONE AND ONLY REASON WHY E IS WRONG
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Last edited by LogicGuru1 on 13 Sep 2016, 09:39, edited 2 times in total.
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Re: As a baby emerges from the darkness of the womb with a rudimentary sen  [#permalink]

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New post 31 Aug 2017, 01:28
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IMO D

As a baby emerges from the darkness of the womb with a rudimentary sense of vision, it would be rated about 20/500, or legally blind if it were an adult with such vision.

(A) As a baby emerges from the darkness of the womb with a rudimentary sense of vision, it would be rated about 20/500, or legally blind if it were an adult with such vision. -- use of 'it' is not clear . Is it referring to baby or vision? - out

(B) A baby emerges from the darkness of the womb with a rudimentary sense of vision that would be rated about 20/500, or legally blind as an adult. -- comparison is not right here . out

(C) As a baby emerges from the darkness of the womb, its rudimentary sense of vision would be rated about 20/500; qualifying it to be legally blind if an adult. -- use of 'it' not clear . It is referring to womb. out

(D) A baby emerges from the darkness of the womb with a rudimentary sense of vision that would be rated about 20/500; an adult with such vision would be deemed legally blind. - this is it . perfect split as new sentence begin after ; correct comparison

(E) As a baby emerges from the darkness of the womb, its rudimentary sense of vision, which would deemed legally blind for an adult, would be rated about 20/500. - same problem of 'it' as stated above .out
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New post 29 Dec 2017, 11:30
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sdlife wrote:
Hi egmat/Shraddha,

Thanks for your response!! Actually, I still have a doubt. In C and E, "its" is not ambiguous and "its" refer to a baby. How is this not a definite error? I totally understand the other errors that make C and E wrong, but what's confusing to me is the usage of "it/its" to refer to a baby. Shouldn't the correct pronoun is his/her/who to refer to a baby? In that context "its" must be wrong.

Thanks!



Hello sdlife,

Thank you for the query. :-)

The pronoun his is specifically used for boys and her specifically for girls. The sentence does not want to suggest that only baby boys are or baby girls are born with a very rudimentary sense of vision.

The sentence intends to convey that any baby is born with a such a vision. Since this reference is not gender specific, use of pronoun it/its for a baby is correct.


Hope this helps. :-)
Thanks.
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Re: As a baby emerges from the darkness of the womb with a rudimentary sen  [#permalink]

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New post 30 Aug 2018, 01:10
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SUPMUN wrote:
Option A: "As a baby emerges from the darkness of the womb with a rudimentary sense of vision, it would be rated about 20/500, or legally blind if it were an adult with such vision"

I was confused between A and D. I somehow felt that there is a meaning change in option D and chose the wrong answer A.

Is the ambiguous usage of "it" the only mistake in option A?


Please clarify.

The usage of "it" is worse than ambiguous in (A). Because "it" is the subject of a clause and "a baby" is the subject of the previous clause, it seems as though "it" is referring to "a baby." Rating a baby 20/500 isn't just nonsensical, it's downright mean. (On a good day, my baby would rate at least a 120 on a 500 point scale.)

Worse still, the clause "if it were an adult with such vision" suggests that a baby could be an adult! I would not want to live in such a world. And neither would that man-baby's poor mother... :oops:
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Re: As a baby emerges from the darkness of the womb with a rudimentary sen  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Aug 2019, 00:37
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Quote:
The construction AS+clause is used for comparison.


How correct is this statement?

The role of the word 'as' is multi- faceted. That "as' can be used in the positive degree is one facet. However, we can also use 'as' for a subordinate conjunction meaning 'because", as done in the choices A, C ,and E.

Therefore A, C, and E are not wrong for lack of comparison. They are eliminated for their warped meaning and unclear pronoun references and the like.
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New post 19 Aug 2019, 00:33
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altairahmad wrote:
daagh GMATNinja egmat Souvik

Hi,

I have a question about answer choice E.

(E) As a baby emerges from the darkness of the womb, its rudimentary sense of vision, which would be deemed legally blind for an adult, would be rated about 20/500.

What is the construction of the sentence ? Is it Subordinating Clause, Independent clause ? (Judging by the comma placement and absence of FANBOYS).


Will appreciate an answer please.

Thanks.
Hi altairahmad,

Yes, it is subordinate clause, independent clause:

As a baby emerges from the darkness of the womb, its rudimentary sense of vision would be rated about 20/500.
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New post 19 Aug 2019, 01:10
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altair wrote

E) As a baby emerges from the darkness of the womb, its rudimentary sense of vision, which would be deemed legally blind for an adult, would be rated about 20/500.

What is the construction of the sentence ? Is it Subordinating Clause, Independent clause ? (Judging by the comma placement and absence of FANBOYS).


You are correct. The IC is inter-spaced with a relative clause modifier, which one can consign to the corner temporarily for clarity. Per se, this is a complex sentence.
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Re: As a baby emerges from the darkness of the womb with a rudimentary sen  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Aug 2019, 04:39
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As a baby emerges from the darkness of the womb with a rudimentary sense of vision, it would be rated about 20/500, or legally blind if it were an adult with such vision.

Hi,
Use of "As" in the beginning of the sentence, in most cases, sets a tone of parallel/simultaneous action.
What the author is trying to say in simpler words is that when a baby emerges from the darkness of the womb, its rudimentary sense of vision is that of a partially blind adult, and if someone wants to rate it, it'd be about 20/500.
So there is no need to set a tone of parallel action. Keeping this in mind, Only D conveys the meaning in a clear and crisp tone.

Quote:
(D) A baby emerges from the darkness of the womb with a rudimentary sense of vision that would be rated about 20/500; an adult with such vision would be deemed legally blind.

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New post 20 Aug 2019, 18:58
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a12bansal wrote:
Hi GMATNinja, daagh , AjiteshArun

Can you please tell me how the below is independent clause in D.

"an adult with such vision would be deemed legally blind."

I ignored it as independent clause because of "Such Vision" .

I am just a beginner. Looking for your help.

Thanks
Hi a12bansal,

The whole with such vision is a modifier (prepositional phrase, adjective for an adult). The such vision (noun phrase) is part of that modifier.

An adult with such vision would be deemed legally blind.

Let's cut this sentence down to:

An adult would be deemed legally blind.

Here it is slightly easier to see that an adult is the subject, and would be deemed is the verb. Now, the sentence is not trying to tell us that every adult would be deemed legally blind. That is where the with such vision comes in: only "an adult with such vision" would be deemed legally blind.
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Re: As a baby emerges from the darkness of the womb with a rudimentary sen  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Nov 2012, 02:06
I am also confused about: As a baby emerges from the darkness of the "womb with a rudimentary" ....
"a rudimentary" seems to modify womb rather than baby?

Please clarify this construction.Thanks.
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Re: As a baby emerges from the darkness of the womb with a rudimentary sen   [#permalink] 16 Nov 2012, 02:06

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