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# As a result of a supernova explosion, every human being on

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As a result of a supernova explosion, every human being on [#permalink]

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23 Oct 2005, 20:15
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As a result of a supernova explosion, every human being on Earth was bombarded on February 23, 1987, by about 100 billion neutrinos; fortunately, neutrinos are harmless elementary particles that are produced in nuclear reactions and that interact very weakly with matter.

(A) neutrinos are harmless elementary particles that are produced in nuclear reactions and that
(B) neutrinos, which are harmless, are elementary particles produced in nuclear reactions and which
(C) neutrinos are harmless elementary particles produced in nuclear reactions and which
(D) these harmless elementary particles are produced in nuclear reactions, and neutrinos
(E) these elementary particles, harmless products of nuclear reactions, are neutrinos that

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Re: As a result of a supernova explosion, every human being on [#permalink]

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10 Mar 2013, 12:46
As a result of a supernova explosion, every human being on Earth was bombarded on February 23, 1987, by about 100 billion neutrinos; fortunately, neutrinos are harmless elementary particles that are produced in nuclear reactions and that interact very weakly with matter.

(A) neutrinos are harmless elementary particles that are produced in nuclear reactions and that
(B) neutrinos, which are harmless, are elementary particles produced in nuclear reactions and which
(C) neutrinos are harmless elementary particles produced in nuclear reactions and which
(D) these harmless elementary particles are produced in nuclear reactions, and neutrinos
(E) these elementary particles, harmless products of nuclear reactions, are neutrinos that

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Re: As a result of a supernova explosion, every human being on [#permalink]

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19 May 2013, 01:59
C neutrinos are harmless elementary particles produced in nuclear reactions and which
this is not parallel: we have neutrinos are and then at the end which..

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Re: As a result of a supernova explosion, every human being on [#permalink]

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19 May 2013, 04:20
All duplicate threads on this topic have been merged.

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Re: As a result of a supernova explosion, every human being on [#permalink]

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21 May 2013, 04:36
it is easy to eliminate B and C.
It is hard to eliminate D and E.

D is wrong because we repeat the subject " Neutrinos". This is redundant and make us thing that the "these particles " and "neutious" are different.

E is wrong because "are neutrios" is not new. "neutrios" is already mentioned in the previous clause.

it takes me a long time to find out the errors in D and E. in the test room, if I am not calm, I can not find out the these errors.

VERY HARD.

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Re: As a result of a supernova explosion, every human being on [#permalink]

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27 May 2014, 00:54
Hello from the GMAT Club VerbalBot!

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Re: As a result of a supernova explosion, every human being on [#permalink]

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30 Jun 2014, 01:33
why E is wrong?

we have no clear reason for which E is wrong.

we have admit that we do not know why E is wrong
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Re: As a result of a supernova explosion, every human being on [#permalink]

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30 Jun 2014, 05:27
doe007 wrote:
Here "produced in nuclear reactions" is not parallel to "which interact very weakly with matter".

Yes, and just to elaborate, this is because produced in nuclear reactions is a phrase, while which interact very weakly with matter is a clause. From a parallelism perspective, phrases are not considered parallel to clauses.

doe007 wrote:
Corrected form of the sentence would have been:
fortunately, neutrinos are harmless elementary particles which are produced in nuclear reactions and which interact very weakly with matter

This is interesting. A minor thing is that one would always expect a comma' before which in all such instances. However, a slightly larger issue is that which would modify harmless elementary particles, the nearest eligible noun-phrase. However, from the context of the sentence, it is apparent that produced in nuclear reactions and interact very weakly with matter are both properties of neutrinos.

Perhaps for this reason, the correction option A uses that (and not which). As a relative pronoun that is more flexible in what it can modify; in other words, that need not necessarily modify the nearest eligible noun-phrase. So, in this case, that would modify neutrinos.

p.s. Our book SC Nirvana discusses differences between which & that, and their application in significant detail. If you can PM you email, I can send you the corresponding section.
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Re: As a result of a supernova explosion, every human being on [#permalink]

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21 Sep 2014, 05:28
B- use of Which
c- SAME AS b
d- these - wrong usage
e- wrong meaning
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Re: As a result of a supernova explosion, every human being on [#permalink]

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04 May 2015, 00:39
(A) neutrinos are harmless elementary particles that are produced in nuclear reactions and that interact
that are produced .... and that interact,
Passive and active voice, isn't something that we are looking for parallelism?

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Re: As a result of a supernova explosion, every human being on [#permalink]

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09 May 2016, 22:24
Hello from the GMAT Club VerbalBot!

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Re: As a result of a supernova explosion, every human being on [#permalink]

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05 Aug 2016, 02:30
As a result of a supernova explosion, every human being on Earth was bombarded on February 23, 1987, by about 100 billion neutrinos; fortunately, neutrinos are harmless elementary particles that are produced in nuclear reactions and that interact very weakly with matter.

(A) neutrinos are harmless elementary particles that are produced in nuclear reactions and that

clear and correct : sub + that clause and that clause , maintains parallelism.

(B) neutrinos, which are harmless, are elementary particles produced in nuclear reactions and which

'and which' breaks parallelism , incorrect . Imp : which is always preceded by comma or a preposition if comma is not present

(C) neutrinos are harmless elementary particles produced in nuclear reactions and which

same as b , incorrect

(D) these harmless elementary particles are produced in nuclear reactions, and neutrinos

These ......, and neutrinos , incorrect usage of pronoun . Awkward construction

(E) these elementary particles, harmless products of nuclear reactions, are neutrinos that

here These refers to elementary particles but in previous clause no where 'elementary particles' mentioned . This is new information of neutrinos . Incorrect.
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Re: As a result of a supernova explosion, every human being on [#permalink]

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23 Jan 2017, 05:36
This looks like option A. .... that are produced and that interact... - maintains parallelism.

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Re: As a result of a supernova explosion, every human being on [#permalink]

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23 Jan 2017, 07:51

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Re: As a result of a supernova explosion, every human being on [#permalink]

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23 Jan 2017, 10:18
As per my opinion....

As a result of a supernova explosion, every human being on Earth was bombarded on February 23, 1987, by about 100 billion neutrinos; fortunately, neutrinos are harmless elementary particles that are produced in nuclear reactions and that interact very weakly with matter.

(A) neutrinos are harmless elementary particles that are produced in nuclear reactions and that....maintain parallelism
(B) neutrinos, which are harmless, are elementary particles produced in nuclear reactions and which....."which" is reffering to nuclear reaction, incorrect
(C) neutrinos are harmless elementary particles produced in nuclear reactions and which......reason is same as of option B
(D) these harmless elementary particles are produced in nuclear reactions, and neutrinos......no clear Antecedent
(E) these elementary particles, harmless products of nuclear reactions, are neutrinos that....no clear Antecedent, changes the meaning of the sentence.

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Re: As a result of a supernova explosion, every human being on [#permalink]

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25 Jan 2017, 02:05
Conquergmat5 wrote:
Hi Verbal Experts,

Can you please explain why the correct answer is "correct" in the question below? This question is from GMAT prep. Your help is greatly appreciated! Thank you!!

As a result of a supernova explosion, every human being on Earth was bombarded on February 23, 1987, by about 100 billion neutrinos; fortunately, neutrinos are harmless elementary particles that are produced in nuclear reactions and that interact very weakly with matter.

(A) neutrinos are harmless elementary particles that are produced in nuclear reactions and that
(B) neutrinos, which are harmless, are elementary particles produced in nuclear reactions and which
(C) neutrinos are harmless elementary particles produced in nuclear reactions and which
(D) these harmless elementary particles are produced in nuclear reactions, and neutrinos
(E) these elementary particles, harmless products of nuclear reactions, are neutrinos that

focus on meaning of "forturnately'. this word connect two main clauses logically.
every human being was bombarded by neutrinous. fortunately, neutrinous are hamrless particle

this is logic. because fortunately show a contrast. in other choices, there is no contrast in which fortunate can be used logically.

this is traditional case of gmat SC.
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Re: As a result of a supernova explosion, every human being on [#permalink]

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25 Jan 2017, 07:37
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bpiyush wrote:

Option C: Notice the parallel structure X AND Y

X = neutrinos are harmless elementary particles produced in nuclear reactions (a complete clause)

Y = which interact very weakly with matter (a modifier)

Y should be a complete clause in order to make the sentence structurally complete. Hence C is wrong.

=====================================================
Another way of looking at the parallel structure in C is :

X = produced in nuclear reactions (past participle modifier)

Y = which interact very weakly with matter ( relative pronoun modifier)

Again the parallelism is faulty (a past participle modifier cannot be made parallel to a relative pronoun modifier).

=====================================================

Option A has correct parallelism structure:

X = that are produced in nuclear reactions (relative pronoun modifier)
Y = that interact very weakly with matter (relative pronoun modifier)

Two relative pronoun modifiers are correctly made parallel. Hence A is correct.

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Re: As a result of a supernova explosion, every human being on [#permalink]

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08 Jul 2017, 02:02
Hi Sayantan,

I have a query:

In option A,

X = that are produced in nuclear reactions - Produced is a verb-ed modifier since neutrinos themselves don't produce
Y = that interact very weakly with matter - interact is a verb

While I agree that there are 2 that clauses, but what is inside the "that" clause is bothering me. Can you help?

Best,
Snigdha

sayantanc2k wrote:
bpiyush wrote:

Option C: Notice the parallel structure X AND Y

X = neutrinos are harmless elementary particles produced in nuclear reactions (a complete clause)

Y = which interact very weakly with matter (a modifier)

Y should be a complete clause in order to make the sentence structurally complete. Hence C is wrong.

=====================================================
Another way of looking at the parallel structure in C is :

X = produced in nuclear reactions (past participle modifier)

Y = which interact very weakly with matter ( relative pronoun modifier)

Again the parallelism is faulty (a past participle modifier cannot be made parallel to a relative pronoun modifier).

=====================================================

Option A has correct parallelism structure:

X = that are produced in nuclear reactions (relative pronoun modifier)
Y = that interact very weakly with matter (relative pronoun modifier)

Two relative pronoun modifiers are correctly made parallel. Hence A is correct.

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Re: As a result of a supernova explosion, every human being on [#permalink]

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18 Jul 2017, 10:54
sayantanc2k

(B) neutrinos, which are harmless, are elementary particles produced in nuclear reactions and which

(C) neutrinos are harmless elementary particles produced in nuclear reactions and which
In option B and C 'which' modifies which noun?
Should 'which' always be preceded with a comma as it is a non essential modifier? Option A has 'that' in place of 'which'. So can we reject option B and C because it has 'which' without commas?

sayantanc2k wrote:
bpiyush wrote:

Option C: Notice the parallel structure X AND Y

X = neutrinos are harmless elementary particles produced in nuclear reactions (a complete clause)

Y = which interact very weakly with matter (a modifier)

Y should be a complete clause in order to make the sentence structurally complete. Hence C is wrong.

=====================================================
Another way of looking at the parallel structure in C is :

X = produced in nuclear reactions (past participle modifier)

Y = which interact very weakly with matter ( relative pronoun modifier)

Again the parallelism is faulty (a past participle modifier cannot be made parallel to a relative pronoun modifier).

=====================================================

Option A has correct parallelism structure:

X = that are produced in nuclear reactions (relative pronoun modifier)
Y = that interact very weakly with matter (relative pronoun modifier)

Two relative pronoun modifiers are correctly made parallel. Hence A is correct.

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Re: As a result of a supernova explosion, every human being on [#permalink]

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18 Jul 2017, 11:14
abhi4212 wrote:
As per my opinion....

As a result of a supernova explosion, every human being on Earth was bombarded on February 23, 1987, by about 100 billion neutrinos; fortunately, neutrinos are harmless elementary particles that are produced in nuclear reactions and that interact very weakly with matter.

(A) neutrinos are harmless elementary particles that are produced in nuclear reactions and that....maintain parallelism
(B) neutrinos, which are harmless, are elementary particles produced in nuclear reactions and which....."which" is reffering to nuclear reaction, incorrect
(C) neutrinos are harmless elementary particles produced in nuclear reactions and which......reason is same as of option B
(D) these harmless elementary particles are produced in nuclear reactions, and neutrinos......no clear Antecedent
(E) these elementary particles, harmless products of nuclear reactions, are neutrinos that....no clear Antecedent, changes the meaning of the sentence.

D & E

Could someone clarify if "these" can point to neutrinos? Why we say that there is no clear antecedent? Is it because of semi-colon?

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Re: As a result of a supernova explosion, every human being on [#permalink]

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20 Jul 2017, 03:18
(B) neutrinos, which are harmless, are elementary particles produced in nuclear reactions and which

(C) neutrinos are harmless elementary particles produced in nuclear reactions and which
In option B and C 'which' modifies which noun?
Should 'which' always be preceded with a comma as it is a non essential modifier? Option A has 'that' in place of 'which'. So can we reject option B and C because it has 'which' without commas?
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Re: As a result of a supernova explosion, every human being on   [#permalink] 20 Jul 2017, 03:18

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