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# At the time of the Mexican agrarian revolution, the most radical facti

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Re: At the time of the Mexican agrarian revolution, the most radical facti  [#permalink]

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25 May 2019, 02:15
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vishalsuri wrote:
At the time of the Mexican agrarian revolution, the most radical faction, that of Zapata and his followers, proposed a return to communal ownership of land, to what had been a pre-Columbian form of ownership respected by the Spaniards.

(A) land, to what had been a pre-Columbian form of ownership respected by the Spaniards

(B) land, a form of ownership of the pre-Columbians and respected by the Spaniards

(C) land, respected by the Spaniards and a pre-Columbian form of ownership

(D) land in which a pre-Columbian form of ownership was respected by the Spaniards

(E) land that had been a pre-Columbian form of ownership respected by the Spaniards

this is very hard.
look at choice A and E.
that clause or similar clause such as "in which" clause of choice D, is used to define a noun. whenever we see this kind of clause, think that there are more than 1 kind of noun, for simplicity, think that there are 2 kinds of noun and one kind of noun is the kind which is defined by "that clause".

so, choice E means there are 2 (in fact more than 1) kinds of ownership, and they return to the kind that had been pre columbian form. this is not logic.

the intended meaning is there is only 1 kind of ownership. in history, there can not be 2 kinds of this ownership. choice E implies that there are many kinds of ownership. this meaning is absurd. choice E is gone.

choice D is wrong for the same reason as choice E is wrong.

touch rule declares that which/that clause should touch to noun modified. but this rule permit us to find the inferiors choice relative to a better choice. this rule is not hard and fast rule by the fact that many OA on og books contain which/that clause which do not touch the noun modifies.

gmat sc is hard because it requires us to be actively to find an error. only when we know this way, we can write. what is "active to find " error.

many times, we understand explanation but can not solve a new problem because we are not active. to be active to find error means we have to have skill.

one skill for problem regarding "that clause" is that

takeaway: whenever we see that clause, we think that there are 2 (more than 1) of the noun, and the sentence says about one kind of the noun which is defined by "that clause"

whenever we see "which" clause, think about cutting off this "which clause". if the remaining sentence after cutting off is good, which clause is correct.

above is example of "active to find error".
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Re: At the time of the Mexican agrarian revolution, the most radical facti  [#permalink]

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21 Dec 2019, 23:21
GMATNinja VeritasKarishma could you please clarify option A and D?
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Re: At the time of the Mexican agrarian revolution, the most radical facti  [#permalink]

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16 May 2020, 03:40
vishalsuri wrote:
At the time of the Mexican agrarian revolution, the most radical faction, that of Zapata and his followers, proposed a return to communal ownership of land, to what had been a pre-Columbian form of ownership respected by the Spaniards.

(A) land, to what had been a pre-Columbian form of ownership respected by the Spaniards

(B) land, a form of ownership of the pre-Columbians and respected by the Spaniards

(C) land, respected by the Spaniards and a pre-Columbian form of ownership

(D) land in which a pre-Columbian form of ownership was respected by the Spaniards

(E) land that had been a pre-Columbian form of ownership respected by the Spaniards

Our main focus should be on ‘a return’ . The underlined part should be comparable to this.
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Re: At the time of the Mexican agrarian revolution, the most radical facti  [#permalink]

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16 May 2020, 11:00
@daagh/ Experts,

Can any one of you help me understand the usage of ",to what had been a pre-Columbian form of ownership respected by the Spaniards". I am confused by this sentence structure. What is the role of "to what"? I have come across this construction and hence unable to understand the meaning and structure.

Thanks,
Parikshit
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Re: At the time of the Mexican agrarian revolution, the most radical facti  [#permalink]

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16 May 2020, 20:42
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Parikshit
The pre-Columbian” era refers to the period in the Americas before the arrival of Columbus in 1492.
Contrary to belief, the Pre Columbian era included various social marvels in the form of architecture, astronomy, and writing systems. The Spanish people who colonized these countries were surprised at the diversity and depth of these cultures. The land ownership pattern that existed in these American countries is one such marvel, which the European invaders respected greatly.
During the agro- evolution, the Zapata group wanted to return to this old system of land ownership as part of the reforms from the then Spanish form of ownership, which had been thrust by the colonizers by brutal military force.
‘To what had been’ refers to the native system that existed in those countries before the Europeans’ colonized them.

I hope the milieu is clear now.
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Re: At the time of the Mexican agrarian revolution, the most radical facti  [#permalink]

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18 May 2020, 15:54
daagh wrote:
At the time of the Mexican agrarian revolution, the most radical faction, that of Zapata and his followers, proposed a return to communal ownership of land, to what had been a pre-Columbian form of ownership respected by the Spaniards.

(A) land, to what had been a pre-Columbian form of ownership respected by the Spaniards ---
(B) land, a form of ownership of the pre-Columbians and respected by the Spaniards
(C) land, respected by the Spaniards and a pre-Columbian form of ownership
(D) land in which a pre-Columbian form of ownership was respected by the Spaniards
(E) land that had been a pre-Columbian form of ownership respected by the Spaniards

POE: Grammar first. B and C are out for faulty parallelism. E is out because of the touch rule of the restrictive pronoun ‘that’, which cannot but modify anything but the land.

Logic: D is out because the communal owners itself was a form of ownership and not one in which another pre-Columbian form of ownership existed. This is a logical error.

A remains although the repetition of ‘to’ might unnerve sometimes. But considering that all others have more serious flaws, A can be safely construed as the best fit.

Sir,
In which cases ,the touch rule gets violated ,please explain it ?

Posted from my mobile device
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Re: At the time of the Mexican agrarian revolution, the most radical facti  [#permalink]

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21 May 2020, 02:44
Why can't we use "that", as used in option E, to refer back to "ownership"?

If this can happen in following example, why can't it happen in above one.

The first-class airline tickets to Antarctica that were purchased using Amber???s retirement savings were worth every penny.
Re: At the time of the Mexican agrarian revolution, the most radical facti   [#permalink] 21 May 2020, 02:44

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# At the time of the Mexican agrarian revolution, the most radical facti

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