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Australian embryologists have found evidence that suggests

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Re: Australian embryologists have found evidence that suggests [#permalink]

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New post 16 Jul 2014, 09:48
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SidKaria wrote:
Australian embryologists have found evidence that suggests that the elephant is descended from an aquatic animal, and its trunk originally evolved as a kind of snorkel.
A. that suggests that the elephant is descended from an aquatic animal, and its trunk originally evolved
B. that has suggested the elephant descended from an aquatic animal, its trunk originally evolving
C. suggesting that the elephant had descended from an aquatic animal with its trunk originally evolving
D. to suggest that the elephant had descended from an aquatic animal and its trunk originally evolved
E. to suggest that the elephant is descended from an aquatic animal and that its trunk originally evolved

[Reveal] Spoiler: Explanation
a) incorrect- parallel clauses start with the same word."that" is missing in the 2nd clause.
can u please explain me how" is descended" correct ? why do we need "is" ??
and why" descended from an aquatic animal " is incorrect. dont understand why if we remove "is" we are only left with a modifier.(as per one of the earlier explanation) descended from an aquatic animal is a modifier. so is descended here not a verb ??
eg.humans evolved from apes. here evolved is a verb.
please explain.

b)incorrect- has-incorrect verb. simnple past tense should be used. only a comma between the two clauses distorts the meaning. it seems that aquatic animal's trunk evoved.


c)incorrect- with after aquatic animals modifies the animals. distorts meaning.
had is incorrect verb.
(according to one of the explanations to this question "had descended" changes the intended meaning ) the meaning of descend here becomes"to pass from higher to lower") please explain.

d) same errors. has-incorrect verb. and no "that"

e)correct.


please help.


Hi Sid,

Thanks for posting your doubt here. :-)

So let's take your doubts in the order you have posted them.

Choice A: Yes, your analysis is correct that we need another "that" to maintain parallelism in the sentence.

Now, use of "is descended" is correct because it denotes that the elephants have evolved from a water animal. We need "is" because this event is a universal fact. This fact holds true for all time in the past, present, and future. When want to convey that someone has come from certain ancestor or ancestry, we use "is/was descended" depending on the context of the usage.

In this choice, "is descended" together is a verb. But in Choice B, "descended" appears to be a modifier because "that" is missing after "has suggested". The way Choice B is worded, it seems to convey that the evidence has suggested the elephant itself and not something about elephant. In such a structure, "descended" seems to be a modifier rather than a verb. Even if used as a verb, "descended" would not be correct as it would give a complete different meaning.

Choice B: You have said that "only a comma between the two clauses distorts the meaning". What lies after comma is not clause as it does not have a verb. This choice is incorrect for the usage of "has suggested the elephant". Also now the choice does not say that the evidence suggests two things.

Choice C: As I have already mentioned, when we want to denote that something has come from an ancestor or ancestry, we use "is/was descended". Any other verb form changes the meaning of the word. The verb "has descended" means it has literally come down from an elevated point.

Choice D: Your analysis of this choice is correct.

Choice E: This choice rectifies all the errors and is the correct one.

Hope this helps. :-)
Thanks.
SJ
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Re: Australian embryologists have found evidence that suggests [#permalink]

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New post 01 Aug 2014, 00:41
"its" in B is ambiguous. the pattern in B do not allow us to infer that "its" refers to "elephant".
b is wong

by contrast, "its" in E grammatically refers to the subject of the previous clause, the elephant. this is no more ambiguous.

E is better without regarding the idioms "be descended from"
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Re: Australian embryologists have found evidence that suggests [#permalink]

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New post 23 Aug 2014, 12:21
Zatarra wrote:
TommyWallach wrote:
Hey All,

(E) to suggest that the elephant is descended from an aquatic animal and that its trunk originally evolved
ANSWER: "descended" and "evolved" are parallel, and everything else is clear.

Hope that helps!

-t

Tommy
Isnt it appropriate to say "elephant has descended" instead of "elephant is descended"


Both the usage are different.
Consider the following example:
A- Elephant is descended from ... : In this descended is a predicate adjective ... similar to the one in sentence " The laundry is washed" . Hence it shows a state of being of the elephant.
Also the sentence can be rewritten as Descended from an aquatic animal, the elephant has a huge trunk.
B- Elephant has descended from an aquatic animal ...: In this sentence "Descend" is used in the capacity of an action verb. Hence it conveys a different mean as in the "elephant is descending from ...."
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Re: Australian embryologists have found evidence that suggests [#permalink]

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New post 11 Sep 2015, 10:47
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Re: Australian embryologists have found evidence that suggests [#permalink]

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New post 27 Dec 2015, 23:12
TommyWallach wrote:

(E) to suggest that the elephant is descended from an aquatic animal and that its trunk originally evolved
ANSWER: "descended" and "evolved" are parallel, and everything else is clear.


-t


Hi,

In my pre-thinking step before looking at the answer choices, I thought that we should have 'was descended' instead of 'is descended' since 'evolved' is in past and the action of descending took place in past. But to my surprise, I found the answer choice in present tense 'is descended'.
Can you please let me know where I have gone wrong in my thinking process?
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Re: Australian embryologists have found evidence that suggests [#permalink]

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New post 21 Jan 2016, 21:03
Amardeep Sharma wrote:
Australian embryologists have found evidence that suggests that the elephant is descended from an aquatic animal, and its trunk originally evolved as a kind of snorkel.

(a)that suggests that the elephant is descended from an aquatic animal, and its trunk originally evolved
(b) that has suggested the elephant descended from an aquatic animal, its trunk originally evolving
(c)suggesting that the elephant had descended from an aquatic animal with its trunk originally evolving
(d) to suggest that the elephant had descended from an aquatic animal and its trunk originally evolving
(e) to suggest that the elephant is descended from an aquatic animal and that its trunk originally evolved

Amar


A That x that is nearly always wrong.
B evidence that hsa suggested, trunk evolving wrong
C had needs another event that happened after that
D same as C
E correct. Also to note, universal true statements should be in present tense.
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Re: Australian embryologists have found evidence that suggests [#permalink]

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New post 23 Jan 2016, 02:41
Hi Experts,

As the OA is E. I have 1 question to ask.

We use infinitive to express intention.
Eg-
Jack excercises daily to get slim.

But in E, there is no intention-
Australian embryologists FOUND evidence.
If we SHOW evidence to do BLAH BLAh BLAH...!!!--> Then I understand because here is the intention.


So, how does FOUND + Intention correct..??

Please assist.
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Re: Australian embryologists have found evidence that suggests [#permalink]

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New post 30 Jan 2016, 22:03
Deleted the wrong post
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Last edited by AryamaDuttaSaikia on 02 Feb 2016, 23:36, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Australian embryologists have found evidence that suggests [#permalink]

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New post 31 Jan 2016, 15:00
AryamaDuttaSaikia wrote:
The answer requires a past perfect tense."The number" refers to the number of applications in the 1970 s which rose to 3000 in the 1990 s. So it refers to a double past action. The action started in the past in the 1970 s and was carried forward to the 90 s. "E" is out because "the number of applications" is redundant out here.



Hi AryamaDuttaSaikia,

I think you posted on wrong thread.
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Re: Australian embryologists have found evidence that suggests [#permalink]

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New post 01 Feb 2016, 04:54
Amardeep Sharma wrote:
Australian embryologists have found evidence that suggests that the elephant is descended from an aquatic animal, and its trunk originally evolved as a kind of snorkel.

(a)that suggests that the elephant is descended from an aquatic animal, and its trunk originally evolved
(b) that has suggested the elephant descended from an aquatic animal, its trunk originally evolving
(c)suggesting that the elephant had descended from an aquatic animal with its trunk originally evolving
(d) to suggest that the elephant had descended from an aquatic animal and its trunk originally evolving
(e) to suggest that the elephant is descended from an aquatic animal and that its trunk originally evolved

Amar

we discuss again and again this hard question.

a.
we need the second "that" before "its" . if we dont have "that", the ending clause is parallel to main clause "embryologiy have found". no sense.
b,
structured as in b, "its" is ambiguous, refering to elephant or animal.
c
"its" refers to animal. no sense.
d
we need the second "that" before "its"

a is correct.

though I can analyze above thing, I possibly can not do so in the test room. this is a hard question
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Re: Australian embryologists have found evidence that suggests [#permalink]

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New post 11 Jul 2016, 06:48
TommyWallach wrote:
Hey All,

I got asked to take this one on by private message, so here I am! The answer is certainly E.

Australian embryologists have found evidence that suggests that the elephant is descended from an aquatic animal, and its trunk originally evolved as a kind of snorkel.

(A) that suggests that the elephant is descended from an aquatic animal, and its trunk originally evolved
PROBLEM: There's no reason to use a comma with a list of two things.

(B) that has suggested the elephant descended from an aquatic animal, its trunk originally evolving
PROBLEM: You have to say "that" after the verb "to suggest".

(C) suggesting that the elephant had descended from an aquatic animal with its trunk originally evolving
PROBLEM: The use of the past perfect tense here is incorrect, because the action isn't complete. I know it may seem like the descent has ended, but in the present, the elephant is STILL descended from an aquatic animal. That's an eternal truth. Also, using the prepositional phrase "with its trunk originally evolving" ends up modifying "an aquatic animal", when we really want to be referring to the elephant.

(D) to suggest that the elephant has descended from an aquatic animal and its trunk originally evolved
PROBLEM: We don't want to change tense in parallel unless there's a significant reason ("yesterday I went to the store but today I will stay at home"). No good reason from present perfect "has descended" to past "evolved".

(E) to suggest that the elephant is descended from an aquatic animal and that its trunk originally evolved
ANSWER: "descended" and "evolved" are parallel, and everything else is clear.

Hope that helps!

-t



Amardeep Sharma wrote:
Australian embryologists have found evidence that suggests that the elephant is descended from an aquatic animal, and its trunk originally evolved as a kind of snorkel.

(a)that suggests that the elephant is descended from an aquatic animal, and its trunk originally evolved
(b) that has suggested the elephant descended from an aquatic animal, its trunk originally evolving
(c)suggesting that the elephant had descended from an aquatic animal with its trunk originally evolving
(d) to suggest that the elephant had descended from an aquatic animal and its trunk originally evolving
(e) to suggest that the elephant is descended from an aquatic animal and that its trunk originally evolved

Amar



Since people are having doubts on A and E, let me focus on that... with a point everyone else has missed :

A)
evidence :
that suggests that the elephant is descended from an aquatic animal, and its trunk originally evolved

Due to the missing that, we can interpret it as :
researchers have found that:
evidence that suggests that the elephant is descended from an aquatic animal
and researchers have found its trunk originally evolved ....

No!!!!!

researchers have found evidence pointing to each of the things.... we need a second that to clarify that the intended meaning is :

researchers have found evidence that its trunk originally evolved

More than 'its' or 'a comma issue', the second that is required here to clarify the meaning
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Re: Australian embryologists have found evidence that suggests [#permalink]

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New post 11 Jul 2016, 07:07
That is missing in A, which should be present.

So E is perfect
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Re: Australian embryologists have found evidence that suggests [#permalink]

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New post 31 Jul 2016, 03:35
In order to eliminate answer choice A is it also possible to to say, that because of the combination " , and ..." a second IC is introduced? With the second IC the logical connection between the evidence and the trunk is missing?

Kind regards.
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Re: Australian embryologists have found evidence that suggests [#permalink]

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New post 26 Feb 2017, 09:35
(a)that suggests that the elephant is descended from an aquatic animal,and its trunk originally evolved ...to what its referring is not clear
(b) that has suggested the elephant descended from an aquatic animal, its trunk originally evolving ....awkward
(c)suggesting that the elephant had descended from an aquatic animal with its trunk originally evolving ..change meaning
(d) to suggest that the elephant had descended from an aquatic animal and its trunk originally evolving ..change meaning
(e) to suggest that the elephant is descended from an aquatic animal and that its trunk originally evolved..correct
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Re: Australian embryologists have found evidence that suggests [#permalink]

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New post 27 Feb 2017, 08:25
GMAT TIGER wrote:
Amardeep Sharma wrote:
Australian embryologists have found evidence that suggests that the elephant is descended from an aquatic animal, and its trunk originally evolved as a kind of snorkel.

(a)..
(b) that has suggested the elephant descended from an aquatic animal, its trunk originally evolving
(c)suggesting that the elephant had descended from an aquatic animal with its trunk originally evolving
(d) to suggest that the elephant had descended from an aquatic animal and its trunk originally evolving
(e) to suggest that the elephant is descended from an aquatic animal and that its trunk originally evolved

Amar



It is an example of how tricky can gmat questions be.

Most of the people are intimidited by A but the problem is with "its", which refers to elephant's.

If the setence were not properly paralled without "that x ......... and that y ......", "its" is never be a clear referant for "elephant". That construction is only in E, which is tghe best and OA.


excellent posting for us to know.
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Re: Australian embryologists have found evidence that suggests   [#permalink] 27 Feb 2017, 08:25

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