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# Australian embryologists have found evidence that suggests

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Australian embryologists have found evidence that suggests [#permalink]

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30 Oct 2009, 21:21
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Australian embryologists have found evidence that suggests that the elephant is descended from an aquatic animal, and its trunk originally evolved as a kind of snorkel.

(a) that suggests that the elephant is descended from an aquatic animal, and its trunk originally evolved
(b) that has suggested the elephant descended from an aquatic animal, its trunk originally evolving
(c) suggesting that the elephant had descended from an aquatic animal with its trunk originally evolving
(d) to suggest that the elephant had descended from an aquatic animal and its trunk originally evolving
(e) to suggest that the elephant is descended from an aquatic animal and that its trunk originally evolved

[Reveal] Spoiler:
Although we certainly don't hear it often, "is descended" is correct. For example:

We are descended from the chimpanzee.
He is a direct descendant of Charles the Great.

But I do agree that the phrase looks odd on paper.
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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Re: Australian embryologists have found evidence that suggests [#permalink]

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28 Aug 2010, 11:24
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Hey All,

I got asked to take this one on by private message, so here I am! The answer is certainly E.

Australian embryologists have found evidence that suggests that the elephant is descended from an aquatic animal, and its trunk originally evolved as a kind of snorkel.

(A) that suggests that the elephant is descended from an aquatic animal, and its trunk originally evolved
PROBLEM: There's no reason to use a comma with a list of two things.

(B) that has suggested the elephant descended from an aquatic animal, its trunk originally evolving
PROBLEM: You have to say "that" after the verb "to suggest".

(C) suggesting that the elephant had descended from an aquatic animal with its trunk originally evolving
PROBLEM: The use of the past perfect tense here is incorrect, because the action isn't complete. I know it may seem like the descent has ended, but in the present, the elephant is STILL descended from an aquatic animal. That's an eternal truth. Also, using the prepositional phrase "with its trunk originally evolving" ends up modifying "an aquatic animal", when we really want to be referring to the elephant.

(D) to suggest that the elephant has descended from an aquatic animal and its trunk originally evolved
PROBLEM: We don't want to change tense in parallel unless there's a significant reason ("yesterday I went to the store but today I will stay at home"). No good reason from present perfect "has descended" to past "evolved".

(E) to suggest that the elephant is descended from an aquatic animal and that its trunk originally evolved
ANSWER: "descended" and "evolved" are parallel, and everything else is clear.

Hope that helps!

-t
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Re: Australian embryologists have found evidence that suggests [#permalink]

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16 Jul 2014, 09:48
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SidKaria wrote:
Australian embryologists have found evidence that suggests that the elephant is descended from an aquatic animal, and its trunk originally evolved as a kind of snorkel.
A. that suggests that the elephant is descended from an aquatic animal, and its trunk originally evolved
B. that has suggested the elephant descended from an aquatic animal, its trunk originally evolving
C. suggesting that the elephant had descended from an aquatic animal with its trunk originally evolving
D. to suggest that the elephant had descended from an aquatic animal and its trunk originally evolved
E. to suggest that the elephant is descended from an aquatic animal and that its trunk originally evolved

[Reveal] Spoiler: Explanation
a) incorrect- parallel clauses start with the same word."that" is missing in the 2nd clause.
can u please explain me how" is descended" correct ? why do we need "is" ??
and why" descended from an aquatic animal " is incorrect. dont understand why if we remove "is" we are only left with a modifier.(as per one of the earlier explanation) descended from an aquatic animal is a modifier. so is descended here not a verb ??
eg.humans evolved from apes. here evolved is a verb.

b)incorrect- has-incorrect verb. simnple past tense should be used. only a comma between the two clauses distorts the meaning. it seems that aquatic animal's trunk evoved.

c)incorrect- with after aquatic animals modifies the animals. distorts meaning.
(according to one of the explanations to this question "had descended" changes the intended meaning ) the meaning of descend here becomes"to pass from higher to lower") please explain.

d) same errors. has-incorrect verb. and no "that"

e)correct.

Hi Sid,

Thanks for posting your doubt here.

So let's take your doubts in the order you have posted them.

Choice A: Yes, your analysis is correct that we need another "that" to maintain parallelism in the sentence.

Now, use of "is descended" is correct because it denotes that the elephants have evolved from a water animal. We need "is" because this event is a universal fact. This fact holds true for all time in the past, present, and future. When want to convey that someone has come from certain ancestor or ancestry, we use "is/was descended" depending on the context of the usage.

In this choice, "is descended" together is a verb. But in Choice B, "descended" appears to be a modifier because "that" is missing after "has suggested". The way Choice B is worded, it seems to convey that the evidence has suggested the elephant itself and not something about elephant. In such a structure, "descended" seems to be a modifier rather than a verb. Even if used as a verb, "descended" would not be correct as it would give a complete different meaning.

Choice B: You have said that "only a comma between the two clauses distorts the meaning". What lies after comma is not clause as it does not have a verb. This choice is incorrect for the usage of "has suggested the elephant". Also now the choice does not say that the evidence suggests two things.

Choice C: As I have already mentioned, when we want to denote that something has come from an ancestor or ancestry, we use "is/was descended". Any other verb form changes the meaning of the word. The verb "has descended" means it has literally come down from an elevated point.

Choice D: Your analysis of this choice is correct.

Choice E: This choice rectifies all the errors and is the correct one.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
SJ
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Re: Australian embryologists have found evidence that suggests [#permalink]

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02 Sep 2010, 10:56
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Hey Mainhoon,

Well, "evidence to suggest" is a better choice than "evidence that suggests," but I'd say the comma is the major issue.

As for Munda's question, no it wouldn't be quite as correct to say "the elephant has descended," this implies the action of descending, as in "The elephant has descended the stairs." But this meaning of "descended" is different. To "be descended" from something is a constant (like being "green" or "American"), and thus ought to be in the present tense, as in "Men are descended from apes." You wouldn't say "men have descended from apes," because it isn't a tense action, but a state of being.

Hope that makes sense!

-t
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Re: Australian embryologists have found evidence that suggests [#permalink]

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30 Oct 2009, 23:36
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Amardeep Sharma wrote:
Australian embryologists have found evidence that suggests that the elephant is descended from an aquatic animal, and its trunk originally evolved as a kind of snorkel.

(a)..
(b) that has suggested the elephant descended from an aquatic animal, its trunk originally evolving
(c)suggesting that the elephant had descended from an aquatic animal with its trunk originally evolving
(d) to suggest that the elephant had descended from an aquatic animal and its trunk originally evolving
(e) to suggest that the elephant is descended from an aquatic animal and that its trunk originally evolved

Amar

It is an example of how tricky can gmat questions be.

Most of the people are intimidited by A but the problem is with "its", which refers to elephant's.

If the setence were not properly paralled without "that x ......... and that y ......", "its" is never be a clear referant for "elephant". That construction is only in E, which is tghe best and OA.
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Re: Australian embryologists have found evidence that suggests [#permalink]

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26 Oct 2010, 11:25
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Go by this maxim, and the answer will pop up. A sentence, which has two arms, if uses - that - to introduce one arm, then it must use - that -to introduce the other arm also to balance the sentence. As per this norm, only E will fit in
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Re: Australian embryologists have found evidence that suggests [#permalink]

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31 May 2011, 09:41
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The correct SC is:
Australian embryologists have found evidence that suggests that the elephant is descended from an
aquatic animal, and its trunk originally evolving
as a kind of snorkel.

(A) that suggests that the elephant is descended from an aquatic animal, and its trunk originally evolving

(B) that has suggested the elephant descended from an aquatic animal, its trunk originally evolving

(C) suggesting that the elephant had descended from an aquatic animal with its trunk originally evolved

(D) to suggest that the elephant had descended from an aquatic animal and its trunk originally evolved

(E) to suggest that the elephant is descended from an aquatic animal and that its trunk originally evolved

MY EXPLANATION:
a. evolving is wrong-because the elephant has already evolved.
b. same as A, and has suggested rather to suggest.
c. had is wrong here because The elephant is still descending
d. same as C
E. Correct.
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Re: Australian embryologists have found evidence that suggests [#permalink]

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16 Jan 2014, 00:55
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kiranjith wrote:
the "is descended" usage puts me in trouble.Please let me know is that really necessary?Why not just "descended"?

Before I answer your question, I have a request. Your other posts, don't have all the options listed. And the topic name should contain the question (the initial words), esle the mods will lock your posts. Please do this at the earliest.

descended as a verb has two meanings (in fact many) - 1. to get down or come down. 2. come from (a lineage or some ancestor)

She descended the bus ==> She got down from the bus.
She was descended from a noble family ==> She comes from a noble family.

By just using the word, descended (without the helping verb 'is') the meaning of the sentence is changed. Hope your doubt is clarified.
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Re: Australian embryologists have found evidence that suggests [#permalink]

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16 Jan 2014, 02:20
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What would u say when u want to mean ancestry r lineage?
He/she is a descendant of XYZ. Is descendant is nothing but that. On the contrary when u say he/she descended from XYZ it would mean going down. Also if u do Poe.
A. Evidence that suggest that is a bit redundant plus comma and sets an independent clause here which is not appropriate here.
B. Evolving is not correct , u have to understand that the embryologists suggested two things and each should have a. Verb.
C. Subject verb issue
D.has descended again would mean gone down. Plus this is a reporting structure you need Another that after and to maintain parallelism.
E. Correct. Proper parallelism maintained subject verb issue resolved.

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Re: Australian embryologists have found evidence that suggests [#permalink]

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27 Aug 2010, 12:14
I went with A because I thought that evidence that was better than evidence to suggest, which sounds very bad to me. It seems as if the goal of the evidence were to suggest. In my opinion, is not a goal but a consequence, and that is why I prefer evidence that suggest.
Could anybody comment on that?
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Re: Australian embryologists have found evidence that suggests [#permalink]

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29 Aug 2010, 19:37
Tommy that was funny!

Now I do have a question... IsA wrong just because of the comma? I mean the mnhtn sc book states at one place that you will never have to rule out an option just because of a comma. pleaseexplain..

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Re: Australian embryologists have found evidence that suggests [#permalink]

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31 Aug 2010, 13:42
TommyWallach wrote:
Hey All,

(E) to suggest that the elephant is descended from an aquatic animal and that its trunk originally evolved
ANSWER: "descended" and "evolved" are parallel, and everything else is clear.

Hope that helps!

-t

Tommy
Isnt it appropriate to say "elephant has descended" instead of "elephant is descended"
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Re: Australian embryologists have found evidence that suggests [#permalink]

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31 Aug 2010, 15:04
IMO A.....suggest needs "that"
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Re: Australian embryologists have found evidence that suggests [#permalink]

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07 Oct 2010, 06:50
I have one doubt in option A.

Do you think its refer to both elephant and aquatic animal?

As per Mgmat Sc advance section , 'its' should not be ambiguous as it is the subject of both the clauses.

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Re: Australian embryologists have found evidence that suggests [#permalink]

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19 Jan 2011, 14:10
Messages in the thread suggest that there is disagreement among A , D & E

"A" is wrong because that there is parallelism error. "Descended" is not parallel to "evolving"

"D" is wrong because ' had descended' is a wrong phrase in this context. 'Descended', as a verb, is used when someone or something is coming down from a high position. ie he descended from the hill. Shadow descended on the bench in the park.

when 'descended' is is used as noun, it carry a meaning of 'Origin' ie I am a descended of homo sapiens. Bird is a descened of reptiles. " Descended of" and Descended from " carries the same meaning

E is the only option left so lets take it as correct answer....

Hope it clarifies.....
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Re: Australian embryologists have found evidence that suggests [#permalink]

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22 Jun 2011, 07:20
E has a perfect parallel structure.

It's useful sometimes to treat these sentences like mathematical equations.

Infinitive (to suggest) + { [ that + descended (past participle) + prepositional phrase] + [ that + evolved (past participle) + prepositional phrase] }
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Re: Australian embryologists have found evidence that suggests [#permalink]

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09 Nov 2013, 09:24
Can someone please clarify the difference between evidence that suggests vs evidence to suggest?

It sounds different in my head but I can't put it into words.
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Re: Australian embryologists have found evidence that suggests [#permalink]

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16 Jan 2014, 00:37
Australian embryologists have found evidence that suggests that the elephant is descended from an aquatic animal, and its trunk originally evolving as a kind of snorkel.
(A) that suggests that the elephant is descended from an aquatic animal, and its trunk originally evolving
(B) that has suggested the elephant descended from an aquatic animal, its trunk originally evolving
(C) suggesting that the elephant had descended
from an aquatic animal with its trunk originally
evolved
(D) to suggest that the elephant had descended
from an aquatic animal and its trunk originally
evolved
(E) to suggest that the elephant is descended from
an aquatic animal and that its trunk originally evolved

the "is descended" usage puts me in trouble.Please let me know is that really necessary?Why not just "descended"?

Last edited by kiranjith on 16 Jan 2014, 02:28, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Australian embryologists have found evidence that suggests [#permalink]

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16 Jan 2014, 03:57

Use the search button before posting a question

Merged the same question that has been asked several times

regards
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Re: Australian embryologists have found evidence that suggests [#permalink]

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16 Jul 2014, 01:56
Australian embryologists have found evidence that suggests that the elephant is descended from an aquatic animal, and its trunk originally evolved as a kind of snorkel.
A. that suggests that the elephant is descended from an aquatic animal, and its trunk originally evolved
B. that has suggested the elephant descended from an aquatic animal, its trunk originally evolving
C. suggesting that the elephant had descended from an aquatic animal with its trunk originally evolving
D. to suggest that the elephant had descended from an aquatic animal and its trunk originally evolved
E. to suggest that the elephant is descended from an aquatic animal and that its trunk originally evolved

[Reveal] Spoiler: Explanation
a) incorrect- parallel clauses start with the same word."that" is missing in the 2nd clause.
can u please explain me how" is descended" correct ? why do we need "is" ??
and why" descended from an aquatic animal " is incorrect. dont understand why if we remove "is" we are only left with a modifier.(as per one of the earlier explanation) descended from an aquatic animal is a modifier. so is descended here not a verb ??
eg.humans evolved from apes. here evolved is a verb.

b)incorrect- has-incorrect verb. simnple past tense should be used. only a comma between the two clauses distorts the meaning. it seems that aquatic animal's trunk evoved.

c)incorrect- with after aquatic animals modifies the animals. distorts meaning.
(according to one of the explanations to this question "had descended" changes the intended meaning ) the meaning of descend here becomes"to pass from higher to lower") please explain.

d) same errors. has-incorrect verb. and no "that"

e)correct.

Last edited by Gnpth on 16 Jul 2014, 02:09, edited 2 times in total.
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Re: Australian embryologists have found evidence that suggests   [#permalink] 16 Jul 2014, 01:56

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