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# Because 70 percent of the people of India use wood as their sole fuel

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Because 70 percent of the people of India use wood as their sole fuel  [#permalink]

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20 Sep 2019, 23:40
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Because 70 percent of the people of India use wood as their sole fuel, ten million acres of forest have been lost there since 1960, resulting in wood now costing eight times as much to collect and distribute than in 1960.

(A) resulting in wood now costing eight times as much to collect and distribute than
(B) resulting in wood now costing eight times as much to collect and distribute as
(C) resulting in wood now costing eight times as much to collect and distribute than it did
(D) and as a result wood now costs eight times as much to collect and distribute as it did
(E) and wood now costs eight times as much as a result to collect and distribute than

SC77561.01

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Re: Because 70 percent of the people of India use wood as their sole fuel  [#permalink]

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13 Nov 2019, 19:14
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Experts, could you please explain the official solution a lil more as to why exactly is B incorrect? I was stuck b/w B and D. I just couldn't point to an error in B. 'resulting' is actually modifying the previous whole clause right? Is the 'as much .. as in 1960' not correct in B? Please help. Thanks

Good question! The phrase "resulting in," because it contains a preposition, should introduce a noun or noun phrase that is a result. For example,

"Tim fed undercooked burritos to the neighbor's children, resulting in mass indigestion." --> What was the result of Tim's culinary negligence? Mass indigestion. Makes sense.

Now look at the relevant portion in (B):

"Ten million acres of forest have been lost there since 1960, resulting in wood..."

The result of 10 million acres of forest disappearing was...wood? No. That's illogical. So (B) is out.

The phrase "as a result" will introduce a full clause. Again, poor beleaguered Tim will will help illustrate:

"Tim fed undercooked burritos to the neighbor's children, and as a result, everyone in town hates him." --> What was the result of Tim poisoning the neighborhood kids? The clause: everyone hates him. Of course they do.

This is the same usage we see in (D):

"Ten million acres of forest have been lost there since 1960, and as a result wood now costs eight times as much to collect and distribute as it did."

What is the result of the 10 million acres of forest disappearing? It's the entire clause: wood now costs eight times as much as it used to. Makes perfect sense. Because (D) is logical and (B) is nonsense, (D) is our winner.

I hope that helps!
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Re: Because 70 percent of the people of India use wood as their sole fuel  [#permalink]

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22 Sep 2019, 02:16
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Remember this. whenever GMAT talks about comparison between now and a past time, we need to repeat verb form.

Only C & D uses did. C can be eliminated for using as much X than Y. THe right idiom is as much X as Y.

D is correct.
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Re: Because 70 percent of the people of India use wood as their sole fuel  [#permalink]

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09 Nov 2019, 09:28
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Hi,
Can someone please help me understand how resulting refers to ten million acres of forest and not to the action have been lost?
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Because 70 percent of the people of India use wood as their sole fuel  [#permalink]

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09 Nov 2019, 14:19
1
hazelnut wrote:
Because 70 percent of the people of India use wood as their sole fuel, ten million acres of forest have been lost there since 1960, resulting in wood now costing eight times as much to collect and distribute than in 1960.

(A) resulting in wood now costing eight times as much to collect and distribute than
(B) resulting in wood now costing eight times as much to collect and distribute as
(C) resulting in wood now costing eight times as much to collect and distribute than it did
(D) and as a result wood now costs eight times as much to collect and distribute as it did
(E) and wood now costs eight times as much as a result to collect and distribute than

SC77561.01

Main Issues

1) Correct Idiom: X as much as Y. Wrong: X as much than Y
2) Comparison: Cost now vs cost before

(A) resulting in wood now costing eight times as much to collect and distribute than - Wrong: 1) Idiom 2) Comparison
(B) resulting in wood now costing eight times as much to collect and distribute as - Wrong: 1) Comparison
(C) resulting in wood now costing eight times as much to collect and distribute than it did - Wrong: 1) Idiom
(D) and as a result wood now costs eight times as much to collect and distribute as it did - Correct:
(E) and wood now costs eight times as much as a result to collect and distribute than - Wrong: 1) Idiom 2) Comparison 3) Modifier
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Re: Because 70 percent of the people of India use wood as their sole fuel  [#permalink]

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23 Nov 2019, 07:32
1
abhishek001 wrote:
Hey gmat ninja can the comparison be an issue to eliminate B and select D as an option. Thanku in advance and also like to state your videos and explanations are really helpful in getting a hold on verbal gmat. Thanku.

Posted from my mobile device

Thank you for the kind words! And yes, the meaning issue in (B) also creates a problematic comparison. When we use a prepositional phrase such as "in 1960" that phrase will typically be used to modify an action.

For example, "Tim dropped as many babies in 1997 as he did in 1994." Notice that the comparison is between how many babies Tim dropped in one year and how many babies he dropped in another year. Most importantly, the prepositional phrases need to modify an action ("dropped", in this case).

In (B) we have "resulting in wood now costing eight times as much... as in 1960." There's no verb for "in 1960" to modify! Contrast this with (D) in which we have "wood now costs eight times as much.. as it did in 1960. Now there's an action, "costs" for "in 1960" to modify, and so we have a logical comparison.

So you were definitely on the right track, abhishek001!
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Re: Because 70 percent of the people of India use wood as their sole fuel  [#permalink]

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25 Nov 2019, 21:59
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We are using and after a , - is that a correct approach?
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Re: Because 70 percent of the people of India use wood as their sole fuel  [#permalink]

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20 Sep 2019, 23:48
IMHO it must be D. Rest all choices seem to dstort the meaning of the sentence
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Re: Because 70 percent of the people of India use wood as their sole fuel  [#permalink]

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21 Sep 2019, 01:09
As per me , it boils down to B or D as the idiom as much..... as is only used in these 2 options . Problem with B - resulting in wood now costing eight times as much to collect and distribute as in 1960 ----wrong comparison.

D ---correct comparison hence the answer.
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Re: Because 70 percent of the people of India use wood as their sole fuel  [#permalink]

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Updated on: 21 Sep 2019, 11:55
Top Contributor
1
Because 70 percent of the people of India use wood as their sole fuel, ten million acres of forest have been lost there since 1960, resulting in wood now costing eight times as much to collect and distribute than in 1960.

(A) resulting in wood now costing eight times as much to collect and distribute than
(B) resulting in wood now costing eight times as much to collect and distribute as
(C) resulting in wood now costing eight times as much to collect and distribute than it did
(D) and as a result wood now costs eight times as much to collect and distribute as it did
(E) and wood now costs eight times as much as a result to collect and distribute than

The obvious entry point to this topic is through the idiom as much as. We have as much as, only in B and D. Choices A and C and E are corrupted with as much than or as much as than.

The problem with D seems to be that the wood is not doing anything to use the verb "did" in 1960. 'Costs' is used as linking verb in the context and per se, we would not require an action verb 'did' in the other part. It would be just enough to say 'in 1960' as in B.

In B, the adverbial modifier 'comma plus resulting' aptly modifies the previous clause - ten million acres have been lost --and brings out the impact of the abuse of the forests amply.

IMO, B.
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Originally posted by daagh on 21 Sep 2019, 08:00.
Last edited by daagh on 21 Sep 2019, 11:55, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Because 70 percent of the people of India use wood as their sole fuel  [#permalink]

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21 Sep 2019, 11:49
1
daagh wrote:
Because 70 percent of the people of India use wood as their sole fuel, ten million acres of forest have been lost there since 1960, resulting in wood now costing eight times as much to collect and distribute than in 1960.

(A) resulting in wood now costing eight times as much to collect and distribute than
(B) resulting in wood now costing eight times as much to collect and distribute as
(C) resulting in wood now costing eight times as much to collect and distribute than it did
(D) and as a result wood now costs eight times as much to collect and distribute as it did
(E) and wood now costs eight times as much as a result to collect and distribute than

The obvious entry point to this topic is through the idiom as much as. We have as much as, only in B and D. Choices A and C and E are corrupted with as much than or as much as than.

The problem with D seems to be that the wood is not doing anything to ise the verb "did" in 1960. 'Costs' is used as linking verb in the context and per se, we would not require an action verb 'did' in the other part. It would be just enough to say 'in 1960' as in B.

In B, the adverbial modifier 'comma plus resulting' aptly modifies the previous clause - ten million acres have been lost --and brings out the impact of the abuse of the forests amply.

IMO, B.

Because 70 percent of the people of India use wood as their sole fuel,ten million acres of forest have been lost there since 1960, resulting in wood now costing eight times as much to collect and distribute than in 1960.

if we slash the additional information given, Option B does not make much sense here.

My vote goes for -- D

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Re: Because 70 percent of the people of India use wood as their sole fuel  [#permalink]

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21 Sep 2019, 11:58
D makes more sense plus idiom is correctly used.
Regards,
Basim

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Re: Because 70 percent of the people of India use wood as their sole fuel  [#permalink]

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22 Sep 2019, 10:10
2
hazelnut wrote:
Because 70 percent of the people of India use wood as their sole fuel, ten million acres of forest have been lost there since 1960, resulting in wood now costing eight times as much to collect and distribute than in 1960.

(A) resulting in wood now costing eight times as much to collect and distribute than
(B) resulting in wood now costing eight times as much to collect and distribute as
(C) resulting in wood now costing eight times as much to collect and distribute than it did
(D) and as a result wood now costs eight times as much to collect and distribute as it did
(E) and wood now costs eight times as much as a result to collect and distribute than

SC77561.01

Official Explanation

Idiom; Grammatical construction

Logically, the sentence attempts to say that the loss of forest has increased the price of wood. In the sentence as written, as well as choices B and C, the participle resulting modifies ten million acres of forest rather than the loss.

Note that any of the choices containing the comparison error as much . . . than are incorrect. This disqualifies A, C, and E. That leaves only B and D for consideration.

A. This choice is incorrect for the reasons stated above. Furthermore, it is unclear what role costing plays: it could be either an adjective form of the verb to cost or a noun form of to cost.

B. This choice is incorrect because the participle resulting modifies ten million acres of forest rather than the loss. Furthermore, it is unclear what role costing plays: it could be either an adjective form of the verb to cost or a noun form of to cost.

C. This choice is incorrect because the participle resulting modifies ten million acres of forest rather than the loss. Furthermore, it is unclear what role costing plays: it could be either an adjective form of the verb to cost or a noun form of to cost.

D. Correct. This clearly expresses the consequence that the loss of forest has increased prices of wood and uses the correct comparison as much . . . as.

E. This choice is incorrect because it uses the incorrect comparison as much . . . than.

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Because 70 percent of the people of India use wood as their sole fuel  [#permalink]

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02 Oct 2019, 13:52
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Can someone please explain why B is incorrect and D is correct? The official explanation says " the participle resulting modifies ten million acres of forest rather than the loss." But doesn't it modify the previous clause?
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Re: Because 70 percent of the people of India use wood as their sole fuel  [#permalink]

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08 Oct 2019, 10:12
ardraa wrote:
Can someone please explain why B is incorrect and D is correct? The official explanation says " the participle resulting modifies ten million acres of forest rather than the loss." But doesn't it modify the previous clause?

I was stuck between B and D, and realize why B is correct. The main principle is comparison. B compares the activity of "to collect and distribute" to year "in 1960".

wood now costing eight times as much to collect and distribute as ...in 1960

In D the comparison is correct.
and as a result wood now costs eight times as much to collect and distribute as it did...in 1960

While I can agree on "resulting" not sounding as good as "as a result", I don't get why resulting modifying the clause or modifying the ten million acres, and not modifying loss is the main issue by official explanation, apart from the fact that GMAT has a low tolerance for participles and gerunds.
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Re: Because 70 percent of the people of India use wood as their sole fuel  [#permalink]

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08 Oct 2019, 18:09
hazelnut wrote:
Because 70 percent of the people of India use wood as their sole fuel, ten million acres of forest have been lost there since 1960, resulting in wood now costing eight times as much to collect and distribute than in 1960.

(A) resulting in wood now costing eight times as much to collect and distribute than
(B) resulting in wood now costing eight times as much to collect and distribute as
(C) resulting in wood now costing eight times as much to collect and distribute than it did
(D) and as a result wood now costs eight times as much to collect and distribute as it did
(E) and wood now costs eight times as much as a result to collect and distribute than

SC77561.01

"As much as" is the correct idiom.
The comparison also needs to be "as it did ..." because the comparison is between "wood now costs eight times as much ... as it did"
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Re: Because 70 percent of the people of India use wood as their sole fuel  [#permalink]

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25 Oct 2019, 00:40
Why D over B?
"resulting in wood now costing eight times as much to collect and distribute as.. in 1960" makes complete sense and "resulting" correctly modifies the preceding clause.

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Re: Because 70 percent of the people of India use wood as their sole fuel  [#permalink]

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09 Nov 2019, 04:25
Why B is incorrect? I don't understand the official solution. Thanks
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Because 70 percent of the people of India use wood as their sole fuel  [#permalink]

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09 Nov 2019, 04:27
gmatt1476 wrote:
hazelnut wrote:
Because 70 percent of the people of India use wood as their sole fuel, ten million acres of forest have been lost there since 1960, resulting in wood now costing eight times as much to collect and distribute than in 1960.

(A) resulting in wood now costing eight times as much to collect and distribute than
(B) resulting in wood now costing eight times as much to collect and distribute as
(C) resulting in wood now costing eight times as much to collect and distribute than it did
(D) and as a result wood now costs eight times as much to collect and distribute as it did
(E) and wood now costs eight times as much as a result to collect and distribute than

SC77561.01

Official Explanation

Idiom; Grammatical construction

Logically, the sentence attempts to say that the loss of forest has increased the price of wood. In the sentence as written, as well as choices B and C, the participle resulting modifies ten million acres of forest rather than the loss.

Note that any of the choices containing the comparison error as much . . . than are incorrect. This disqualifies A, C, and E. That leaves only B and D for consideration.

A. This choice is incorrect for the reasons stated above. Furthermore, it is unclear what role costing plays: it could be either an adjective form of the verb to cost or a noun form of to cost.

B. This choice is incorrect because the participle resulting modifies ten million acres of forest rather than the loss. Furthermore, it is unclear what role costing plays: it could be either an adjective form of the verb to cost or a noun form of to cost.

C. This choice is incorrect because the participle resulting modifies ten million acres of forest rather than the loss. Furthermore, it is unclear what role costing plays: it could be either an adjective form of the verb to cost or a noun form of to cost.

D. Correct. This clearly expresses the consequence that the loss of forest has increased prices of wood and uses the correct comparison as much . . . as.

E. This choice is incorrect because it uses the incorrect comparison as much . . . than.

GMATNinja VeritasKarishma egmat daagh chetan2u and other experts could you please explain the official solution a lil more as to why exactly is B incorrect? I was stuck b/w B and D. I just couldn't point to an error in B. 'resulting' is actually modifying the previous whole clause right? Is the 'as much .. as in 1960' not correct in B? Please help. Thanks
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Re: Because 70 percent of the people of India use wood as their sole fuel  [#permalink]

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09 Nov 2019, 06:10
To be honest, both B and D are problematic little bit. The problem with B is that verbing must agree with the subject of the clause it modifies But I don't like D either.
In D, "it" after 2nd as stands for wood, and sentence is trying to convey that same piece of wood costs 8 times as much. a better version would have been
"wood now costs eight times as much ... as that did"

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Re: Because 70 percent of the people of India use wood as their sole fuel   [#permalink] 09 Nov 2019, 06:10

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