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Because an oversupply of computer chips has sent prices plunging

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Because an oversupply of computer chips has sent prices plunging  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 14 Sep 2018, 05:23
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Because an oversupply of computer chips has sent prices plunging, the manufacturer has announced that it will cut production by closing its factories for two days a month.


(A) Because an oversupply of computer chips has sent prices plunging

(B) Because of plunging prices for computer chips, which is due to an oversupply

(C) Because computer chip prices have been sent plunging, which resulted from an oversupply

(D) Due to plunging computer chip prices from an oversupply

(E) Due to an oversupply, with the result that computer chip prices have been sent plunging


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I picked A on this one.But again there seem to be different OAs for this on the GMATCLUB. I am convinced by explanations by Vikram and Ak_IDC.
So lets open another can of worms :)


Trivikram

http://gmatclub.com/forum/11-p257789?t= ... ng#p257789

ak_Idc

http://gmatclub.com/forum/11-p257169?t= ... ng#p257169

Originally posted by goalsnr on 23 May 2008, 14:17.
Last edited by Bunuel on 14 Sep 2018, 05:23, edited 2 times in total.
Renamed the topic and edited the question.
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Re: QOTD: Because an oversupply of computer chips  [#permalink]

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New post 22 May 2017, 11:32
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Quote:
(A) Because an oversupply of computer chips has sent prices plunging

Absolutely nothing jumps out at me with (A). Subject-verb agreement is fine, logic seems fine. *shrug*

I guess we'll keep (A).

Quote:
(B) Because of plunging prices for computer chips, which is due to an oversupply

I'm really happy to see the word "which", because it's usually pretty straightforward. In this case, the phrase "which is due to an oversupply" is trying to modify "computer chips", and that makes absolutely no sense, partly because the computer chips themselves can't be caused by an oversupply, and partly because the subject-verb agreement is wrong ("chips... is"). Eliminate (B).

Quote:
(C) Because computer chip prices have been sent plunging, which resulted from an oversupply

"Which" can only be used to modify nouns, and the preceding phrase is a verb phrase, "have been sent plunging". Eliminate (C).

Quote:
(D) Due to plunging computer chip prices from an oversupply

This one is for you, warriorguy! Phrases that begin with "due to" can only modify nouns, not verbs. Here, have a couple of examples:

  • The game was postponed due to rain. --> Wrong, since the phrase "due to rain" modifies the verb phrase "was postponed." "Due to" phrases can only modify nouns.
  • Souvik's success on the GMAT was due to his hard work. --> Correct, since "due to his hard work" modifies the noun "success."

In (D), "due to plunging computer chip prices from an oversupply" presumably modifies the manufacturer, since that's the noun that follows. And that makes no sense at all: the manufacturer itself wasn't "due to plunging computer chip prices." (D) is gone.

Quote:
(E) Due to an oversupply, with the result that computer chip prices have been sent plunging

This is just an uglier, wordier version of (D), with the same "due to" problem. Eliminate (E). (A) wins.
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Re: Because an oversupply of computer chips has sent prices plunging  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Jul 2008, 14:13
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Because an oversupply of computer chips has sent prices plunging, the manufacturer has announced that it will cut production by closing its factories for two days a month.

A. Because an oversupply of computer chips has sent prices plunging

B. Because of plunging prices for computer chips, which is due to an oversupply

C. Because computer chip prices have been sent plunging, which resulted from an oversupply

D. Due to plunging computer chip prices from an oversupply

E. Due to an oversupply, with the result that computer chip prices have been sent plunging


I think the answer is A. D changes the orginial meaning of the sentence. A says that the manufacturer will cut production due to oversupply of computer chips.

D says that the manufacturer will cut production due to plunging computer prices.

Anyone else agree with me???

8-)
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Re: Because an oversupply of computer chips has sent prices plunging  [#permalink]

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New post 31 Jan 2012, 11:46
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Hi,

Because an oversupply of computer chips has sent prices plunging, the manufacturer has announced that it will cut production by closing its factories for two days a month.

Image

I believe most of the people are confused because there has been some gap in understanding the meaning of the sentence. The sentence presents cause and effect. Cause: An oversupply of computer chips has sent prices plunging. Effect: The manufacturer has announced that it will cut production by closing its factories for two days a month.

Image

1) Use of “because” in the beginning of the sentence is correct to show the causal relationship of the first clause with the second.

2) Singular subject “oversupply” agrees in number with singular verb “has sent”. Note, that plural “computer chips” cannot be the subject as it lies in a prepositional phrase “oversupply of computer chips”. Since “oversupply” is the head of this prepositional phrase, it is the subject of the sentence.

3) The present perfect verb “has sent” in the first clause clearly indicates that the cause has already taken place. The present perfect verb “has announced” in the second clause also clearly states that the announcement has been made because of the plunging prices. Thus, there is no error in the sentence.

POE:

A) Because an oversupply of computer chips has sent prices plunging,: Correct. This choice is correct as is as pointed out in sentence analysis.

B) Because of plunging prices for computer chips, which is due to an oversupply: 1) Relative pronoun “which” refers to plural subject “prices”. But the following verb “is” is singular that does not agree in the number with its noun antecedent.
2) This choice is wordy.

C) Because computer chip prices have been sent plunging, which resulted from an oversupply: 1) Reference to “which” is vague. It is not clear whether it refers to the price that was there before plunging or to plunging price.
2) Passive voice unnecessarily makes the choice wordy.

D) Due to plunging computer chip prices from an oversupply: 1) The events here are not presented in the chronological order. The order of the events is: oversupply of chips, plunging prices and announcement by the manufacturer. But this choice states the order as: plunging prices, (due to) oversupply and announcement by the manufacturer. This change in order creates a bit confusion as to what happened first: plunging in prices or oversupply?

E) Due to an oversupply, with the result that computer chip prices have been sent plunging: 1) It is better to say, due to x, y happened rather than due to x what resulted in is y. This expression makes “with the result” redundant.
2) This choice is too wordy.

Image

1. Understand the logical intended meaning of the sentence.
2. Subject and verb must always agree in number.
3. Be vary of choices that are wordy and confusing.
4. Pronouns must have a clear referent.

Hope this helps.
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Re: Because an oversupply of computer chips has sent prices plunging  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Mar 2013, 11:41
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A very very important point to note in the usage of Because of and Due to
Because of - used when the EFFECT is a VERB
eg) The match was postponed because of the rain
Here, in this sentence the effect is a Verb . Hence Eliminate D and E

Due to - when the EFFECT is a Noun
eg) The Postponement of the match was due to the rain

Using POE , u can arrive at A

Hope this helps :)
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Re: Because an oversupply of computer chips has sent prices plunging  [#permalink]

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New post 24 May 2008, 08:38
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Its Ok to use "because" at the beginning of the sentence.

http://www.bartleby.com/64/C001/015.html

because beginning a sentence. “Because I could not stop for Death—/He kindly stopped for me”. So begins one of Emily Dickinson’s most well-known poems, and so falls another of the more arbitrary rules of usage, which states that you should not begin a sentence with because. As Dickinson’s poem attests, there are occasions when because is perfectly appropriate as the opening word of a sentence. In fact, sentences beginning with because are quite common in written English
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Re: Because an oversupply of computer chips has sent prices plunging  [#permalink]

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New post 24 Nov 2013, 07:20
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goalsnr wrote:
Because an oversupply of computer chips has sent prices plunging, the manufacturer has announced that it will cut production by closing its factories for two days a month.

A. Because an oversupply of computer chips has sent prices plunging

B. Because of plunging prices for computer chips, which is due to an oversupply

C. Because computer chip prices have been sent plunging, which resulted from an oversupply

D. Due to plunging computer chip prices from an oversupply

E. Due to an oversupply, with the result that computer chip prices have been sent plunging


I picked A on this one.But again there seem to be different OAs for this on the GMATCLUB. I am convinced by explanations by Vikram and Ak_IDC.
So lets open another can of worms :)


Trivikram

11-p257789?t=37246&hilit=Because+an+oversupply+of+computer+chips+has+sent+prices+plunging#p257789

ak_Idc

11-p257169?t=37246&hilit=Because+an+oversupply+of+computer+chips+has+sent+prices+plunging#p257169


Just to point out that GMAT usually does not like 'due to'

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Due to
Like
Being
if (vs. whether)
actually
... etc..

Hope it helps
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Re: Because an oversupply of computer chips has sent prices plunging  [#permalink]

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New post 02 Oct 2011, 19:33
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schandok wrote:
Any explanations why D is wrong. in A, 'oversupply sent prices high' seems little odd. Experts please explain.


"Due to" is correct if it can be replaced by "caused by" and the resulting sentence stil makes sense.

Caused by plunging computer chip prices from an oversupply, the manufacturer has announced that it will cut production by closing its factories for two days a month => does not make sense. we have a dangling modifier.

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Re: Because an oversupply of computer chips has sent prices plunging  [#permalink]

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New post 13 Aug 2013, 01:15
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It is a well known trivia on GMAT (though this fact is not just limited to GMAT alone:)) that the usage of due to is appropriate when you can substitute due to (literally substitute in the sentence) with caused by.
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Re: QOTD: Because an oversupply of computer chips  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Nov 2017, 14:43
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Shiv2016 wrote:
GMATNinja, @e-gmat, and mikemcgarry

Why are we using present perfect 'has sent prices plunging' ? Isn't the action of 'prices plunging' over?

Little confused with the usage of present perfect in this sentence.


Thanks

Hm, good question -- I'd never really even thought about the verb tenses here, mostly because we don't really have a choice. (A), (C), and (E) all use present perfect ("has/have sent prices plunging") to describe the price drop; (B) and (D) just turn the action into a noun, so the verb tense isn't an issue in those.

So my first thought is that the question doesn't even give us the option of using simple past tense, so there's no good reason to worry about the distinction between past tense and present perfect tense in this situation.

My second thought is that present perfect seems legit enough: if the manufacturer has just announced future production cuts, then it's reasonable to say that the oversupply continues to send prices plunging.

My less-useful third thought: there's actually a lot of grey area between past tense and present perfect tense, both in real life and on the GMAT. We have a habit of saying things like "I have visited Ukraine" in the present perfect, even though the action of visiting Ukraine happened in the past. I guess we say things like that to imply that either the consequences of that trip are ongoing in the present or (more likely) to suggest the possibility that I might return there. (Because... vareniki!)

It's not hard to come up with all sorts of similar cases, in which you could choose either simple past or present perfect, depending on your stylistic choices. Here's an official example about "dating fossils" -- in my opinion, the act of "dating" fossils should be past tense. But the official answer is in present perfect, presumably because that process of dating the fossils is an ongoing process of discovery, and scientists might eventually determine a different date. Or something like that.

The key, though, is that the GMAT won't force you to choose between present perfect and simple past unless the difference is crystal-clear. And in this particular question, the GMAT has written the question in a way that makes it a non-issue.

I hope this helps! Or at least helps you sleep at night, because that kinda got long and boring, and might put you right to sleep... :)
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Re: Because an oversupply of computer chips has sent prices plunging  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Jul 2008, 16:42
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My 2 cents

GMAT test because of and due to

NOT

Because and Due to

That said, I looked at what made the manufacture cut down on production

OS or Price Plunge. Its the PP

This is clearly a modifier Q and if you ask the Q what is because an oversupply of computer chips has sent prices plunging, the answer is manufacturer cut production. Sentence not only misses of but also sounds as if OS made the manufacturer to cut down production

In D there is no such ambiguity. What is due to the Plunging computer chip prices?

Manufacturer decided to cut down production.
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Re: Because an oversupply of computer chips has sent prices plunging  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 30 Apr 2017, 11:48
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A manufacturer does not have to refer to a person. It will very often refer to a company, and a company is always gender-neutral. So it is the automatic choice of pronoun.

Tata Motor is a company and a manufacturer. But can we call it he or she? Nay.

Secondly, why is the worry about something which is not underlined? Take it as it is and get along. That is the wy to practice GMAT prep.
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Originally posted by daagh on 05 Oct 2010, 10:14.
Last edited by daagh on 30 Apr 2017, 11:48, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Because an oversupply of computer chips has sent prices plunging  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Apr 2015, 22:30
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Yes, would agree. "caused by" is correct if we can substitute it with "attributable to".

So, D is:

Attributable to plunging computer chip prices from an oversupply, the manufacturer has announced that it will cut production by closing its factories for two days a month.

But manufacturer was not attributable to plunging computer chip prices. That is the reason for D not being correct.

Also, I feel that D is not depicting the meaning properly, because it says "plunging computer chip prices from an oversupply"; oversupply of what? It should be clear "oversupply of computer chips".
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Re: Because an oversupply of computer chips has sent prices plunging  [#permalink]

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New post 30 Apr 2017, 10:06
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poojamathur21 wrote:
I'd request for an experts response on this. I am slightly confused about the tense used in the correct option A.

We have used present perfect in both the clauses to highlight that there is a continued effect. But is it grammatically correct to frame a sentence in the form:
Because present perfect, present perfect?

Posted from my mobile device


Yes, there is nothing wrong is using the sentences like this.

It is trying to convey the meaning that both the plunging of price and the announcement happened at the same time and are still continuing/their effect is still continuing.

So, we should never reject any answer based on the decision point you made above.
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Re: QOTD: Because an oversupply of computer chips  [#permalink]

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New post 23 May 2017, 00:38
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what is wrong with D?
in option A,shouldn't "because" be followed by an "of"
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Re: QOTD: Because an oversupply of computer chips  [#permalink]

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New post 23 May 2017, 09:01
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sandaki wrote:
what is wrong with D?
in option A,shouldn't "because" be followed by an "of"


In D, the idiom "Due to" can only be used to modify nouns

Ask yourself what is causing the manufacture to cut production? It's not computer chips (the noun) but the fact that an oversupply of computer chips has caused prices to plummet (a pharse, and therefore cannot be modified by Due to)

For A, the idiom "Because X did something, something else happens" is perfectly fine
"Because of X, Y" is also correct
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Re: QOTD: Because an oversupply of computer chips  [#permalink]

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New post 11 May 2018, 15:19
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SugandhaM wrote:
GMATNinja wrote:
Quote:
(B) Because of plunging prices for computer chips, which is due to an oversupply

Hey GMATNinja, how do we know that which is modifying 'chips' and not plunging prices? Can't we argue that "for computer chips" could be a prepositional phrase?

Thanks for your help!

Good question -- I should have addressed this issue in the original explanation. In theory, "which is due to an oversupply" could modify the entire phrase "plunging prices for computer chips" -- meaning-wise, that makes perfect sense, and I think it's OK for which to "reach back" behind the prepositional phrase here. The trouble is that (B) would still be wrong in that case, because the subject-verb agreement wouldn't work anymore: "plunging prices... IS due to an oversupply."

So either way, the modifier is wrong: if "which is due to an oversupply" modifies "computer chips", it's illogical, and if "which is due to an oversupply" modifies "plunging prices", the subject-verb agreement is unambiguously wrong.

shahMeet wrote:
For option E: Further analysis

that computer chip prices have been sent plunging is an IC (which is not really required).
My question is can we ever have 'with' modifying a phrase?

I'm not quite sure that I understand the question, but I'll give it a shot. For starters, "that computer chip prices have been sent plunging" is a subordinate clause, not an independent clause. And "with" can modify all sorts of phrases: for example, in the phrase "I ate two burritos with great joy", "with great joy" modifies the entire phrase "I ate two burritos."

I hope this helps!
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Re: QOTD: Because an oversupply of computer chips  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Jun 2018, 12:46
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jackspire wrote:
What a beautiful and logical explanation.
Thanks a lot.

Thank you so much for the kind words, jackspire! Glad that the explanations are useful sometimes. :)

ilya56rus wrote:
A is good, but one thing: there is a obsequies of events, but author uses Present perfect two times.
In my opinion it would be better if Past Perfect would be used for first event.

Because an oversupply of computer chips had sent prices plunging, the manufacturer has announced that it will cut production by closing its factories for two days a month.

Please somebody explain where I am wrong.
Thanks, BR

A few thoughts, ilya56rus: first, the option you proposed isn't an option, so it's a non-issue! The best approach on SC is to find the four answers that are the most severely flawed. So it's not helpful to start coming up with alternative options that aren't even there -- at least not when you're taking an actual exam. :-)

I understand where you're coming from, though. Trouble is, this actually wouldn't be correct on the GMAT:

ilya56rus wrote:
Because an oversupply of computer chips had sent prices plunging, the manufacturer has announced that it will cut production by closing its factories for two days a month.

The problem is that the past perfect tense verb ("had sent") can only be used as the first of two past actions. So for this to be correct, you would basically need to have some other verb in simple past tense. And we don't have that here: instead, "the manufacturer has announced" (present perfect tense, if you like the terminology) indicates an action that starts in the past and continues into the present.

And maybe there's an exception that I can't quite imagine, but it wouldn't really make sense to use the past perfect ("had sent") with the present perfect ("has announced"), since that last action would continue into the present.

But what about the actual version in the correct answer?

Quote:
Because an oversupply of computer chips has sent prices plunging, the manufacturer has announced that it will cut production by closing its factories for two days a month.

There's no problem there at all. Both actions in bold ("has sent prices plunging" and "the manufacturer has announced") started in the past and continue in the present -- or at the very least, we can easily imagine that the manufacturer's announcement continues to be relevant in the present. I suppose the phrase "has sent prices plunging" implies that prices are STILL plunging in the present, but there's nothing inherently wrong with that.

Could we find better ways to write the sentence? Sure! In most cases, correct SC sentences aren't all that great, and a good editor would rip most of them to shreds. But there's nothing WRONG with (A), and there are plenty of flaws in the other choices.

I hope this helps!
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Because an oversupply of computer chips has sent prices plunging  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 22 Mar 2019, 17:02
1
Hello Everyone!

This is an incredibly difficult question, so let's dive in! We'll figure out the best way to tackle this question, and narrow down options to find the right choice! Before we start, here is the original question, with the major differences between the options highlighted in orange:

Because an oversupply of computer chips has sent prices plunging, the manufacturer has announced that it will cut production by closing its factories for two days a month.

(A) Because an oversupply of computer chips has sent prices plunging
(B) Because of plunging prices for computer chips, which is due to an oversupply
(C) Because computer chip prices have been sent plunging, which resulted from an oversupply
(D) Due to plunging computer chip prices from an oversupply
(E) Due to an oversupply, with the result that computer chip prices have been sent plunging

So...it's clear that just about everything is different about each option. Whenever we run across questions like this, we know we're going to have to spend some extra time on it.

After a quick glance over the options, there are a couple things we can focus on to help narrow down our options:

1. Modifiers (Make sure they're in the right place and not misleading)
2. Because / Because of / Due to (Make sure they're used correctly)


Let's take a closer look at each option and focus on those two things for now:

(A) Because an oversupply of computer chips has sent prices plunging
I don't see anything wrong with this yet. There are no modifiers, and the use of the conjunction "because" works here to clearly show cause and effect.

(B) Because of plunging prices for computer chips, which is due to an oversupply
This is INCORRECT because the modifier "which is due to an oversupply" is modifying "computer chips," which doesn't make sense. It's also not clear what "oversupply" is referring to - an oversupply of computer chips, or an oversupply of something else? So let's rule this one out!

(C) Because computer chip prices have been sent plunging, which resulted from an oversupply
This is INCORRECT because modifiers that start with the word "which" can ONLY modify nouns, and this one is trying to modify the verb phrase "have been sent plunging." It's also confusing to readers what the "oversupply" is - an oversupply of computer chips, or something else? If it's not 100% clear, the GMAT won't like it!

(D) Due to plunging computer chip prices from an oversupply
This is INCORRECT because the modifier here doesn't work. Modifiers that start with "due to" modify NOUNS, and the closest noun is "the manufacturer." The manufacturer didn't plunge the computer chip prices - the oversupply did. It's also not clear what the "oversupply" is. We found ourselves asking "and oversupply of what??" This means that things aren't 100% clear, and we can rule it out.

(E) Due to an oversupply, with the result that computer chip prices have been sent plunging
This is INCORRECT because it also uses a "due to" modifier incorrectly. It should be modifying the prices plunging, not the manufacturer. It's also worded awkwardly. The GMAT doesn't like overly wordy phrases like "with the result that." They recommend you use something less complex and clearer for readers.

There you go - option A is our best choice after all! It doesn't have any problems with modifiers, and everything is written as clearly and concisely as possible!


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Originally posted by EMPOWERgmatVerbal on 31 Oct 2018, 11:09.
Last edited by EMPOWERgmatVerbal on 22 Mar 2019, 17:02, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Because an oversupply of computer chips has sent prices plunging  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Oct 2010, 13:53
SnehaC,

The correct pronoun to refer to manufacturers and other inanimate entities (company, book, telephone, government) is "it."

You would only use "he" or "she" with living beings. If the statement said: "The manager told us to fix the problem today or he would fire us" then you would need to use "he."

Regarding your other point: On the GMAT, the antecedent is not optional; the antecedent must be present and unambiguous.

Feel free to write back with other questions!

Brett
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Re: Because an oversupply of computer chips has sent prices plunging   [#permalink] 05 Oct 2010, 13:53

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