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# Because of less availability and greater demand for

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Re: Because of less availability and greater demand for scientific researc [#permalink]

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31 Dec 2013, 09:03
Prax wrote:
The original sentence contains several errors. First, "less availability" is incorrect when not used in a direct comparison: it begs the question "Less than what?" "Decreased availability" would be better here. Second, "greater demand" also begs the question "greater than what?" "Increased demand" would be better. Third, "Demand for scientific research" implies that the research is in demand, when in fact it is the platinum. "Demand in scientific research" would be better. Fourth, "remains consistently expensive" is redundant. "Remains expesnive" would be enough to convey the idea.

The OA is C. Here is the explanation they have given:

The original sentence contains several errors. First, "less availability" is incorrect when not used in a direct comparison: it begs the question "Less than what?" "Decreased availability" would be better here. Second, "greater demand" also begs the question "greater than what?" "Increased demand" would be better. Third, "Demand for scientific research" implies that the research is in demand, when in fact it is the platinum. "Demand in scientific research" would be better. Fourth, "remains consistently expensive" is redundant. "Remains expesnive" would be enough to convey the idea.

(A) This choice is incorrect as it repeats the original sentence.

(B) This choice is incorrect because while it replaces the "greater demand" with "increased demand," it leaves "less availability." "Demand for scientific research" should be changed to "demand in." The redundancy of "consistently" remains, and a illogical comparison is drawn between platinum and "that of gold." It is unclear what the "that" refers to.

(C) CORRECT. This choice replaces "less availability" with "decreased availability" and "greater demand" with "increased demand." The word "consistently" is removed, and "demand for" is changed to "demand in."

(D) This choice incorrectly keeps "Demand for scientific research," which should be changed to "demand in scientific research"

(E) This choice is incorrect because, while it replaces the "less availability" with "decreased availability," it leaves "greater demand." "Remains at a consistently high price" is redundant. It is also more concise to compare the platinum to the gold, rather than the high price (of platinum) to "that of the gold" as is attempted in E.

Please put the OA in the original post

Thanks

Back to the question, I do not like it at all.

generally speaking the gmat makes a construction of 4 parts where 1 and 3 or 2 and 4 ar prallell in somehow and the others are dependent or not in agreement.

regards
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Re: Because of less availability and greater demand for [#permalink]

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12 Feb 2015, 05:44
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Re: Because of less availability and greater demand for [#permalink]

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14 Feb 2016, 11:38
Hello from the GMAT Club VerbalBot!

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Re: Because of less availability and greater demand for scientific researc [#permalink]

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16 Jun 2016, 10:46
Hello from the GMAT Club VerbalBot!

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Re: Because of less availability and greater demand for scientific researc [#permalink]

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14 Aug 2016, 11:03
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I am afraid something is out of sync with logic in this topic. Let us decide clearly whether the expensiveness of Platinum is an eternal factor or a temporary phenomenaon. .The word consistently seems to indicate that this is an eternal factor rather than a short-term spurt. Therefore, I would tick ‘consistently’ in rather than out.
However, when we call something as a decreased availability, we mean to say that the availably was greater earlier and at this point it has rather decreased from those levels. This is what is out of sync with the professed theme that platinum is generally less available meaning sparsely available.
Of course, one can understand the increased demand in research.

In gist, I would say that platinum has ever been less available and hence less availability suits the context better than decresed availability. Well after dropping choices 2 and 5 for their improper use of that, there is still a problem to find a choice that combines ‘less availability’, ‘demand in’, and consistently expensive.

This is IMO.
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Re: Because of less availability and greater demand for [#permalink]

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19 Aug 2016, 19:01
Very nice question. Replying just to bump

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Re: Because of less availability and greater demand for [#permalink]

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19 Aug 2016, 20:49
Because of less availability and greater demand for scientific research, platinum remains consistently expensive, like gold.

A. Because of less availability and greater demand for scientific research, platinum remains consistently expensive, like gold.
B. Because of less availability and increased demand for scientific research, platinum remains consistently expensive, like that of gold.
C. Because of decreased availability and increased demand in scientific research, platinum remains expensive, like gold.
D. Because of decreased availability and increased demand for scientific research, platinum remains expensive, like gold.
E. Because of decreased availability and greater demand in scientific research, platinum remains at a consistently high price, like that of gold.

There is greater demand for Platinum and not for Scientific research. C correctly convey the intended meaning.

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Re: Because of less availability and greater demand for [#permalink]

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17 Oct 2016, 00:02
mikemcgarry wrote:
hogann wrote:
Because of less availability and greater demand for scientific research, platinum remains consistently expensive, like gold.

(A) Because of less availability and greater demand for scientific research, platinum remains consistently expensive, like gold.
(B) Because of less availability and increased demand for scientific research, platinum remains consistently expensive, like that of gold.
(C) Because of decreased availability and increased demand in scientific research, platinum remains expensive, like gold.
(D) Because of decreased availability and increased demand for scientific research, platinum remains expensive, like gold.
(E) Because of decreased availability and greater demand in scientific research, platinum remains at a consistently high price, like that of gold.

SaraLotfy wrote:
Hello Mike,
Would you be so kind as to take a look at the link above and tell me your take on this question.
thanks

Dear Sara,
I'm happy to help.

Overall, this seems like a solid question. I have no idea what the source is, but I like the splits, and it definitely has one unambiguously clear answer, the way a good SC question should. I don't know why they include "because of" in the underline, since it's identical in all five answers, but that's a niggling stylistic detail. The question itself is of very high quality.

Split #1: (less & greater) vs. (decreased & increased). This is really a false split. It's true, the former pair will be more widely applicable than the latter pair, because the latter pair is limited to instanced in which there has been a change in quantity over time, but apparently that's true here, so either is fine.
Split #2: demand for vs. demand in. This is a very clever idiom split. The phrasing "demand for scientific research" would mean that, overall, folks want more scientific research --- it doesn't matter the topic, the research area --- people just want more. That would be very non-specific, and would necessarily have a whole lot to do with platinum. The focus, the star, of the sentence is platinum. The "availability" is clearly the availability of platinum, so for logical consistency, it should also be a "demand" for platinum. The noun "scientific research" is NOT the thing demanded, but instead the context in which the platinum is demanded. Therefore, we must say "demand in scientific research", which implies that the demand is for platinum. The only answers consistent with this split are (C) and (E).
Split #3: the comparison with "gold" at the end. Three answers have "platinum remains consistently expensive, like gold," which is perfectly correct. Since there's no other noun in that clause, it's crystal clear that the comparison is between platinum and gold. Choice (B) has "platinum remains consistently expensive, like that of gold," which is logically incorrect --- we are comparing the metal platinum to what about gold???? Choice (E) has "platinum remains at a consistently high price, like that of gold" is grammatically & logically correct, but rhetorically unacceptable: it's a long, indirect, bulky way of saying something that can be said much more efficiently and succinctly, and in fact, is said that way in three other answer choices. Choice (B) & (E) cannot be correct.
On the basis of these splits, only (C) can be the correct answer. Choice (C) is mistake-free and elegant, and each of the other four answer choices has an unambiguous problem preventing it from being the answer. This is an an exceptionally good question. Kudos to whoever wrote it!!

Does all this make sense?
Mike

Hi Mike - In option E - Like that of Gold -- What is that referring to?

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Re: Because of less availability and greater demand for [#permalink]

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17 Oct 2016, 13:04
rakaisraka wrote:
Hi Mike - In option E - Like that of Gold -- What is that referring to?

Dear rakaisraka,

I'm happy to respond.

First of all, I will point out a grammatical nicety in your writing. You asked, "What is that referring to?" This is a sentence that ends with a preposition. This is a gray area in modern grammar. Many intelligent people today would say that this is 100% perfectly fine. A hundred years ago, this wasn't acceptable, and folks who are grammar conservatives (such as myself) still have problem with this. The GMAT tends to be conservative. They never would test this particular point: it never would be the deciding split in a SC question. Nevertheless, when this structure does appear, it almost invariable appears as part of an incorrect choice, a choice is that clearly incorrect for some other reason. I am cautioning you simply so that this is on your radar. When you write your B-school essay, your cover letter for any job, etc. etc. you never know if the person reading it will be grammatically conservative or grammatically liberal. It might be a person who has no problem with a sentence that ends with a preposition, or it might be a person whose opinion of you drops slightly when they see that structure. With all these controversial gray-area structures, it's always good to develop the habit of sticking to the more conservative course as long as you are trying to make a good impression on people, especially people you don't know yet. The more formal, high-spoken way to ask that same question would be, "To what does that refer?" In this case, this is also more concise and more elegant.

The issue of words omitted in the second branch of a parallel structure is hard. See this blog article:
Dropping Common Words in Parallel on the GMAT
It's always hard on the GMAT, because the GMAT will give you the sentence with the common words already missing, and it's up to you to figure out what words were dropped.

It's important to remember that parallelism is not really a grammatical structure. Parallelism is a logical structure, and the grammar's job is to mirror the underlying logic. When you are this situation, think about the logic. Here is the end of (E):
...platinum remains at a consistently high price, like that of gold.
Think about it. The overall comparison relates the two precious metals, platinum (Pt) and gold (Au). The sentence says that platinum has a high price, so it must be true that gold also has a high price (incidentally, that should not be a big surprise if you know anything about the commodities market!) The word "that" stands for the words "the price." Here's a version of (E) with the pronoun replaced:
...platinum remains at a consistently high price, like the price of gold.
The strict comparison is between two prices: the price of Pt and the price of Au. The second price is remaining "consistently high" like the first price.

Does all this make sense?

Mike
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Re: Because of less availability and greater demand for [#permalink]

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17 Oct 2016, 14:23
mikemcgarry wrote:
rakaisraka wrote:
Hi Mike - In option E - Like that of Gold -- What is that referring to?

Dear rakaisraka,

I'm happy to respond.

First of all, I will point out a grammatical nicety in your writing. You asked, "What is that referring to?" This is a sentence that ends with a preposition. This is a gray area in modern grammar. Many intelligent people today would say that this is 100% perfectly fine. A hundred years ago, this wasn't acceptable, and folks who are grammar conservatives (such as myself) still have problem with this. The GMAT tends to be conservative. They never would test this particular point: it never would be the deciding split in a SC question. Nevertheless, when this structure does appear, it almost invariable appears as part of an incorrect choice, a choice is that clearly incorrect for some other reason. I am cautioning you simply so that this is on your radar. When you write your B-school essay, your cover letter for any job, etc. etc. you never know if the person reading it will be grammatically conservative or grammatically liberal. It might be a person who has no problem with a sentence that ends with a preposition, or it might be a person whose opinion of you drops slightly when they see that structure. With all these controversial gray-area structures, it's always good to develop the habit of sticking to the more conservative course as long as you are trying to make a good impression on people, especially people you don't know yet. The more formal, high-spoken way to ask that same question would be, "To what does that refer?" In this case, this is also more concise and more elegant.

The issue of words omitted in the second branch of a parallel structure is hard. See this blog article:
Dropping Common Words in Parallel on the GMAT
It's always hard on the GMAT, because the GMAT will give you the sentence with the common words already missing, and it's up to you to figure out what words were dropped.

It's important to remember that parallelism is not really a grammatical structure. Parallelism is a logical structure, and the grammar's job is to mirror the underlying logic. When you are this situation, think about the logic. Here is the end of (E):
...platinum remains at a consistently high price, like that of gold.
Think about it. The overall comparison relates the two precious metals, platinum (Pt) and gold (Au). The sentence says that platinum has a high price, so it must be true that gold also has a high price (incidentally, that should not be a big surprise if you know anything about the commodities market!) The word "that" stands for the words "the price." Here's a version of (E) with the pronoun replaced:
...platinum remains at a consistently high price, like the price of gold.
The strict comparison is between two prices: the price of Pt and the price of Au. The second price is remaining "consistently high" like the first price.

Does all this make sense?

Mike

Thanks a lot Mike. I'm going to remember the preposition part for rest of my life.

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Re: Because of less availability and greater demand for scientific researc [#permalink]

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02 Jul 2017, 00:02
How will you decide between C and D?
I know they convey different meanings completely. but I am finding it difficult to understand the difference.

Also, is there any other example similar to this?
I have made similar mistake before.

Thanks.

Last edited by abhimahna on 02 Jul 2017, 01:00, edited 1 time in total.
Merged Topics. Please search before posting

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Re: Because of less availability and greater demand for scientific researc [#permalink]

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26 Oct 2017, 08:55
Can someone please explain the difference between demand for and demand in? I am not able to understand the explanation provided above

I understood the meaning of demand for X
But I did not understand the meaning of demand in X

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Re: Because of less availability and greater demand for scientific researc [#permalink]

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26 Oct 2017, 12:21
Because of less availability and greater demand for scientific research, platinum remains consistently expensive, like gold.

(A) Because of less availability and greater demand for scientific research, platinum remains consistently expensive, like gold. -With greater we need "than".

(B) Because of less availability and increased demand for scientific research, platinum remains consistently expensive, like that of gold. -"that of" is wrong

(C) Because of decreased availability and increased demand in scientific research, platinum remains expensive, like gold. -Correct

(D) Because of decreased availability and increased demand for scientific research, platinum remains expensive, like gold. -Demand in research is correct

(E) Because of decreased availability and greater demand in scientific research, platinum remains at a consistently high price, like that of gold. -With greater we need "than". "that of" is wrongly used
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Q: The distinction of less vs. decreased and greater vs. increased? [#permalink]

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07 Nov 2017, 15:40
Hi,

I recently came across the following question in a MGMAT CAT and am confused by the distinction of less vs. decreased and greater vs. increased? Tried searching around and couldn't find anything specifically on this distinction. Could someone please clarify when exactly each term should be used.

Thanks!

-------------

A. Because of less availability and greater demand for scientific research, platinum remains consistently expensive, like gold.

B. Because of less availability and increased demand for scientific research, platinum remains consistently expensive, like that of gold.

C. Because of decreased availability and increased demand in scientific research, platinum remains expensive, like gold.

D. Because of decreased availability and increased demand for scientific research, platinum remains expensive, like gold.

E. Because of decreased availability and greater demand in scientific research, platinum remains at a consistently high price, like that of gold.

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Re: Q: The distinction of less vs. decreased and greater vs. increased? [#permalink]

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08 Nov 2017, 00:07
gmattesttaker556 wrote:
Hi,

I recently came across the following question in a MGMAT CAT and am confused by the distinction of less vs. decreased and greater vs. increased? Tried searching around and couldn't find anything specifically on this distinction. Could someone please clarify when exactly each term should be used.

Thanks!

-------------

A. Because of less availability and greater demand for scientific research, platinum remains consistently expensive, like gold.

B. Because of less availability and increased demand for scientific research, platinum remains consistently expensive, like that of gold.

C. Because of decreased availability and increased demand in scientific research, platinum remains expensive, like gold.

D. Because of decreased availability and increased demand for scientific research, platinum remains expensive, like gold.

E. Because of decreased availability and greater demand in scientific research, platinum remains at a consistently high price, like that of gold.

Increased or decreased is used for comparison of comparable entities with reference to a past or future instance of time.
Example 1: His height has increased by 3 inches in the past 3 months.
Example 2: The water level will decrease within two hours if there is not further downpour.
Note that increased or decreased will ALWAYS be used with reference to another point in time.

Less or greater is also used for comparison. However, the comparison need not necessarily be with reference to a past or future point of time.
Example 1: I drank more water than you.
As you can see, the entities compared (the amount of water) are both in the past.
Note that less or greater can also be to compare entities with reference to past or future tense.
Example 2: His height is greater than what it was three months back.

To summarize, you can rephrase a sentence with increased/decreased and include the word less or greater. But the reverse may or may not be possible.

C. Because of decreased availability and increased demand in scientific research, platinum remains expensive, like gold.
This is correct probably because the availability has decreased from what it was in the past. Usage or less is incorrect because it does not capture the fact that the availability has come down.
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Re: Because of less availability and greater demand for [#permalink]

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10 Nov 2017, 10:57
Just elaborating on ans choices C and D - a lot of people seem to be wondering what is the right answer:

Consider a simpler sentence:
USING IN:
Platinum will be used in research
Platinum will be used in homes.

USING FOR:
POOR: Platinum will be used for research: This sentence seems incomplete. Perhaps it would sound better if we elaborated on what the research was for.

BETTER:
Platinum will be used for researching the possibility of life on mars.

POOR:Platinum will be used for homes

CORRECT:
Platinum will be used in homes

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Re: Because of less availability and greater demand for [#permalink]

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28 Nov 2017, 06:23
Because of less availability and greater demand for scientific research, platinum remains consistently expensive, like gold.

(A) Because of less availability and greater demand for scientific research, platinum remains consistently expensive, like gold. -greater is wrong
(B) Because of less availability and increased demand for scientific research, platinum remains consistently expensive, like that of gold. - like that of gold is wrong
(C) Because of decreased availability and increased demand in scientific research, platinum remains expensive, like gold. -Correct
(D) Because of decreased availability and increased demand for scientific research, platinum remains expensive, like gold. -demand for is wrong
(E) Because of decreased availability and greater demand in scientific research, platinum remains at a consistently high price, like that of gold. -like that of is wrong
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Re: Because of less availability and greater demand for [#permalink]

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29 Nov 2017, 16:03
Both 'Remain' and 'consistently' mean 'continuously'.
That's why there is a redundancy problem in answers A,B, and E.
C and D left.
D changes meaning of the sentence, therefore wrong

Winner is C

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Re: Because of less availability and greater demand for [#permalink]

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29 Nov 2017, 18:26
(A) Because of less availability and greater demand for scientific research, platinum remains consistently expensive, like gold. - this should be Demand (of Platinum) in research and as per the meaning use of decreased and increased is better

(B) Because of less availability and increased demand for scientific research, platinum remains consistently expensive, like that of gold. Same as A and Like can not be followed by a phrase.

(C) Because of decreased availability and increased demand in scientific research, platinum remains expensive, like gold. - Correct
(D) Because of decreased availability and increased demand for scientific research, platinum remains expensive, like gold. - same as A
(E) Because of decreased availability and greater demand in scientific research, platinum remains at a consistently high price, like that of gold.[/quote] - same as B

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Re: Because of less availability and greater demand for   [#permalink] 29 Nov 2017, 18:26

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