It is currently 23 Feb 2018, 14:25

Close

GMAT Club Daily Prep

Thank you for using the timer - this advanced tool can estimate your performance and suggest more practice questions. We have subscribed you to Daily Prep Questions via email.

Customized
for You

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

Track
Your Progress

every week, we’ll send you an estimated GMAT score based on your performance

Practice
Pays

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

Not interested in getting valuable practice questions and articles delivered to your email? No problem, unsubscribe here.

Close

Request Expert Reply

Confirm Cancel

Events & Promotions

Events & Promotions in June
Open Detailed Calendar

Because of the enormous research and development expenditures require

  new topic post reply Question banks Downloads My Bookmarks Reviews Important topics  
Author Message
TAGS:

Hide Tags

Senior Manager
Senior Manager
avatar
Joined: 30 Jun 2011
Posts: 263
Reviews Badge
Re: Because of the enormous research and development expenditures require [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 17 May 2012, 21:48
GyanOne wrote:
The mention of 'such firms' later in the sentence tells us that there must be a reference to the firms earlier on in the sentence. For this reason, A, C, and D are out.

Between B and E, B wins because it clearly mentions the firms for 'such firms' to refer back to this later on. In E, only the firms' survival is mentioned - not the firms themselves - so 'such firms' has no precedent to refer back to.

Clearly B.

BUT OG says required of X to do Y is INCORRECT ...

Legislation in the Canadian province of Ontario requires of both public and private employers that pay be the same for jobs historically held by women as for jobs requiring comparable skill that are usually held by men.
(A) that pay be the same for jobs historically held by women as for jobs requiring comparable skill that are
(B) that pay for jobs historically held by women should be the same as for a job requiring comparable skills
(C) to pay the same in jobs historically held by women as in jobs of comparable skill that are
(D) to pay the same regardless of whether a job was historically held by women or is one demanding comparable skills(A)
(E) to pay as much for jobs historically held by women as for a job demanding comparable skills

Choice A is best. In choice B, should is illogical after requires, or at least unnecessary, and so is better omitted;in choices B and E, job does not agree in number with jobs; and in choices B, D, and E, the wording illogically describes the comparable skills rather than the jobs as being "usually held by men." Choices C, D, and E produce the ungrammatical construction requires of... employers to pay, in which of makes the phrase incorrect. In C, the use of in rather than for is unidiomatic, and jobs of comparable skill confusedly suggests that the jobs rather than the workers possess the skills. In D, the phrase beginning regardless ... is awkward and wordy in addition to being illogical.
1 KUDOS received
VP
VP
User avatar
S
Status: Top MBA Admissions Consultant
Joined: 24 Jul 2011
Posts: 1358
GMAT 1: 780 Q51 V48
GRE 1: 1540 Q800 V740
Re: Because of the enormous research and development expenditures require [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 17 May 2012, 23:21
1
This post received
KUDOS
Quote:
BUT OG says required of X to do Y is INCORRECT ..

Well, not quite. In the example you have highlighted, the OG says 'requires of X to Y' is incorrect (i.e. 'present form of the verb + of X to Y' is incorrect), not 'of X to do Y'.

While the construction 'required of firms to survive' is indeed awkward, it is the best option among the given choices. Also, using the past tense form of the verb is not grammatically incorrect. 'required of firms to survive', though awkward, is correct. On the other hand 'requires of employers to pay' is incorrect and can be replaced by the simpler 'requires employers to pay'.
_________________

GyanOne | Top MBA Rankings and MBA Admissions Blog

Top MBA Admissions Consulting | Top MiM Admissions Consulting

Premium MBA Essay Review|Best MBA Interview Preparation|Exclusive GMAT coaching

Get a FREE Detailed MBA Profile Evaluation | Call us now +91 98998 31738

Senior Manager
Senior Manager
avatar
Joined: 30 Jun 2011
Posts: 263
Reviews Badge
Re: Because of the enormous research and development expenditures require [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 17 May 2012, 23:40
GyanOne wrote:
Quote:
BUT OG says required of X to do Y is INCORRECT ..

Well, not quite. In the example you have highlighted, the OG says 'requires of X to Y' is incorrect (i.e. 'present form of the verb + of X to Y' is incorrect), not 'of X to do Y'.

While the construction 'required of firms to survive' is indeed awkward, it is the best option among the given choices. Also, using the past tense form of the verb is not grammatically incorrect. 'required of firms to survive', though awkward, is correct. On the other hand 'requires of employers to pay' is incorrect and can be replaced by the simpler 'requires employers to pay'.

'required of firms to survive' is also of the form 'requires of X to Y' so as per it should be incorrect
Senior Manager
Senior Manager
User avatar
Joined: 28 Jun 2009
Posts: 438
Location: United States (MA)
Re: Because of the enormous research and development expenditures require [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 19 May 2012, 13:53
Intern
Intern
avatar
Joined: 09 Oct 2012
Posts: 36
Re: Because of the enormous research and development expenditures require [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 29 Dec 2012, 22:14
IMO is A, but I'm not sure that B is incorrect.
I'm pretty sure that C it's wrong because after require I need an infinitive such as to survive. It's like: Because of the enormous research and development expenditures required IN ORDER TO SURVIVE...
3 KUDOS received
Intern
Intern
avatar
Joined: 25 Mar 2012
Posts: 23
Location: India
Concentration: Strategy, General Management
GMAT 1: 710 Q50 V36
GPA: 3.04
WE: Consulting (Computer Software)
Re: Because of the enormous research and development expenditures require [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 30 Dec 2012, 07:19
3
This post received
KUDOS
The subject of the last clause "Such firms tend to be very large", should be acted upon by the starting line "Because of the enormous research and development expenditures required".
But in the sentence, it is not so. The "firms" are not being acted upon. So, to correct it, you need to go for option B. That is the only choice where it makes correct sense.
1 KUDOS received
Manager
Manager
avatar
Joined: 26 Jan 2012
Posts: 74
Re: Because of the enormous research and development expenditures require [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 30 Dec 2012, 16:06
1
This post received
KUDOS
A – last part of the sentence refers to a firms. We need to find a sentence where “firms” is clearly stated. Eliminate
B – Keep
C – No reference to firms. Eliminate
D – same as C
E – keep "firms' survival" is possesive and "such firms" can't refer back to it.
Current Student
User avatar
Joined: 06 Sep 2013
Posts: 1954
Concentration: Finance
GMAT ToolKit User
Re: Because of the enormous research and development expenditures require [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 18 Oct 2013, 11:52
sreehari1250 wrote:
55. Because of the enormous research and development expenditures required to survive in the electronics industry, an industry marked by rapid innovation and volatile demand, such firms tend to be very large.

(A) to survive
(B) of firms to survive
(C) for surviving
(D) for survival
(E) for firms’ survival


OA please? My pick wsa D but I wasn't quite sure aboute it.
Let us know please, and OE would be nice too

Cheers
J :)
1 KUDOS received
Manager
Manager
avatar
Joined: 22 Apr 2013
Posts: 95
Location: India
Concentration: Finance
GMAT 1: 660 Q48 V33
Re: Because of the enormous research and development expenditures require [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 19 Oct 2013, 20:45
1
This post received
KUDOS
jlgdr wrote:
sreehari1250 wrote:
55. Because of the enormous research and development expenditures required to survive in the electronics industry, an industry marked by rapid innovation and volatile demand, such firms tend to be very large.

(A) to survive
(B) of firms to survive
(C) for surviving
(D) for survival
(E) for firms’ survival


OA please? My pick wsa D but I wasn't quite sure aboute it.
Let us know please, and OE would be nice too

Cheers
J :)


OA is B and here is the OE. It is a question from the OG 10th edition.

Official answer Official Guide 10 -

The subject of the main clause (such firms) presumes a prior reference to the firms in question. Furthermore,
the logical subject of to survive and the logical complement of required should be made explicit. All three
demands are met by B, the best choice. Choices A, C, and D, with no reference to the firms in question, meet
none of these demands. In choice E, the illogical and awkward use of a prepositional phrase (for firms' survival)
buries the needed initial reference to firms in a possessive modifier.

Hope this helps. :-D
Director
Director
User avatar
Status: 1,750 Q's attempted and counting
Affiliations: University of Florida
Joined: 09 Jul 2013
Posts: 514
Location: United States (FL)
Schools: UFL (A)
GMAT 1: 600 Q45 V29
GMAT 2: 590 Q35 V35
GMAT 3: 570 Q42 V28
GMAT 4: 610 Q44 V30
GPA: 3.45
WE: Accounting (Accounting)
Re: Because of the enormous research and development expenditures require [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 22 Oct 2013, 18:08
The sentence appears to be flipped. The subject comes last. If you forget the modifying clause of "an industry marked by rapid innovation and volatile demand" and focus on the remaining part of the sentence its easier to parse the sentence.

Because of the enormous research and development expenditures required to survive in the electronics industry, an industry marked by rapid innovation and volatile demand,such firms tend to be very large.

Take the subject part of the sentence. "such firms tend to be very large." .... "Because of the enormous research and development expenditures required to survive in the electronics industry,".

Because is a Subordinating Conjunctions. A subordinating conjunction introduces a dependent clause and indicates the nature of the relationship among the independent clause(s) and the dependent clause(s). The most common subordinating conjunctions are "after," "although," "as," "because," "before," "how," "if," "once," "since," "than," "that," "though," "till," "until," "when," "where," "whether," and "while."

"such firms tend to be very large" is a complete independent clause. An independent clause (or main clause) is a clause that can stand by itself, also known as a simple sentence. An independent clause contains a subject and a predicate; it makes sense by itself. When "because" is added the dependent clause also has to make sense and also must have a subject. The sentence as written does not have subject. B & E are the only answer choice that introduce a subject in the dependent clause. But B has the more appropriate preposition of "of" instead of "for".
Director
Director
User avatar
Status: 1,750 Q's attempted and counting
Affiliations: University of Florida
Joined: 09 Jul 2013
Posts: 514
Location: United States (FL)
Schools: UFL (A)
GMAT 1: 600 Q45 V29
GMAT 2: 590 Q35 V35
GMAT 3: 570 Q42 V28
GMAT 4: 610 Q44 V30
GPA: 3.45
WE: Accounting (Accounting)
Re: Because of the enormous research and development expenditures require [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 27 Oct 2013, 09:24
Hi - Just wanted to point out that there was some thoughtful discussion regarding this question at the following post.
http://gmatclub.com/forum/because-of-the-enormous-research-and-development-68880.html
Senior Manager
Senior Manager
avatar
Joined: 08 Apr 2013
Posts: 268
Re: Because of the enormous research and development expenditures require [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 28 Nov 2013, 09:24
it seems that we learn the new thing from og questions.\

require st of sb
is idiom

now we have

st is required of sb to do st

this is new idiom which is not in the grammar books but which appear in this og question. we have to learn this idiom

hard one
_________________

If anyone in this gmat forum is in England,Britain, pls, email to me, (thanghnvn@gmail.com) . I have some questions and need your advise. Thank a lot.

Senior Manager
Senior Manager
avatar
Joined: 08 Apr 2013
Posts: 268
Re: Because of the enormous research and development expenditures require [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 15 Dec 2013, 08:00
from Oxfored advanced learner's dictionary we have following pattern

require something of somebody

now we learn a new pattern

something is required of sombody to do something.

this pattern is not in the dictionary but in here, in og question.
_________________

If anyone in this gmat forum is in England,Britain, pls, email to me, (thanghnvn@gmail.com) . I have some questions and need your advise. Thank a lot.

Intern
Intern
avatar
Joined: 16 Dec 2014
Posts: 1
Re: Because of the enormous research and development expenditures require [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 26 Feb 2015, 12:25
I have one example that may undermine the logic for answering this question as option B.
In Manhattan SC book, it is specifically mentioned that the usage of 'required' is wrong in the following sentence

She requires of her friend to do work.

Now Isn't the structure of the sentence at hand similar to the structure of the above sentence?
Please explain this.... :(
Expert Post
1 KUDOS received
Manhattan Prep Instructor
User avatar
S
Joined: 22 Mar 2011
Posts: 1190
Re: Because of the enormous research and development expenditures require [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 28 Feb 2015, 23:11
1
This post received
KUDOS
Expert's post
No, the problem above is different. In the SC, we are talking about the expenditures that are required of firms. Why are these expenditures required? To survive.

In the sentence you cited, "she" requires something of her friend, but she doesn't require it in order to work. In other words, she is not doing the working. Since the idea being expressed here is much simpler, we should use a simpler form: "She requires her friend to work."
_________________


Dmitry Farber | Manhattan GMAT Instructor | New York


Manhattan GMAT Discount | Manhattan GMAT Course Reviews | View Instructor Profile |
Manhattan GMAT Reviews

Expert Post
2 KUDOS received
MBA Section Director
User avatar
V
Joined: 19 Mar 2012
Posts: 4834
Location: India
GMAT 1: 760 Q50 V42
GPA: 3.8
WE: Marketing (Non-Profit and Government)
Re: Because of the enormous research and development expenditures require [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 24 Apr 2015, 07:37
2
This post received
KUDOS
Expert's post
3
This post was
BOOKMARKED
Because of the enormous research and development expenditures required to survive in the electronics industry, an industry marked by rapid innovation and volatile demand, such firms tend to be very large.

A. to survive

B. of firms to survive

C. for surviving

D. for survival

E. for firms' survival
_________________

Have an MBA application Question? ASK ME ANYTHING!

My Stuff: Four Years to 760 | MBA Trends for Indian Applicants

My GMAT Resources
V30-V40: How to do it! | GMATPrep SC | GMATPrep CR | GMATPrep RC | Critical Reasoning Megathread | CR: Numbers and Statistics | CR: Weaken | CR: Strengthen | CR: Assumption | SC: Modifier | SC: Meaning | SC: SV Agreement | RC: Primary Purpose | PS/DS: Numbers and Inequalities | PS/DS: Combinatorics and Coordinates

My MBA Resources
Everything about the MBA Application | Over-Represented MBA woes | Fit Vs Rankings | Low GPA: What you can do | Letter of Recommendation: The Guide | Indian B Schools accepting GMAT score | Why MBA?

My Reviews
Veritas Prep Live Online

VP
VP
avatar
S
Joined: 08 Jun 2010
Posts: 1377
Re: Because of the enormous research and development expenditures require [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 20 Aug 2016, 08:30
this expenditure is required of you to survive.

is required of somebody to do something

this pattern is not popular and we can not realize this pattern. I do not this pattern. I do not see this pattern formal english. it is hard to digest this pattern .

to solve this problem , we use meaning/logic thinking. such firms requires "firms" at the beginning. so only b is correct.
_________________

visit my facebook to help me.
on facebook, my name is: thang thang thang

Board of Directors
User avatar
V
Status: Stepping into my 10 years long dream
Joined: 18 Jul 2015
Posts: 3082
Premium Member Reviews Badge
Re: Because of the enormous research and development expenditures require [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 12 Mar 2017, 00:52
Because of the enormous research and development expenditures required to survive in the electronics industry, an industry marked by rapid innovation and volatile demand, such firms tend to be very large.

'Such firms' need a reference in the sentence. hence, only B fits in here.
_________________

How I improved from V21 to V40! ?


How to use this forum in THE BEST way?

Senior Manager
Senior Manager
avatar
G
Joined: 29 Oct 2016
Posts: 268
Concentration: Finance, Economics
GMAT 1: 620 Q50 V24
GRE 1: 314 Q167 V147
Re: Because of the enormous research and development expenditures require [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 03 May 2017, 19:06
souvik101990 wrote:
Because of the enormous research and development expenditures required to survive in the electronics industry, an industry marked by rapid innovation and volatile demand, such firms tend to be very large.

A. to survive

B. of firms to survive

C. for surviving

D. for survival

E. for firms' survival


My take is (B).
Such firms indicates that these firm must be mentioned before.Down to (B) and (E).
"firms" acts as adjective in (E);hence (B) is more proper.
Re: Because of the enormous research and development expenditures require   [#permalink] 03 May 2017, 19:06

Go to page   Previous    1   2   [ 39 posts ] 

Display posts from previous: Sort by

Because of the enormous research and development expenditures require

  new topic post reply Question banks Downloads My Bookmarks Reviews Important topics  


GMAT Club MBA Forum Home| About| Terms and Conditions| GMAT Club Rules| Contact| Sitemap

Powered by phpBB © phpBB Group | Emoji artwork provided by EmojiOne

Kindly note that the GMAT® test is a registered trademark of the Graduate Management Admission Council®, and this site has neither been reviewed nor endorsed by GMAC®.