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Because of the enormous research and development expenditures require

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Because of the enormous research and development expenditures require [#permalink]

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Because of the enormous research and development expenditures required to survive in the electronics industry, an industry marked by rapid innovation and volatile demand, such firms tend to be very large.

(A) to survive
(B) of firms to survive
(C) for surviving
(D) for survival
(E) for firms’ survival
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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Re: Because of the enormous research and development expenditures require [#permalink]

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helpmeongmat wrote:
Which sounds better? Does my question even make sense?

Thanks in advance.


depends...

require is a directive verb. when it is not followed by that, it is in the infinitive.

require that
required to survive



these books are required for school
This is required of me.
required for is also correct. it depends on the context. the correct answer may lie elsewhere in the answer choices.

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Re: Because of the enormous research and development expenditures require [#permalink]

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helpmeongmat wrote:
166. Because of the enormous research and development expenditures required to survive in the electronics industry, an industry marked by rapid innovation and volatile demand, such firms tend to be very large.
(A) to survive
(B) of firms to survive
(C) for surviving
(D) for survival
(E) for firms’ survival

Thanks bmwhype2. The questions is pasted above. By the way, nice pic of Kristin Kreuk.


Some people think that avatar is me. lol.



Because of the enormous research and development expenditures required to survive in the electronics industry, an industry marked by rapid innovation and volatile demand, such firms tend to be very large.

an industry marked by rapid innovation and volatile demand is a summative/resumptive modifier. we can pretty much ignore it since it does not add to the meaning of this stem.

therefore we only have this to consider:
Because of the enormous research and development expenditures required to survive in the electronics industry, such firms tend to be very large.

Normally this would be correct: (note the omission of SUCH)
Because of the enormous research and development expenditures required to survive in the electronics industry, firms tend to be very large.

however, SUCH signifies to the reader that it is referring back to firms, which is not mentioned in the dependent clause.
Because of the enormous research and development expenditures required to survive in the electronics industry, such firms tend to be very large.

therefore, we need to mention firms in the dependent clause.
Because of the enormous research and development expenditures required of firms to survive in the electronics industry, such firms tend to be very large.

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Re: Because of the enormous research and development expenditures require [#permalink]

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New post 24 Jul 2007, 23:56
got it man. thanks. haha. nice that some people think that avatar is you. must get a lot of messages. haha. appreciate the help. i've got to work on the fundamentals. i don't think the manhattan gmat book by itself was enough. do you think working with that and the SC1000 is enough? Sorry to bug. thanks. i'm just struggling and have a month left.

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Re: Because of the enormous research and development expenditures require [#permalink]

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New post 25 Jul 2007, 00:08
helpmeongmat wrote:
got it man. thanks. haha. nice that some people think that avatar is you. must get a lot of messages. haha. appreciate the help. i've got to work on the fundamentals. i don't think the manhattan gmat book by itself was enough. do you think working with that and the SC1000 is enough? Sorry to bug. thanks. i'm just struggling and have a month left.


I started out with GMAT's SC book but i felt it was too hard. started from the ground up with Grammar Smart from Princeton Review. Collect about 7 sets of internet notes and combined all of them into one. Then i read all of them on my commute to and from work. then i worked on SC1000 and learned about 80% of the SC from it. it really hits home once u start applying the knowledge to answer questions. i will be going back to MGMAT's book next week.

i get about 3 to 5 messages per week.

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Re: Because of the enormous research and development expenditures require [#permalink]

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New post 25 Jul 2007, 02:24
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bmwhype2 wrote:
helpmeongmat wrote:
166. Because of the enormous research and development expenditures required to survive in the electronics industry, an industry marked by rapid innovation and volatile demand, such firms tend to be very large.
(A) to survive
(B) of firms to survive
(C) for surviving
(D) for survival
(E) for firms’ survival

Thanks bmwhype2. The questions is pasted above. By the way, nice pic of Kristin Kreuk.


Some people think that avatar is me. lol.



Because of the enormous research and development expenditures required to survive in the electronics industry, an industry marked by rapid innovation and volatile demand, such firms tend to be very large.

an industry marked by rapid innovation and volatile demand is a summative/resumptive modifier. we can pretty much ignore it since it does not add to the meaning of this stem.

therefore we only have this to consider:
Because of the enormous research and development expenditures required to survive in the electronics industry, such firms tend to be very large.

Normally this would be correct: (note the omission of SUCH)
Because of the enormous research and development expenditures required to survive in the electronics industry, firms tend to be very large.

however, SUCH signifies to the reader that it is referring back to firms, which is not mentioned in the dependent clause.
Because of the enormous research and development expenditures required to survive in the electronics industry, such firms tend to be very large.

therefore, we need to mention firms in the dependent clause.
Because of the enormous research and development expenditures required of firms to survive in the electronics industry, such firms tend to be very large.[/quote

Very Nice! (The analysis I mean :-D )

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Re: Because of the enormous research and development expenditures require [#permalink]

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lumone wrote:
Because of the enormous research and development expenditures required to survive in the electronics industry, an industry marked by rapid innovation and volatile demand, such firms tend to be very large.

(A) to survive
(B) of firms to survive
(C) for surviving
(D) for survival
(E) for firms' survival

I have the solution, but don't understand it. :-(

Can anyone please explain? :-)


Cheers,

L.


B.

"Such firms" needs a reference, so eliminate a, c, d, e.
E. is eliminated because it does not introduce "firms" as an object.


Such as when we say "Jane's kite is red, although she loves it." the only object "she" can point to is Kite, not Jane.

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Re: Because of the enormous research and development expenditures require [#permalink]

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New post 12 Oct 2007, 02:09
JingChan wrote:
lumone wrote:
Because of the enormous research and development expenditures required to survive in the electronics industry, an industry marked by rapid innovation and volatile demand, such firms tend to be very large.

(A) to survive
(B) of firms to survive
(C) for surviving
(D) for survival
(E) for firms' survival

I have the solution, but don't understand it. :-(

Can anyone please explain? :-)


Cheers,

L.


B.

"Such firms" needs a reference, so eliminate a, c, d, e.
E. is eliminated because it does not introduce "firms" as an object.


Such as when we say "Jane's kite is red, although she loves it." the only object "she" can point to is Kite, not Jane.


=>> I am sure answer is B or E, because "Such firms" needs reference to firms.

In B - required of firms to survive => here required of sound weired.
E - sounds correct.

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Re: Because of the enormous research and development expenditures require [#permalink]

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New post 12 Oct 2007, 02:34
yash500 wrote:
=>> I am sure answer is B or E, because "Such firms" needs reference to firms.

In B - required of firms to survive => here required of sound weired.
E - sounds correct.


Such firms does not have a clear reference in E.

Simplified Passage-
Because of the R&D required for firm's survival in the electronics industry such firms tend to be very large.

"firm's survival" can be replaced by "survival"; once this happens, we see the sentence fall apart:

Because of the R&D required for survival in the electronics industry such firms tend to be very large.

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Re: Because of the enormous research and development expenditures require [#permalink]

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New post 12 Oct 2007, 10:08
lumone wrote:
Because of the enormous research and development expenditures required to survive in the electronics industry, an industry marked by rapid innovation and volatile demand, such firms tend to be very large.

(A) to survive
(B) of firms to survive
(C) for surviving
(D) for survival
(E) for firms' survival

I have the solution, but don't understand it. :-(

Can anyone please explain? :-)


Cheers,

L.


Everything else but B is crappy. I don't really like B either.

The correct idiom is usually required by or requirments of.

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IMO B

more than the idiom, what we have to note here is, the latter part of the sentence after comma "such firms", so firms has to be mentioned before, this rules out A, C and D, between B and E, E has possesive poison, moreover "required of" is the correct usuage, so B wins, FYI it is an OG 10 pblm. no: 181

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New post 13 Jan 2010, 08:48
B for me as well. The use of "such firms" tells us that firms needs to be mentioned somewhere before this. Choice E is out because it does not mention firms; it mentions firm's survival.
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Re: Because of the enormous research and development expenditures require [#permalink]

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New post 13 Jan 2010, 11:10
sreehari1250 wrote:
55. Because of the enormous research and development expenditures required to survive in the electronics industry, an industry marked by rapid innovation and volatile demand, such firms tend to be very large.

(A) to survive
(B) of firms to survive
(C) for surviving
(D) for survival
(E) for firms’ survival


My take is E.

Because of the enormous research and development expenditures required for firms’ survival in the electronics industry | ..... | such firms ....
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New post 15 Jan 2010, 00:35
Required of is the correct idiom here...iam also with B

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New post 15 Jan 2010, 03:15
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My ans is B for 2 reasons
1. Require +to
2. Such firms implies that there is preceding "firms" word & without "firms", the sentence seems to be vague -->who is required.
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Re: Because of the enormous research and development expenditures require [#permalink]

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New post 28 Mar 2010, 01:38
Hi,

Knew that B is the OA. But according to Manhattan SC (4th edition page 165), a usage such as "she REQUIRES OF her friend TO DO work" is incorrect. That means, the OA "B" is not correct??

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Re: Because of the enormous research and development expenditures require [#permalink]

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New post 14 Apr 2010, 11:15
If B were required out of firm the obvious choice is B.

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New post 14 Apr 2010, 14:39
Don;t know, whether the following explanations help in understanding why E is wrong:

it seems to be a case of active/passive voice.

B "required of firms" we make it clear that firms need to arrange their expenditures to survive
E "required for firms" its clear that money is required FOR firms, but who is responsible for arranging that ?

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Re: Because of the enormous research and development expenditures require [#permalink]

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New post 10 Nov 2011, 08:16
Great explanation. I fell for A

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Re: Because of the enormous research and development expenditures require [#permalink]

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The mention of 'such firms' later in the sentence tells us that there must be a reference to the firms earlier on in the sentence. For this reason, A, C, and D are out.

Between B and E, B wins because it clearly mentions the firms for 'such firms' to refer back to this later on. In E, only the firms' survival is mentioned - not the firms themselves - so 'such firms' has no precedent to refer back to.

Clearly B.
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Re: Because of the enormous research and development expenditures require   [#permalink] 17 May 2012, 11:51

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