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# Because the Supreme Court has ruled that the prosecution

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Because the Supreme Court has ruled that the prosecution [#permalink]

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06 Jul 2011, 13:39
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Because the Supreme Court has ruled that the prosecution in a job discrimination case must prove not only that the employer lied about the reasons for dismissal but also that those reasons were discriminatory, plaintiffs in such cases fear that they will have no higher court that they can appeal to when their cases are decided in lower courts.

A) that they can appeal to when their cases are
B) to which to appeal after their cases have been
C) for appealing if their case has been
D) to which they can appeal if their case is
E) that their cases can appeal, if they have been
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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Re: Because the Supreme Court has ruled that the prosecution [#permalink]

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06 Jul 2011, 14:12
i answered A
A re-look at the options and having known that the OA is B makes me say that the tense plays a major factor in choosing the right answer.
I ruled out E as 'cases can't appeal'
There is a 2-3 split in terms of tense (is/are vs has been/have been). i can't get further than this ..
Experts- please help

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Re: Because the Supreme Court has ruled that the prosecution [#permalink]

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06 Jul 2011, 14:42
The tense matter struck me... "have been" i.e perfect tense is required here as the flow of events suggest 2 events earlier of which is "deciding of the cases in lower court" and hence, perfect tense for the one happening earlier.. but still the tense error did not strike me while attempting it for the first time.. any catch for such questions?
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Re: Because the Supreme Court has ruled that the prosecution [#permalink]

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06 Jul 2011, 20:06
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RohitKalla wrote:
Q. Because the Supreme Court has ruled that the prosecution in a job discrimination case must prove not only that the employer lied about the reasons for dismissal but also that those reasons were discriminatory, plaintiffs in such cases fear that they will have no higher court that they can appeal to when their cases are decided in lower courts.

A) that they can appeal to when their cases are

B) to which to appeal after their cases have been

C) for appealing if their case has been

D) to which they can appeal if their case is

E) that their cases can appeal, if they have been

Please let me know why the answer is what it is. I am not clear on the reasons.

The word "that" isn't necessary here. The idiomatic structure "court that they can appeal to" is not preferred on the GMAT. But more telling is the last word in (A): "are" --present tense. You need to present the sentence in such a way that it's clear decisions are made in the lower courts and then afterwards there's some possibility of appeal with higher courts that is suggested in the sentence.

I wasn't so hot on "that" but I did like "to which" in answers (B) and (D).

I actually did not even read the first half of the sentence. I only started reading from the comma:
"plaintiffs in such cases fear that they will have no higher court that they can appeal to when their cases are decided in lower courts."

Between (B) and (D)---(B) uses "have been" while (D) uses "is"---not what we want.

So (B) is what we want. It correctly uses "to which" and also correctly uses "have been."

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Re: Because the Supreme Court has ruled that the prosecution [#permalink]

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06 Jul 2011, 20:45
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A) that they can appeal to when their cases are – that they can appeal is unidiomatic; secondly use of ‘when’ is inappropriate in that it implies a specific point of time of deciding in the lower courts; use of ‘are’ is wrong since the appeal happens after the lower courts have decided the cases

B) to which to appeal after their cases have been – ‘after’ and ‘have been’ are correct usages; correct choice.

C) for appealing if their case has been – ‘their case’ means that all the plaintiffs are collaborating one single case

D) to which they can appeal if their case is – same as in C

E) that their cases can appeal, if they have been – can cases appeal by themselves – distorted meaning
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Re: Because the Supreme Court has ruled that the prosecution [#permalink]

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06 Jul 2011, 20:53
RohitKalla wrote:
The tense matter struck me... "have been" i.e perfect tense is required here as the flow of events suggest 2 events earlier of which is "deciding of the cases in lower court" and hence, perfect tense for the one happening earlier.. but still the tense error did not strike me while attempting it for the first time.. any catch for such questions?

Do you split youur answer choices? If you do, you will see options are divided into ending with is, are or have been. then the tense matter would strike, since you have to decide between these..

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Re: Because the Supreme Court has ruled that the prosecution [#permalink]

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07 Jul 2011, 00:20
Thanks Zeke and Daagh for the explanations, but i have not understood why C is wrong. What if the plaintiffs are indeed collaborating on a single case (absurd but when i answered the question, i only looked at the S-V agreement of 'case' and 'has'),in which case 'C' can also be correct or does it distort the author's intended meaning?

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Re: Because the Supreme Court has ruled that the prosecution [#permalink]

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07 Jul 2011, 04:38
Thanks Daagg and Vivesomnium. Yeah i do split my choices.. Now am wondering what was i doin with my brain while attempting this quest
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Re: Because the Supreme Court has ruled that the prosecution [#permalink]

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08 Jul 2011, 11:45
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Nice question this...

Here is a completely different approach to this problem:

First -- Understand the meaning of the sentence -- What is the author saying? -- The Supreme Court has made some rulings that are not very favorable to the plaintiffs. So the plaintiffs feel that they may not be able to appeal to a higher court.

So which of these choices actually conveys this information properly?

Only Choice B -- why? The key is to understand the meaning of the sentence -- the keyword is "after" --- when do you appeal to a higher court?? -- You appeal to a higher court "after" your case has been decided unfavorably in a lower court.

SC can be tackled without getting bogged down by tenses, voices, tones etc.

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Re: Because the Supreme Court has ruled that the prosecution [#permalink]

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08 Jul 2011, 12:34
daagh wrote:
A) that they can appeal to when their cases are – that they can appeal is unidiomatic; secondly use of ‘when’ is inappropriate in that it implies a specific point of time of deciding in the lower courts; use of ‘are’ is wrong since the appeal happens after the lower courts have decided the cases

B) to which to appeal after their cases have been – ‘after’ and ‘have been’ are correct usages; correct choice.

C) for appealing if their case has been – ‘their case’ means that all the plaintiffs are collaborating one single case

D) to which they can appeal if their case is – same as in C

E) that their cases can appeal, if they have been – can cases appeal by themselves – distorted meaning

Great explanation daagh for dumb people like me.......
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Re: Because the Supreme Court has ruled that the prosecution [#permalink]

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01 Sep 2012, 07:02
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Because the Supreme Court has ruled that the prosecution in a job discrimination case must prove not only that the employer lied about the reasons for dismissal but also that those reasons were discriminatory, plaintiffs in such cases fear that they will have no higher court that they can appeal to when their cases are decided in lower courts.

that they can appeal to when their cases are
to which to appeal after their cases have been
for appealing if their case has been
to which they can appeal if their case is
that their cases can appeal, if they have been

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Re: Because the Supreme Court has ruled that the prosecution [#permalink]

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01 Sep 2012, 10:45
C and D are out because the earlier part of the sentence refers to cases NOT case

plaintiffs in such cases fear that they will have no higher court

E has a repetitive that in it - that has no correct reference
plaintiffs in such cases fear that they will have no higher court that their cases can appeal

A when their cases are is referring to specific point on time no time mentioned in the sentence

thats hovv i ruled these out

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Re: Because the Supreme Court has ruled that the prosecution [#permalink]

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01 Sep 2012, 12:11
mehulsayani wrote:
Because the Supreme Court has ruled that the prosecution in a job discrimination case must prove not only that the employer lied about the reasons for dismissal but also that those reasons were discriminatory, plaintiffs in such cases fear that they will have no higher court that they can appeal to when their cases are decided in lower courts.

that they can appeal to when their cases are
to which to appeal after their cases have been
for appealing if their case has been
to which they can appeal if their case is
that their cases can appeal, if they have been

I've never seen the usage - to which to appeal , and in the context, it makes little sense to me.

I will go with A.

Any clarifications please?

Best,
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Re: Because the Supreme Court has ruled that the prosecution [#permalink]

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29 Oct 2012, 22:43
Because the Supreme Court has ruled that the prosecution in a job discrimination case must prove not only that the employer lied about the reasons for dismissal but also that those reasons were discriminatory, plaintiffs in such cases fear that they will have no higher court that they can appeal to when their cases are decided in lower courts.

that they can appeal to when their cases are

to which to appeal after their cases have been

for appealing if their case has been

to which they can appeal if their case is

that their cases can appeal, if they have been

OA after some discussion....

Can you please try to explain your reasoning from Verb tense perspective?

Cheers

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Re: Because the Supreme Court has ruled that the prosecution [#permalink]

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29 Oct 2012, 23:14
Jp27 wrote:
Because the Supreme Court has ruled that the prosecution in a job discrimination case must prove not only that the employer lied about the reasons for dismissal but also that those reasons were discriminatory, plaintiffs in such cases fear that they will have no higher court that they can appeal to when their cases are decided in lower courts.

that they can appeal to when their cases are

to which to appeal after their cases have been

for appealing if their case has been

to which they can appeal if their case is

that their cases can appeal, if they have been

OA after some discussion....

Can you please try to explain your reasoning from Verb tense perspective?

Cheers

Notice this part: "plaintiffs in such cases fear that they will have no higher court"

Hence in the correct choice ' case decision' should have occurred in past relative to action 'fear'. Further, 'cases' is plural.

Hence Ans B it is.
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Re: Because the Supreme Court has ruled that the prosecution [#permalink]

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30 Oct 2012, 09:52
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1. That is not required. eliminate A,E
2. For appealing is unidiomatic. it should be "appeal to". Eliminate C

This leaves B and D

Here two events are involved 1. decision by the LC 2. Appeal to the HC
therefore perfect tense is required. Hence B wins.
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Re: Because the Supreme Court has ruled that the prosecution [#permalink]

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30 Oct 2012, 10:26
anshunadir wrote:
1. That is not required. eliminate A,E
2. For appealing is unidiomatic. it should be "appeal to". Eliminate C

This leaves B and D

Here two events are involved 1. decision by the LC 2. Appeal to the HC
therefore perfect tense is required. Hence B wins.

This is already a good explanation. Let me add my two cents.

'...plaintiffs in such cases fear that they will have no higher court that they can appeal to when their cases are decided in lower courts.'
1. Since the action started in the past [decisions made in lower court] and continues into the future [will not have a higher court to appeal to ], a present perfect form is required.
2.
'...plaintiffs in such cases...' Since the cases here is plural, the corresponding use should also be plural.

Hence, (B)
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Re: Because the Supreme Court has ruled that the prosecution [#permalink]

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07 Nov 2012, 09:21
Extremely helpful explanation vips, closed271 and anshunadir

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Re: Because the Supreme Court has ruled that the prosecution [#permalink]

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20 Nov 2012, 06:29
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Because the Supreme Court has ruled that the prosecution in a job discrimination case must prove not only that the employer lied about the reasons for dismissal but also that those reasons were discriminatory, plaintiffs in such cases fear that they will have no higher court that they can appeal to when their cases are decided in lower courts.

(A) that they will have no higher court that they can appeal to when their cases are
(B) to which to appeal after their cases have been
(C) for appealing if their case has been
(D) to which they can appeal if their case is
(E) that their cases can appeal, if they have been

OA after some discussions.

Last edited by nelz007 on 20 Nov 2012, 08:19, edited 1 time in total.

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Re: Because the Supreme Court has ruled that the prosecution [#permalink]

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20 Nov 2012, 06:48
nelz007 wrote:
Because the Supreme Court has ruled that the prosecution in a job discrimination case must prove not only that the employer lied about the reasons for dismissal but also that those reasons were discriminatory, plaintiffs in such cases fear that they will have no higher court that they can appeal to when their cases are decided in lower courts.

(A) that they will have no higher court that they can appeal to when their cases are
(B) to which to appeal after their cases have been
(C) for appealing if their case has been
(D) to which they can appeal if their case is
(E) that their cases can appeal, if they have been

OA after some discussions.

IMO D

...... higher court to which they can appeal if their case is .....
higher court is noun to be modified....
they refers to employee...

Please correct if im wrong
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Re: Because the Supreme Court has ruled that the prosecution   [#permalink] 20 Nov 2012, 06:48

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# Because the Supreme Court has ruled that the prosecution

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