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Because there are provisions of the new maritime code that provide th

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Because there are provisions of the new maritime code that provide th  [#permalink]

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Because there are provisions of the new maritime code that provide that even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fisheries and oil fields of large sea areas, they have already stimulated international disputes over uninhabited islands.


(A) Because there are provisions of the new maritime code that provide that even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fisheries and oil fields of large sea areas, they have already stimulated

(B) Because the new maritime code provides that even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fisheries and oil fields of large sea areas, it has already stimulated

(C) Even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fisheries and oil fields of large sea areas under provisions of the new maritime code, already stimulating

(D) Because even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fisheries and oil fields of large sea areas under provisions of the new maritime code, this has already stimulated

(E) Because even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fisheries and oil fields of large sea areas under provisions of the new maritime code, which is already stimulating


The Official Guide for GMAT Review 13th Edition, 2012

Practice Question
Question No.: SC 115

Originally posted by gmattokyo on 02 Nov 2009, 19:53.
Last edited by Bunuel on 25 Jan 2019, 04:30, edited 3 times in total.
Edited the question.
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Re: Because there are provisions of the new maritime code that provide th  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Jun 2015, 00:36
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Because there are provisions of the new maritime code that provide that even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fisheries and oil fields of large sea areas, they have already stimulated international disputes over uninhabited islands.

Because there are provisions of the new maritime code that
---provide that even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fisheries and oil fields of large sea areas,
they have already stimulated international disputes over uninhabited islands.

(A) Because there are provisions of the new maritime code that provide that even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fisheries and oil fields of large sea areas, they have already stimulated
(B) Because the new maritime code provides that even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fisheries and oil fields of large sea areas, it has already stimulated
(C) Even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fisheries and oil fields of large sea areas under provisions of the new maritime code, already stimulating
>> Ing modifier doesnt go with sub tiny islet
(D) Because even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fisheries and oil fields of large sea areas under provisions of the new maritime code, this has already stimulated
>> Here "this" tries to represent complete clause "tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fisheries and oil fields of large sea areas under provisions of the new maritime code", hence wrong. It needs a noun.
Also,I found something intresting from MGMAT site:
Quote:
if you're going to use "this", you should use it as an adjective: this thing, this finding, this statistic, etc.
(E) Because even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fisheries and oil fields of large sea areas under provisions of the new maritime code, which is already stimulating
>> Missing main verb
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Re: Because there are provisions of the new maritime code that provide th  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 25 Jul 2016, 09:10
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This one is dealing with the "Subject" of the sentence.
One has to be very clear about what has caused the disputes- It is either some of "the provisions of the new maritime code" or the "New Maritime code" as a whole. In any case "tiny islands" cannot be the subject of this sentence.

So C, D, E are WRONG. Throw them out in 2 seconds

A and B are potential candidates.


A is blatantly wrong because "they" does not have a cleat antecedent "they" can refer to provisions, sea areas, fisheries, oil fields or claims. "They" is creating a big mess and confusion.

B is concise and clear and well constructed. The use of "it" refers clearly to singular noun "new maritime code"

My choice will be B
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Originally posted by LogicGuru1 on 08 Jul 2016, 23:32.
Last edited by LogicGuru1 on 25 Jul 2016, 09:10, edited 2 times in total.
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Re: Because there are provisions of the new maritime code that provide th  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Dec 2012, 13:57
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papillon86 wrote:
Because there are provisions of the new maritime code that provide that even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fisheries and oil fie lds of large sea areas. they have already stimulated international disputes over uninhabited islands.

(A) Because there are provisions of the new maritime code that provide that even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fisheries and oil fields of large sea areas, they have already stimulated
(B) Because the new maritime code provides that even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fisheries and oil fields of large sea areas, it has already stimulated
(C) Even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fisheries and oil fields of large sea areas under provisions of the new maritime code, already stimulating
(D) Because even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fisheries and oil fields of large sea areas under provisions of the new maritime code, this has already stimulated
(E) Because even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fisheries and oil fie lds of large sea areas under provisions of the new maritime code, which is already stimulating


This is an excellent questions......
here is my POE for the question.

A uses wrong construction "that provides that'....it is clearly mentioned in the official explanation of Q 128 Sc OG 13 answers...... hence the same rule apply here also.

B Appears to be correct.
C Modifier error........."Already Stimulating' appears after comma hence it should modify the whole clause.. Hence it modifies "basis for claims" why because when asked the question what is already stimulating it answers Basis on the claim...It should have modified Maritime code.. If it would have been mentioned without comma than would have been right.
D is also incorrect. The referent of this is incorrect.
E stimulating should be stimulated ..

Moreover

The main problem with the sentence is the construction.... Because mentions a cause for for something so The Provisions of maritme code is the main cause here hence should be placed near to it... All other construction are inverted construction hence cannot be considered correct.
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Re: Because there are provisions of the new maritime code that provide th  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Jul 2016, 08:54
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(A) Because there are provisions of the new maritime code that provide that even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fisheries and oil fields of large sea areas, they have already stimulated wrong verb. 'they' refers to what?
(B) Because the new maritime code provides that even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fisheries and oil fields of large sea areas, it has already stimulated. 'it' is acting as a placeholder and correctly refers to 'code
(C) Even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fisheries and oil fields of large sea areas under provisions of the new maritime code, already stimulating. 'already stimulating' modifies 'tiny islets'. it should instead modifies 'maritime code'
(D) Because even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fisheries and oil fields of large sea areas under provisions of the new maritime code, this has already stimulated 'this' refers to what?
(E) Because even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fisheries and oil fields of large sea areas under provisions of the new maritime code, which is already stimulating 'because' requires a proper connector. This sentence looks incomplete
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Re: Because there are provisions of the new maritime code that provide th  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Jan 2018, 02:36
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sdlife wrote:
Hi Experts, I think in A "that" could refer back to "provisions", so I don't think that's enough to mark A wrong. Could you please tell what other errors are in A? Thanks.


1. The pronoun "they" is ambiguous.
2. The usage "there are provisions of the new maritime code that provide" is wordy - the structure in B "the new maritime code provides" is more concise.
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Re: Because there are provisions of the new maritime code that provide th  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Mar 2018, 07:37
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thangvietnam wrote:
look at choice A
it is wordy when compared to choice B.
moreover, "they" is ambiguous. grammatically, subject as pronoun of second clause can refer to subject of the first clause. but the first clause is " there are" which have no subject and "they" in second clause become unclear.

so, A suffer two problems.



Hello thangvietnam,


Your wordiness analysis of Choice A is correct. It indeed is wordy. However, in the expression there are provisions of the new maritime code, there is NOT the subject for the verb are.

The subject for the verb are is provisions of the new maritime code because the number of the noun following the verb decides the number of the verb in such structures. For example:

There is a book that describes in detail the phenomenon of global warming.

There are many provisions that can be used for the welfare of the poor.


In such structures, the word there just acts as a placeholder.


Hope this helps. :-)
Thanks.
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Re: Because there are provisions of the new maritime code that provide th  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Mar 2018, 08:25
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Because there are provisions of the new maritime code that provide that even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fisheries and oil fields of large sea areas, they have already stimulated international disputes over uninhabited islands.

(A) Because there are provisions of the new maritime code that provide that even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fisheries and oil fields of large sea areas, they have already stimulated
--that .. that .. is not a preferable construction.
--code is singular .... so provides should be used
--no referent for they


(B) Because the new maritime code provides that even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fisheries and oil fields of large sea areas, it has already stimulated
--Correct

(C) Even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fisheries and oil fields of large sea areas under provisions of the new maritime code, already stimulating
--we don't need "comma" + verb+ing modifier

(D) Because even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fisheries and oil fields of large sea areas under provisions of the new maritime code, this has already stimulated
--No referent for this

(E) Because even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fisheries and oil fields of large sea areas under provisions of the new maritime code, which is already stimulating
--This is a sentence fragment
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Re: Because there are provisions of the new maritime code that provide th  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Nov 2016, 19:44
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kivalo wrote:
How do you guys go about solving long sentences like this one? It takes a lot of time to read it, understand intended meaning and find splits. Although many guides say it's better not to do so, I find that in the end, to save time, I solve long sentences by picking what feels right.


If you are going to choose an answer choice in the way you have mentioned, you may as well treat a wrong answer choice as a right one. In this particular question there are glaring errors (refer the colored keywords in red) that could easily be eliminated by POE.

(A) Because there are provisions of the new maritime code that provide that even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fisheries and oil fields of large sea areas, they have already stimulated
(B) Because the new maritime code provides that even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fisheries and oil fields of large sea areas, it has already stimulated
(C) Even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fisheries and oil fields of large sea areas under provisions of the new maritime code, already stimulating
(D) Because even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fisheries and oil fields of large sea areas under provisions of the new maritime code, this has already stimulated
(E) Because even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fisheries and oil fields of large sea areas under provisions of the new maritime code, which is already stimulating

Even if you take 30 seconds to read the original sentence, you can easily eliminate the wrong answer choices in less than a minute.
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Re: Because there are provisions of the new maritime code that provide th  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Jan 2018, 20:40
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Rocket7 wrote:
Hello.

Quick question guys. Does a sentence has to contain an independent clause in order to be a correct sentence? I am of the view that it does. If that's the case then which is the Independent clause in option B? Appreciate the help.


Yes, a sentence MUST have an independent clause for it to be correct.

(B) Because the new maritime code provides that even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fisheries and oil fields of large sea areas, it has already stimulated

"Because... areas" - Dependent Clause starting with a subordinating conjunction - because.
"It has already stimulated international disputes over uninhabited islands." - Independent Clause

Hope this helps!
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Re: Because there are provisions of the new maritime code that provide th  [#permalink]

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New post 29 Mar 2019, 14:49
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Hello Everyone!

Let's tackle this question, one problem at a time, and narrow it down to the right choice! First, here is the original question, with the major difference between the options highlighted in orange:

Because there are provisions of the new maritime code that provide that even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fisheries and oil fields of large sea areas, they have already stimulated international disputes over uninhabited islands.

(A) Because there are provisions of the new maritime code that provide that even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fisheries and oil fields of large sea areas, they have already stimulated
(B) Because the new maritime code provides that even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fisheries and oil fields of large sea areas, it has already stimulated
(C) Even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fisheries and oil fields of large sea areas under provisions of the new maritime code, already stimulating
(D) Because even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fisheries and oil fields of large sea areas under provisions of the new maritime code, this has already stimulated
(E) Because even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fisheries and oil fields of large sea areas under provisions of the new maritime code, which is already stimulating

After glancing over the options quickly, there are 2 main things we can focus on:

1. How to handle the clause about maritime code provisions (Modifiers/Subordinate Clauses/Idioms)
2. How each option ends (Pronouns/Meaning)


Let's actually start with #2 on our list because it deals with a pretty easy concepts: Pronouns & Subordinate Clauses. Here are the two things we need to look for:

1. Do the pronouns agree with their antecedents?
2. Can we find the complete sentence/independent clause in the sentence?


Let's see how each option stacks up:

(A) Because there are provisions of the new maritime code that provide that even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fisheries and oil fields of large sea areas, they have already stimulated

We need to rule this out as INCORRECT because the pronoun "they" is vague! There are several plural nouns that we could pair this up with: provisions, islets, fisheries, and oil fields. Any time you have a pronoun that could apply to several nouns, get rid of it.

(B) Because the new maritime code provides that even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fisheries and oil fields of large sea areas, it has already stimulated

This is OKAY for now because the pronoun "it" is clearly referring back to the singular "code." Everything else is plural, so it's not likely to refer any of those things. So let's keep this one for later.

(C) Even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fisheries and oil fields of large sea areas under provisions of the new maritime code, already stimulating

This is OKAY for now because we're not dealing with any pronouns, and there is a clear independent clause here. So let's leave it for later.

(D) Because even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fisheries and oil fields of large sea areas under provisions of the new maritime code, this has already stimulated

This is INCORRECT because the word "this" is misleading. It's leading us to believe that the thing that has stimulated international disputes is THE ENTIRE PHRASE before the comma, not just the new maritime code provisions. The tiny islets didn't do it, nor did the fisheries or oil fields. So let's toss this one out.

(E) Because even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fisheries and oil fields of large sea areas under provisions of the new maritime code, which is already stimulating

This is INCORRECT because it's a sentence fragment! The clause before the comma is a subordinate clause, which cannot stand alone - it needs to be attached to a complete sentence to work. Unfortunately, what comes after the comma here is NOT a complete sentence - it's a modifier. While this is a very long fragment, it's still a fragment!

We can eliminate A, D, & E because they either include vague/misleading pronouns or aren't complete sentences.

Now that we have 2 options left, let's look more carefully at each one to see if we spot any other issues:

(B) Because the new maritime code provides that even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fisheries and oil fields of large sea areas, it has already stimulated

This is CORRECT! It's clear that the maritime code is what is causing the international disputes. The subordinating clause also works because the clause that comes after the comma could stand alone as an independent clause.

(C) Even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fisheries and oil fields of large sea areas under provisions of the new maritime code, already stimulating

This is INCORRECT. It uses an -ing modifier, which modifies THE ENTIRE CLAUSE before the comma, not just the noun directly preceding it. Readers might be misled to thinking that the tiny islets stimulated international disputes, and not the code. We need a modifier that clearly only applies to the maritime code instead, or it needs to be rearranged (like it is in option B) to work.


There you have it - option B is the correct choice!


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Re: Because there are provisions of the new maritime code that provide th  [#permalink]

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New post 17 May 2018, 00:27
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dave13 wrote:
What does "it" refer to in B ? what if instead of "it" would be "this" in B ? :?

isn't it whole sentence construction ambiguous - be it "it' or "this"

what does "it" refer to ? isn't it better to use a specific noun instead of "it" :?

B) Because the new maritime code provides that even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fisheries and oil fields of large sea areas, this initiative has already
stimulated


Hey dave13 ,

"It" in B is referring to the new maritime code.

You need to understand the following construction:

Because Clause 1, Independent Clause 2

Here the Subject of the independent clause 2 refers to the subject of the Clause 1.

In the given question,

Clause 1 : Because the new maritime code(Subject) provides that even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fisheries and oil fields of large sea areas

Independent Clause 2: It(Subject) has already stimulated

Therefore, "It" is referring back to the code.

Does that make sense?
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Re: Because there are provisions of the new maritime code that provide th  [#permalink]

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New post 17 May 2018, 09:21
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oasis90 wrote:
Maybe that's the part that am not clear on the new maritime code(Subject). I thought the new maritime code can't the be the subject because its part of a prepositional phrase. just like this example:

Without the judge knowing how to resolve the issue, he had no way to solve the case.
Even though John is tall, he is not good at basketball.

In both examples above are"Judge" and "John" subjects? or are they simply part of a prepositional phrase they can't be subjects?

This is what I am not clear on.


Hey oasis90 ,

In both the examples you presented, Judge" and "John" are the subjects.

Also, I somehow feel you are not very clear on the difference between a phrase and a clause.

A phrase is either only subject but no verb OR only verb but no verb.

If you are unsure whether a group of words is a clause or phrase, break down the words into the parts of speech to help you decide. If there is a subject and a verb with a predicate, it is a clause. If there is a noun but no verb or a verb but no noun and does not have a predicate, it is a phrase.

Without the judge knowing how to resolve the issue ==> No Verb -- Hence a phrase.
Even though John is tall ==> Both Subject and a Verb -- Hence a clause (To be specific Independent Clause)

Does that make sense?
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Re: Because there are provisions of the new maritime code that provide th  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Jul 2018, 22:24
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A - Because there are provisions of the new maritime code that provide that even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fisheries and oil fields of large sea areas, they have already stimulated
i) Subject verb agreement - provisions (subject), provide (verb) - agreed
ii) Pronoun - they - ambiguous - thus, choice A is eliminated

B- Because the new maritime code provides that even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fisheries and oil fields of large sea areas, it has already stimulated
i) Subject verb agreement - Maritime Code (subject), provides (verb) - agreed
ii) Pronoun - it - here I am confused - pronoun should refer to subject of the previous clause - thus, logically it should refer to maritime code - if this is the case, meaning conveyed is maritime code has already stimulated disputes. But, I am unsure if provisions of maritime code have resulted in disputes or collection of provision to which we call - Code, has resulted in disputes. Obviously collection of all provisions = code. Apparently, no issue.

C- Even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fisheries and oil fields of large sea areas under provisions of the new maritime code, already stimulating
here ing modifier - stimulating - i.e. ing modifier after the comma should correctly modify the clause - i.e. subject as well as verb. In this option subject is 'tiny islets' and verb is 'can be basis'. Illogical usage of ing modifier, thus, option C is eliminated

D- Because even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fisheries and oil fields of large sea areas under provisions of the new maritime code, this has already stimulated
this - refers to entire action - pronoun cannot refer to action. Hence, D is eliminated.

E- Because even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fisheries and oil fields of large sea areas under provisions of the new maritime code, which is already stimulating
which correctly modifies maritime code, however, sentence begins with 'Because' which shall be followed by some verb for main subject - tiny islets...
Because X is something, Y is something... fullstop - correct
Because X is something, which is....fullstop - absolute wrong!

Hence, B is best answer.
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Because there are provisions of the new maritime code that provide that even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fisheries and oil fields of large sea areas, they have already stimulated international disputes over uninhabited islands.

(A) Because there are provisions of the new maritime code that provide that even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fisheries and oil fields of large sea areas, they have already stimulated

(B) Because the new maritime code provides that even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fisheries and oil fields of large sea areas, it has already stimulated

(C) Even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fisheries and oil fields of large sea areas under provisions of the new maritime code, already stimulating

(D) Because even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fisheries and oil fields of large sea areas under provisions of the new maritime code, this has already stimulated

(E) Because even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fisheries and oil fields of large sea areas under provisions of the new maritime code, which is already stimulating

We should not split hairs whether something does something or something else in the something does something.
If we say the hospital provides the best medical care, we cannot ask how a hospital can give the care, but only the people there can give.
If we say that France beat Croatia in the world cup, the French team beat the Croatian side. We cannot ask how France, a country can beat another country.
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Re: Because there are provisions of the new maritime code that provide th  [#permalink]

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New post 16 May 2019, 08:42
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guptaaditi994 wrote:
I did not choose (B) as ???it??? did not have a clear subject.
My reply is not specific to this question, but generally, we shouldn't worry too much about pronoun ambiguity. Look for other "bigger" problems in the options. Start looking for ambiguity errors only once you're sure that there are no major grammar/meaning splits.
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Re: Because there are provisions of the new maritime code that provide th  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Jun 2019, 12:48
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bharatmvs wrote:
GMATNinja, daagh

I want to take this question as an example to get clarity on usage of Noun+noun modifiers with IC, without any conjunctions.

Because the new maritime code provides that even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fisheries and oil fields of large sea areas, it has already stimulated international disputes over uninhabited islands.

It has already stimulated international disputes over uninhabited islands. - This portion is considered an independent clause; However, to get complete clarity, we need to know what IT refers to. Are we still good to call this as IC? From above explanations it clearly explains that it is good to use. So by extending similar understanding to the below sentence, please clear my doubt

let us consider the below noun+noun modifier case.
James created a magnificent design by using the latest graphic design tools, an experiment that many feared to do

an experiment that many feared to do is an independent clause - Though we don't know what this experiment is - It clearly can stand as a subject
This joins the first part of the sentence that is an IC as well, without any of the FANBOYS.
Can we generalize the cases like where an IC acts as a modifier of another clause, it can be connected without any conjunction?
Please help!

bharatmvs, "an experiment that many feared to do" is NOT an independent clause... it is just a noun ("experiment") and a noun modifier ("that many feared to do"). There is no verb to pair with "experiment".

Does that change your question at all?
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Re: Because there are provisions of the new maritime code that provide th  [#permalink]

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New post 03 May 2017, 02:46
Because there are provisions of the new maritime code that provide that even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fisheries and oil fields of large sea areas, they have already stimulated international disputes over uninhabited islands.

(A) Because there are provisions of the new maritime code that provide that even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fisheries and oil fields of large sea areas, they have already stimulated

(B) Because the new maritime code provides that even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fisheries and oil fields of large sea areas, it has already stimulated
--> correct.

(C) Even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fisheries and oil fields of large sea areas under provisions of the new maritime code, already stimulating
--> fragment.

(D) Because even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fisheries and oil fields of large sea areas under provisions of the new maritime code, this has already stimulated

(E) Because even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fisheries and oil fields of large sea areas under provisions of the new maritime code, which is already stimulating
--> fragment.
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Re: Because there are provisions of the new maritime code that provide th  [#permalink]

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New post 02 Jul 2017, 13:14
Because there are provisions of the new maritime code that provide that even tiny islets can be the basis
for claims to the fisheries and oil fields of large sea areas, they have already stimulated international
disputes over uninhabited islands.

A. Because there are provisions of the new maritime code that provide that even tiny islets can be the
basis for claims to the fisheries and oil fields of large sea areas, they have already stimulated
It’s the new maritime code that stimulated international disputes over UI.
So the use of the pronoun “they” and verb “have” is incorrect.

B. Because the new maritime code provides that even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the
fisheries and oil fields of large sea areas, it has already stimulated
Correct

C. Even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fisheries and oil fields of large sea areas under
provisions of the new maritime code, already stimulating
the ver-ing modifier phrase “already stimulated …” illogically modifies the “tiny islets”…

D. Because even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fisheries and oil fields of large sea areas
under provisions of the new maritime code, this has already stimulated
Ambiguous reference “this”
After the “because …” clause, the sentence is expected to tell the “effect” of the “cause” explained in “because” clause..but it is not the case here ..


E. Because even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fisheries and oil fields of large sea areas
under provisions of the new maritime code, which is already stimulating
After the “because …” clause, the sentence is expected to tell the “effect” of the “cause” explained in “because” clause..but it is not the case here ..
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Re: Because there are provisions of the new maritime code that provide th  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Jan 2018, 17:30
Hello.

Quick question guys. Does a sentence has to contain an independent clause in order to be a correct sentence? I am of the view that it does. If that's the case then which is the Independent clause in option B? Appreciate the help.
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Re: Because there are provisions of the new maritime code that provide th   [#permalink] 25 Jan 2018, 17:30

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