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Before learning how to make a synthetic growth hormone

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Before learning how to make a synthetic growth hormone [#permalink]

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Before learning how to make a synthetic growth hormone, scientists had to remove it painstakingly in small amounts from the pituitary glands of human cadavers.

A. learning how to make a synthetic growth hormone, scientists had to remove it painstakingly
B. scientists learned how to make a synthetic growth hormone, they removed it painstakingly
C. scientists learned how to make a synthetic growth hormone, they had to remove it painstakingly
D. scientists learned how to synthesize the growth hormone, it had to be painstakingly removed
E. learning how to synthesize the growth hormone, it had to be painstakingly removed by scientists
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Re: Before learning how to make a synthetic growth hormone [#permalink]

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New post 14 Nov 2017, 06:55
ToponepercentGMAT wrote:
Before learning how to make a synthetic growth hormone, scientists had to remove it painstakingly in small amounts from the pituitary glands of human cadavers.

A. learning how to make a synthetic growth hormone, scientists had to remove it painstakingly
B. scientists learned how to make a synthetic growth hormone, they removed it painstakingly
C. scientists learned how to make a synthetic growth hormone, they had to remove it painstakingly
D. scientists learned how to synthesize the growth hormone, it had to be painstakingly removed
E. learning how to synthesize the growth hormone, it had to be painstakingly removed by scientists

Correct answer must be (D) for the highlighted errors in other options...
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Before learning how to make a synthetic growth hormone [#permalink]

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ToponepercentGMAT wrote:
Before learning how to make a synthetic growth hormone, scientists had to remove it painstakingly in small amounts from the pituitary glands of human cadavers.

A. learning how to make a synthetic growth hormone, scientists had to remove it painstakingly
B. scientists learned how to make a synthetic growth hormone, they removed it painstakingly
C. scientists learned how to make a synthetic growth hormone, they had to remove it painstakingly
D. scientists learned how to synthesize the growth hormone, it had to be painstakingly removed
E. learning how to synthesize the growth hormone, it had to be painstakingly removed by scientists



Hi,
lets see the errors

1) pronoun IT..
'It' should refer to 'GROWTH HORMONE', but here ambiguously refers to 'SYNTHETIC growth hormone'
illogical in meaning, it is 'growth hormone' present in body and NOT 'synthetic growth hormone'
ONLY D and E use IT correctly

2) In E, " before....hormone" should be followed by SCIENTISTS as the clause is modifying scientists
eliminate E

D is correct as it is
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Re: Before learning how to make a synthetic growth hormone [#permalink]

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New post 14 Nov 2017, 07:11
Abhishek009 wrote:
ToponepercentGMAT wrote:
Before learning how to make a synthetic growth hormone, scientists had to remove it painstakingly in small amounts from the pituitary glands of human cadavers.

A. learning how to make a synthetic growth hormone, scientists had to remove it painstakingly
B. scientists learned how to make a synthetic growth hormone, they removed it painstakingly
C. scientists learned how to make a synthetic growth hormone, they had to remove it painstakingly
D. scientists learned how to synthesize the growth hormone, it had to be painstakingly removed
E. learning how to synthesize the growth hormone, it had to be painstakingly removed by scientists

Correct answer must be (D) for the highlighted errors in other options...


Hi Abhishek009,

Can you please explain why A is wrong?

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Before learning how to make a synthetic growth hormone [#permalink]

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Quote:
Before learning how to make a synthetic growth hormone, scientists had to remove it painstakingly in small amounts from the pituitary glands of human cadavers.

A. learning how to make a synthetic growth hormone, scientists had to remove it painstakingly
B. scientists learned how to make a synthetic growth hormone, they removed it painstakingly
C. scientists learned how to make a synthetic growth hormone, they had to remove it painstakingly
D. scientists learned how to synthesize the growth hormone, it had to be painstakingly removed
E. learning how to synthesize the growth hormone, it had to be painstakingly removed by scientists


There are two ways to approach this issue.

1. The grammar way: We know as per the V-A-N rule, a verb prevails over adjective and a noun. Here the phrase 'synthetic hormone growth' is an adjective and inferior 'to synthesize the hormone growth' which is a verb. Therefore, A, B, and C are out.
Between D and E, E has a serious modification error in that, the noun Scientists should have been placed immediately after the comma. D is the correct choice.

2. The meaning way: It may be noted that a synthetic hormone is made only outside the body and not within the body. Choices A, B and C all erroneously point to the removal of the synthetic growth hormone from the pituitary glands, which are inside the living body; therefore, the first three choices are eliminated.
Now it is the choice between D and E, wherein as such the pronoun 'it' pointedly refers simply to the growth hormone. However, D is better than E because of the modification flaw in E.

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Re: Before learning how to make a synthetic growth hormone [#permalink]

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New post 14 Nov 2017, 12:30
daagh wrote:
Quote:
Before learning how to make a synthetic growth hormone, scientists had to remove it painstakingly in small amounts from the pituitary glands of human cadavers.

A. learning how to make a synthetic growth hormone, scientists had to remove it painstakingly
B. scientists learned how to make a synthetic growth hormone, they removed it painstakingly
C. scientists learned how to make a synthetic growth hormone, they had to remove it painstakingly
D. scientists learned how to synthesize the growth hormone, it had to be painstakingly removed
E. learning how to synthesize the growth hormone, it had to be painstakingly removed by scientists


There are two ways to approach this issue.

1. The grammar way: We know as per the V-A-N rule, a verb prevails over adjective and a noun. Here the phrase 'synthetic hormone growth' is an adjective and inferior 'to synthesize the hormone growth' which is a verb. Therefore, A, B, and C are out.
Between D and E, E has a serious modification error in that, the noun Scientists should have been placed immediately after the comma. D is the correct choice.

2. The meaning way: It may be noted that a synthetic hormone is made only outside the body and not within the body. Choices A, B and C all erroneously point to the removal of the synthetic growth hormone from the pituitary glands, which are inside the living body; therefore, the first three choices are eliminated.
Now it is the choice between D and E, wherein as such the pronoun 'it' pointedly refers simply to the growth hormone. However, D is better than E because of the modification flaw in E.
''


Hi daagh

Could you share some examples of applying V-A-N rule -- preferably some other OG questions where this could be applied? I read it for the first time and would like to learn it.

Thanks

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Re: Before learning how to make a synthetic growth hormone [#permalink]

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New post 14 Nov 2017, 15:26
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"remove" is the verb that has been defined as a "painstaking" process. So, it must precede it. "painstakingly in small amounts" is not correct. A, B, C are out.
E is flawed - the modifier (sentence before the comma) should modify "the scientists".
D is correct
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Re: Before learning how to make a synthetic growth hormone [#permalink]

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New post 14 Nov 2017, 20:11
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Dear Sevenplusplus
I will certainly. But l give me a couple of days to search
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Re: Before learning how to make a synthetic growth hormone   [#permalink] 14 Nov 2017, 20:11
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