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Before learning how to make a synthetic growth hormone, scientists had

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Re: Before learning how to make a synthetic growth hormone, scientists had  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Nov 2019, 21:54
Hi GMATNinja,

Can you please help me with this question?

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Before learning how to make a synthetic growth hormone, scientists had  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Nov 2019, 11:54
daagh wrote:
Quote:
Before learning how to make a synthetic growth hormone, scientists had to remove it painstakingly in small amounts from the pituitary glands of human cadavers.

A. learning how to make a synthetic growth hormone, scientists had to remove it painstakingly
B. scientists learned how to make a synthetic growth hormone, they removed it painstakingly
C. scientists learned how to make a synthetic growth hormone, they had to remove it painstakingly
D. scientists learned how to synthesize the growth hormone, it had to be painstakingly removed
E. learning how to synthesize the growth hormone, it had to be painstakingly removed by scientists


There are two ways to approach this issue.

1. The grammar way: We know as per the V-A-N rule, a verb prevails over adjective and a noun. Here the phrase 'synthetic' is an adjectival and is inferior 'to synthesize the hormone growth' which is a verb. Therefore, A, B, and C are out.
Between D and E, E has a severe modification error in that, the noun Scientists should have been placed immediately after the comma. D is the correct choice.

2. The meaning way: It may be noted that a synthetic hormone is made only outside the body and not within the body. Choices A, B and C all erroneously point to the removal of the synthetic growth hormone from the pituitary glands, which are inside the living body; therefore, the first three choices are eliminated.
Now it is the choice between D and E, wherein as such the pronoun 'it' pointedly refers to the growth hormone. However, D is better than E because of the modification flaw in E.


daagh I just have one confusion I understand why each option is wrong except D what I don’t understand is that since the timeline is clear as we have used “before” in the stmt doesn’t that make the use of “had” redundant or wrong?

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Before learning how to make a synthetic growth hormone, scientists had  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Nov 2019, 13:52
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rohitchayal wrote:
daagh I just have one confusion I understand why each option is wrong except D what I don’t understand is that since the timeline is clear as we have used “before” in the stmt doesn’t that make the use of “had” redundant or wrong?

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Hello rohitchayal,

Although your question is not directed to me, I would like to present the answer.

Your question suggests that you think that the correct answer choice uses the past perfect tense by using had to be removed. But that is not the case. The verb had to be removed is a simple past tense verb. Let me explain how.

When has/have/had is followed by another verb in past participle form, then it acts as a perfect tense verb. For example:

He has bought the tickets.
• He had bought the tickets.
• They have bought the tickets
.

When has/have/had is not followed by any other verb, then it acts as a simple tense verb. For example:

He has the tickets.
• He had the tickets.
• They have the tickets.


The correct answer choice of this official sentence used the verb had to be removed. Please note that had is NOT followed by a verb in its past participle form. Hence, it is a simple past tense verb.

Another point that I want to clarify for you is that in the presence of words that clarify the sequence of the actions mentioned in the sentence such as before, after, earlier, etc. doe snot make the use of past perfect tense redundant or incorrect. In the presence of such sequence clarifying words, the use of the past perfect tense verb becomes optional. For example:


    I left for school before the rain started.

    I had left for school before the rain started.



Both the above-mentioned sentences are correct.


Hope this helps. :-)
Thanks.
Shraddha
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Re: Before learning how to make a synthetic growth hormone, scientists had  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Nov 2019, 05:09
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Before learning how to make a synthetic growth hormone, scientists had  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Nov 2019, 12:00
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views regarding what? could you please make it clear?
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Before learning how to make a synthetic growth hormone, scientists had   [#permalink] 22 Nov 2019, 12:00

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