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# Before scientists learned how to make a synthetic growth

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Before scientists learned how to make a synthetic growth [#permalink]

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22 Jan 2012, 19:50
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55% (hard)

Question Stats:

54% (05:14) correct 46% (00:52) wrong based on 654 sessions

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Before scientists learned how to make a synthetic growth hormone, removing it painstakingly in small amounts from the pituitary glands of human cadavers.

A. scientists learned how to make a synthetic growth hormone, removing it painstakingly
C. scientists learned how to synthesize the growth hormone, it had to be painstakingly removed
D. learning how to make a synthetic growth hormone, scientists had to remove it painstakingly
E. learning how to synthesize the growth hormone, it have to be painstakingly removed by scientists
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

Last edited by Narenn on 01 Aug 2013, 07:17, edited 1 time in total.
Part of the sentence underlined
If you have any questions
New!
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22 Jan 2012, 20:54
+1 for B. Thanks for sharing this. Whats your question about it?
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22 Jan 2012, 22:03
I am also getting B for this.C is bit ambiguous.Will wait for an explanation.
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23 Jan 2012, 09:44
This question tests the Past Perfect Tense.
"B" is incorrect because it uses had twice. This does not make sense in terms of event sequence.
"C" is correct because it uses simple Past in the first Clause and Past Perfect - had construction - to indicate the sequence of events.
1) First they had to Painstakingly extracted the hormone
2) Later they were able to create it synthetically.
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23 Jan 2012, 10:11
I was reading the Manhattan Post regarding this Question. According to the Instructors on that Forum "the had to be removed" construction is not in Past Perfect Tense. I would like to ask for a break down of each individual answer choice.
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24 Jan 2012, 23:43
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A. scientists learned how to make a synthetic growth hormone, removing it painstakingly
C. scientists learned how to synthesize the growth hormone, it had to be painstakingly removed
D. learning how to make a synthetic growth hormone, scientists had to remove it painstakingly
E. learning how to synthesize the growth hormone, it have to be painstakingly removed by scientists

A B D -- out - Redundancy , 'make' and 'synthetic' - conveys same meaning.
Between C and E : E --out Modifier error. hence C
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25 Jan 2012, 14:33
A. scientists learned how to make a synthetic growth hormone, removing it painstakingly -Incomplete
C. scientists learned how to synthesize the growth hormone, it had to be painstakingly removed
D. learning how to make a synthetic growth hormone, scientists had to remove it painstakingly
E. learning how to synthesize the growth hormone, it have to be painstakingly removed by scientists
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27 Jan 2012, 03:30
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A. scientists learned how to make a synthetic growth hormone, removing it painstakingly - Make a synthetic, removing wrong
C. scientists learned how to synthesize the growth hormone, it had to be painstakingly removed - correct
D. learning how to make a synthetic growth hormone, scientists had to remove it painstakingly - make a synthetic, tense?
E. learning how to synthesize the growth hormone, it have to be painstakingly removed by scientists - meaning?

POE "C"
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Re: Before scientists learned how to make a synthetic growth [#permalink]

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11 Nov 2013, 13:17
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Before scientists learned how to make a synthetic growth hormone, removing it painstakingly in small amounts from the pituitary glands of human cadavers.
The sentence is meant to say - before scientists learnt how to make synthetic growth hormones , they used to go through the painful way to extract the hormones ( growth hormones) i.e the growth hormones were removed from human cadavers

A. scientists learned how to make a synthetic growth hormone, removing it painstakingly
Sentence fragment . There is no working verb in the sentence - "before scientists learned <> , removing it <>"
the "IT" here refers to "synthetic growth hormone" , rather than "growth hormones" ( it was not the "synthetic growth hormones" that they removed from human cadavers , but was the growth hormones .

*error in tense. The learning of making synthetic hormone , happened after they used to remove growth hormone in a painstaking way . Hence "had" in first part of sentence is incorrect.
* the "IT" in second part of the sentence refers to "synthetic growth hormone " rather than just "growth hormone" , conveying an absurd meaning that "before scientists learned to make synthetic growth hormone , they used to remove synthetic growth hormone from pituitary glands".

C. scientists learned how to synthesize the growth hormone, it had to be painstakingly removed
CORRECT : the "IT" here refers to "growth hormone" , hence conveying a correct meaning.Sentence is framed in a proper Tense.

D. learning how to make a synthetic growth hormone, scientists had to remove it painstakingly
Same issue with "IT" as in A and B.

E. learning how to synthesize the growth hormone, it have to be painstakingly removed by scientists

*Modifier error- doesn't convey who is synthesizing the growth hormone ( comma should immediately follow with the noun scientist . Which is not the case here).
Tense error - messes up the tense issue ( should be "had" instead of "have" , since this action is not happening anymore now and this happened before the scientists learned to synthesize).

-Jyothi
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Re: Before scientists learned how to make a synthetic growth [#permalink]

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02 Dec 2013, 19:14
C is not ambiguous. Its perfect. If anything, I was confused between C & D before realizing that D had redundancy issues. Hence C.
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Re: Before scientists learned how to make a synthetic growth [#permalink]

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02 Dec 2013, 22:30
mohnish104 wrote:
C is not ambiguous. Its perfect. If anything, I was confused between C & D before realizing that D had redundancy issues. Hence C.

Can you please explain what redundancy issues does D have. I am not able to figure this out.
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Re: Before scientists learned how to make a synthetic growth [#permalink]

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02 Dec 2013, 23:38
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ayushman wrote:
mohnish104 wrote:
C is not ambiguous. Its perfect. If anything, I was confused between C & D before realizing that D had redundancy issues. Hence C.

Can you please explain what redundancy issues does D have. I am not able to figure this out.[/q J

Just as you don't use the words annual and year in the same sentence because they mean the same thing, you don't use make and synthesize in the same sentence because they mean the same thing. Synthetic also means artificial/unnatural/man made. You don't make something natural, you find something natural.

Hope it helps.
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Re: Before scientists learned how to make a synthetic growth [#permalink]

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03 Dec 2013, 00:58
mohnish104 wrote:
Just as you don't use the words annual and year in the same sentence because they mean the same thing, you don't use make and synthesize in the same sentence because they mean the same thing. Synthetic also means artificial/unnatural/man made. You don't make something natural, you find something natural.
Hope it helps.

Yes it does help..thanks. It was very subtle. I can definitely not figure this out on the exam day.
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Re: Before scientists learned how to make a synthetic growth [#permalink]

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11 Dec 2014, 23:24
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Re: Before scientists learned how to make a synthetic growth [#permalink]

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12 Dec 2014, 01:00
What is the difference between C and D? I chose D and honestly, it looks just about fine.
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Re: Before scientists learned how to make a synthetic growth [#permalink]

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12 Dec 2014, 02:38
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Great question.

There is a meaning difference between c & d.

C. scientists learned how to synthesize the growth hormone, it had to be painstakingly removed => This means scientists had to remove the growth hormone from the glands
D. learning how to make a synthetic growth hormone, scientists had to remove it painstakingly => There is a meaning issue here. scientists were trying to remove the growth hormone, not the synthetic growth hormone. C corrects this meaning issue. Let me know if that makes sense.
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Re: Before scientists learned how to make a synthetic growth [#permalink]

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19 Mar 2015, 01:05
Before scientists learned how to make a synthetic growth hormone, removing it painstakingly in small amounts from the pituitary glands of human cadavers.

A. scientists learned how to make a synthetic growth hormone, removing it painstakingly
fragment sentence

"what they learn" happened after "what they had done", therefore the use of past perticiple is uncorrect
"it" is use to prefer to "a synthetic growth hormone" distort the meaning of the sentence

C. scientists learned how to synthesize the growth hormone, it had to be painstakingly removed

D. learning how to make a synthetic growth hormone, scientists had to remove it painstakingly
"it" is use to prefer to "a synthetic growth hormone" distort the meaning of the sentence

E. learning how to synthesize the growth hormone, it have to be painstakingly removed by scientists
"Learning how to ..." wrongly modifies "it"
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Before scientists learned how to make a synthetic growth [#permalink]

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13 Sep 2015, 08:01
In A, as you said, it can refer back to "synthetic growth hormone" but it is a pronoun and so it can refer back only to noun, which is growth hormone in this case. Over here "synthetic" is working like an adjective so "it" should not refer back to "synthetic growth hormone". Just my understanding, I might be wrong.

gmacforjyoab wrote:
Before scientists learned how to make a synthetic growth hormone, removing it painstakingly in small amounts from the pituitary glands of human cadavers.
The sentence is meant to say - before scientists learnt how to make synthetic growth hormones , they used to go through the painful way to extract the hormones ( growth hormones) i.e the growth hormones were removed from human cadavers

A. scientists learned how to make a synthetic growth hormone, removing it painstakingly
Sentence fragment . There is no working verb in the sentence - "before scientists learned <> , removing it <>"
the "IT" here refers to "synthetic growth hormone" , rather than "growth hormones" ( it was not the "synthetic growth hormones" that they removed from human cadavers , but was the growth hormones .

*error in tense. The learning of making synthetic hormone , happened after they used to remove growth hormone in a painstaking way . Hence "had" in first part of sentence is incorrect.
* the "IT" in second part of the sentence refers to "synthetic growth hormone " rather than just "growth hormone" , conveying an absurd meaning that "before scientists learned to make synthetic growth hormone , they used to remove synthetic growth hormone from pituitary glands".

C. scientists learned how to synthesize the growth hormone, it had to be painstakingly removed
CORRECT : the "IT" here refers to "growth hormone" , hence conveying a correct meaning.Sentence is framed in a proper Tense.

D. learning how to make a synthetic growth hormone, scientists had to remove it painstakingly
Same issue with "IT" as in A and B.

E. learning how to synthesize the growth hormone, it have to be painstakingly removed by scientists

*Modifier error- doesn't convey who is synthesizing the growth hormone ( comma should immediately follow with the noun scientist . Which is not the case here).
Tense error - messes up the tense issue ( should be "had" instead of "have" , since this action is not happening anymore now and this happened before the scientists learned to synthesize).

-Jyothi

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Last edited by rohitmanglik on 16 Sep 2015, 10:49, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Before scientists learned how to make a synthetic growth [#permalink]

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13 Sep 2015, 10:28
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rohitmanglik wrote:
In A, as you said, it can refer back to "synthetic growth hormone" but it is a pronoun and so it can refer back only to noun, which is growth hormone in this case. Over here "synthetic" is working like an adjective so "it" should not refer back "synthetic growth hormone" as well. Just my understanding, I might be wrong.

gmacforjyoab wrote:
Before scientists learned how to make a synthetic growth hormone, removing it painstakingly in small amounts from the pituitary glands of human cadavers.
The sentence is meant to say - before scientists learnt how to make synthetic growth hormones , they used to go through the painful way to extract the hormones ( growth hormones) i.e the growth hormones were removed from human cadavers

A. scientists learned how to make a synthetic growth hormone, removing it painstakingly
Sentence fragment . There is no working verb in the sentence - "before scientists learned <> , removing it <>"
the "IT" here refers to "synthetic growth hormone" , rather than "growth hormones" ( it was not the "synthetic growth hormones" that they removed from human cadavers , but was the growth hormones .

*error in tense. The learning of making synthetic hormone , happened after they used to remove growth hormone in a painstaking way . Hence "had" in first part of sentence is incorrect.
* the "IT" in second part of the sentence refers to "synthetic growth hormone " rather than just "growth hormone" , conveying an absurd meaning that "before scientists learned to make synthetic growth hormone , they used to remove synthetic growth hormone from pituitary glands".

C. scientists learned how to synthesize the growth hormone, it had to be painstakingly removed
CORRECT : the "IT" here refers to "growth hormone" , hence conveying a correct meaning.Sentence is framed in a proper Tense.

D. learning how to make a synthetic growth hormone, scientists had to remove it painstakingly
Same issue with "IT" as in A and B.

E. learning how to synthesize the growth hormone, it have to be painstakingly removed by scientists

*Modifier error- doesn't convey who is synthesizing the growth hormone ( comma should immediately follow with the noun scientist . Which is not the case here).
Tense error - messes up the tense issue ( should be "had" instead of "have" , since this action is not happening anymore now and this happened before the scientists learned to synthesize).

-Jyothi

It or any subject or object pronoun will refer to the exact same thing. So it does refer to the synthetic growth hormone here. BTW, synthetic and growth both are adjectives of hormone here. So going by your interpretation it should just refer to hormone.

Further lets consider following sentence:

Middle managers often work under tremendous pressures and they often further seek help from their managers.

Now here middle is an adjective of managers. Now replace they with managers and you will understand why they should refer to "middle managers" and not just managers.

Middle managers often work under tremendous pressures and managers often further seek help from their managers.

Managers seek help from their managers. It is not clear which manager seek help. The hierarchy is lost.

Hope it helps
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Re: Before scientists learned how to make a synthetic growth [#permalink]

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13 Sep 2015, 10:32
tarunktuteja

Aaahh, got it. Thanks
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Re: Before scientists learned how to make a synthetic growth   [#permalink] 13 Sep 2015, 10:32

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