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Before scientists learned how to make a synthetic growth hormone, remo

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Re: Before scientists learned how to make a synthetic growth hormone, remo  [#permalink]

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New post 13 Sep 2015, 10:28
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rohitmanglik wrote:
In A, as you said, it can refer back to "synthetic growth hormone" but it is a pronoun and so it can refer back only to noun, which is growth hormone in this case. Over here "synthetic" is working like an adjective so "it" should not refer back "synthetic growth hormone" as well. Just my understanding, I might be wrong.

Experts can you please guide.


gmacforjyoab wrote:
Before scientists learned how to make a synthetic growth hormone, removing it painstakingly in small amounts from the pituitary glands of human cadavers.
The sentence is meant to say - before scientists learnt how to make synthetic growth hormones , they used to go through the painful way to extract the hormones ( growth hormones) i.e the growth hormones were removed from human cadavers

A. scientists learned how to make a synthetic growth hormone, removing it painstakingly
Sentence fragment . There is no working verb in the sentence - "before scientists learned <> , removing it <>"
the "IT" here refers to "synthetic growth hormone" , rather than "growth hormones" ( it was not the "synthetic growth hormones" that they removed from human cadavers , but was the growth hormones .


B. scientists had learned about making a synthetic growth hormone, they had to remove it painstakingly

*error in tense. The learning of making synthetic hormone , happened after they used to remove growth hormone in a painstaking way . Hence "had" in first part of sentence is incorrect.
* the "IT" in second part of the sentence refers to "synthetic growth hormone " rather than just "growth hormone" , conveying an absurd meaning that "before scientists learned to make synthetic growth hormone , they used to remove synthetic growth hormone from pituitary glands".


C. scientists learned how to synthesize the growth hormone, it had to be painstakingly removed
CORRECT : the "IT" here refers to "growth hormone" , hence conveying a correct meaning.Sentence is framed in a proper Tense.

D. learning how to make a synthetic growth hormone, scientists had to remove it painstakingly
Same issue with "IT" as in A and B.

E. learning how to synthesize the growth hormone, it have to be painstakingly removed by scientists

*Modifier error- doesn't convey who is synthesizing the growth hormone ( comma should immediately follow with the noun scientist . Which is not the case here).
Tense error - messes up the tense issue ( should be "had" instead of "have" , since this action is not happening anymore now and this happened before the scientists learned to synthesize).


-Jyothi



It or any subject or object pronoun will refer to the exact same thing. So it does refer to the synthetic growth hormone here. BTW, synthetic and growth both are adjectives of hormone here. So going by your interpretation it should just refer to hormone.

Further lets consider following sentence:

Middle managers often work under tremendous pressures and they often further seek help from their managers.

Now here middle is an adjective of managers. Now replace they with managers and you will understand why they should refer to "middle managers" and not just managers.

Middle managers often work under tremendous pressures and managers often further seek help from their managers.

Managers seek help from their managers. It is not clear which manager seek help. The hierarchy is lost.

Hope it helps
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Re: Before scientists learned how to make a synthetic growth hormone, remo  [#permalink]

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New post 13 Sep 2015, 11:17
According to the MGMAT SC

It - Always refers to the singular antecedent.

(C) scientists ( Plural ) learned how to synthesize the growth hormone ( Singular), it had to be painstakingly removed

There is no antecedent Pronoun Reference in this case , hence IT clearly refers to singular antecedent the growth hormone
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Re: Before scientists learned how to make a synthetic growth hormone, remo  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 16 Sep 2015, 11:20
Hi Tarun (@tarunktuteja),

Can we say the same in the case of "which/that/who etc" as well?

-Rohit

tarunktuteja wrote:
rohitmanglik wrote:
In A, as you said, it can refer back to "synthetic growth hormone" but it is a pronoun and so it can refer back only to noun, which is growth hormone in this case. Over here "synthetic" is working like an adjective so "it" should not refer back "synthetic growth hormone" as well. Just my understanding, I might be wrong.

Experts can you please guide.


gmacforjyoab wrote:
Before scientists learned how to make a synthetic growth hormone, removing it painstakingly in small amounts from the pituitary glands of human cadavers.
The sentence is meant to say - before scientists learnt how to make synthetic growth hormones , they used to go through the painful way to extract the hormones ( growth hormones) i.e the growth hormones were removed from human cadavers

A. scientists learned how to make a synthetic growth hormone, removing it painstakingly
Sentence fragment . There is no working verb in the sentence - "before scientists learned <> , removing it <>"
the "IT" here refers to "synthetic growth hormone" , rather than "growth hormones" ( it was not the "synthetic growth hormones" that they removed from human cadavers , but was the growth hormones .


B. scientists had learned about making a synthetic growth hormone, they had to remove it painstakingly

*error in tense. The learning of making synthetic hormone , happened after they used to remove growth hormone in a painstaking way . Hence "had" in first part of sentence is incorrect.
* the "IT" in second part of the sentence refers to "synthetic growth hormone " rather than just "growth hormone" , conveying an absurd meaning that "before scientists learned to make synthetic growth hormone , they used to remove synthetic growth hormone from pituitary glands".


C. scientists learned how to synthesize the growth hormone, it had to be painstakingly removed
CORRECT : the "IT" here refers to "growth hormone" , hence conveying a correct meaning.Sentence is framed in a proper Tense.

D. learning how to make a synthetic growth hormone, scientists had to remove it painstakingly
Same issue with "IT" as in A and B.

E. learning how to synthesize the growth hormone, it have to be painstakingly removed by scientists

*Modifier error- doesn't convey who is synthesizing the growth hormone ( comma should immediately follow with the noun scientist . Which is not the case here).
Tense error - messes up the tense issue ( should be "had" instead of "have" , since this action is not happening anymore now and this happened before the scientists learned to synthesize).


-Jyothi



It or any subject or object pronoun will refer to the exact same thing. So it does refer to the synthetic growth hormone here. BTW, synthetic and growth both are adjectives of hormone here. So going by your interpretation it should just refer to hormone.

Further lets consider following sentence:

Middle managers often work under tremendous pressures and they often further seek help from their managers.

Now here middle is an adjective of managers. Now replace they with managers and you will understand why they should refer to "middle managers" and not just managers.

Middle managers often work under tremendous pressures and managers often further seek help from their managers.

Managers seek help from their managers. It is not clear which manager seek help. The hierarchy is lost.

Hope it helps

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Originally posted by rohitmanglik on 16 Sep 2015, 11:06.
Last edited by rohitmanglik on 16 Sep 2015, 11:20, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Before scientists learned how to make a synthetic growth hormone, remo  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Sep 2015, 11:49
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rohitmanglik
You are wrongly interpreting the sentence. Let's consider the sentence you mentioned.

Employing the same techniques to genetically enhance plants, which make them disease- or pest-resistant.

Here the part highighted in blue is an infinitive phrase. It is basically acting as a modifiers here. Here the inifinitive phrase "to genetically enhance plants" is basically modifying techniques. Let's deconstruct the infinitive phrase here.

to genetically enhance plants. Infinitives are nothing but to+pure form of verb. An infinitive phrase is nothing but an infinitive + some modifiers. Here "genetically" is basically an adverb modifying the verb enhance. "Plants" is basically the object of inifinitive. So genetically and enhance are not the adjectives modifying plants. plants is basically a noun which is the object of the action enhance.

So basically who/which/that etc will just modify the plants.

If the infinitive were like:

to genetically enhance cannabis plants, which make them...

then which would refer to cannabis plants and not just plants. Pronouns always refer to noun and any associated adjectives.

You can further refer following article:

http://www.chompchomp.com/terms/infinitivephrase.htm

Hope it helps.
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Re: Before scientists learned how to make a synthetic growth hormone, remo  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Mar 2016, 09:58
A. scientists learned how to make a synthetic growth hormone, removing it painstakingly – a fragment
B. scientists had learned about making a synthetic growth hormone, they had to remove it painstakingly – 1. had learned was a later phenomenon, had to remove was the earlier phenomenon. Use of past perfect for the earlier is wrong. 2. ‘It’ refers to the synthetic hormone. One can’t remove a synthetic hormone from a body; it is only synthesized in a lab.

C. scientist learned how to synthesize the growth hormone, it had to be painstakingly removed – it promptly refers to the growth hormone (natural hormone and not synthetic.)
D. learning how to make a synthetic growth hormone, scientists had to remove it painstakingly – it refers to synthetic growth hormone—wrong
E. Learning how to synthesize the growth hormone, it have to be painstakingly removed by scientists— it have to be – is a typo? In any case, the modification is also wrong. Scientists should appear after the comma.

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Re: Before scientists learned how to make a synthetic growth hormone, remo  [#permalink]

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New post 02 Sep 2017, 10:13
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Before scientists learned how to make a synthetic growth hormone, removing it painstakingly in small amounts from the pituitary glands of human cadavers.

A deep meaning based question

A) scientists learned how to make a synthetic growth hormone, removing it painstakingly-- a fragment -- Any subordinate clause has to be backed by IC and not a modifier.

B) scientists had learned about making a synthetic growth hormone, they had to remove it painstakingly.-- Look at the absurdity of this proposition. -They had to remove it- Not withstanding that the pronoun 'they' tentatively refers to the scientists, we still have the deeper problem of removing a synthetic hormone from the organic glands. A synthetic hormone can be made only outside the body and not within. If done, it will be a natural hormone but not synthetic

C) scientists learned how to synthesize the growth hormone, it had to be painstakingly removed --- Now the pronoun 'it' rightfully' refers to the growth hormone. It is also correct to use the passive voice since there is no indication in the original that scientists did the removing. It could be by anybody.

D) learning how to make a synthetic growth hormone, scientists had to remove it painstaking--- That the scientists had to remove it is not intended in the original.

E) learning how to synthesize the growth hormone, it had to be painstakingly removed by scientists --the same mistake as in B, D, and E.
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Re: Before scientists learned how to make a synthetic growth hormone, remo  [#permalink]

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New post 27 May 2018, 07:48
Quote:
Before scientists learned how to make a synthetic growth hormone, removing it painstakingly in small amounts from the pituitary glands of human cadavers.


(A) scientists learned how to make a synthetic growth hormone, removing it painstakingly - Incorrect.

(B) scientists had learned about making a synthetic growth hormone, they had to remove it painstakingly - Incorrect.

(C) scientists learned how to synthesize the growth hormone, it had to be painstakingly removed - Correct.

(D) learning how to make a synthetic growth hormone, scientists had to remove it painstakingly - Incorrect.

(E) learning how to synthesize the growth hormone, it had to be painstakingly removed by scientists - Incorrect.
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Re: Before scientists learned how to make a synthetic growth hormone, remo &nbs [#permalink] 27 May 2018, 07:48

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