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# Believed once to be essential in preventing crop

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Believed once to be essential in preventing crop [#permalink]

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17 May 2013, 00:20
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Believed once to be essential in preventing crop destruction, apple growers have decreased their use of certain pesticides that were identified by the FDA as potentially carcinogenic or otherwise toxic to humans.

a) Believed once to be essential in preventing crop destruction, apple growers have decreased their use of certain pesticides that were identified by the FDA

b) Apple growers have decreased their use of certain pesticides that once were believed to be essential in the prevention of crop destruction, and they were identified by the FDA

c) Apple growers have decreased their use of certain pesticides once believed to be essential in the prevention of crop destruction, because the FDA has identified those poisons

d) Essential, it was once believed, in preventing crop destruction, apple growers have decreased their use of certain pesticides identified by the FDA

e) Essential, it was once believed, in the prevention of crop destruction, the use of certain pesticides has been decreased by apple growers that have been identified by the FDA

please explain why option b is incorrect.
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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Re: Believed once to be essential in preventing crop destruction [#permalink]

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17 May 2013, 00:33
1
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Believed once to be essential in preventing crop destruction, apple growers have decreased their use of certain pesticides that were identified by the FDA as potentially carcinogenic or otherwise toxic to humans.

a) Believed once to be essential in preventing crop destruction, apple growers have decreased their use of certain pesticides that were identified by the FDA
"Belived once to be essential" should modify the pesticides, not the apple growers

b) Apple growers have decreased their use of certain pesticides that once were believed to be essential in the prevention of crop destruction, and they were identified by the FDA
What does "they" refer to? pesticides or apple growers? ambiguos

c) Apple growers have decreased their use of certain pesticides once believed to be essential in the prevention of crop destruction, because the FDA has identified those poisons
CORRECT

d) Essential, it was once believed, in preventing crop destruction, apple growers have decreased their use of certain pesticides identified by the FDA
Same as A."Essential in preventing crop destruction" cannot refer to "apple growers"

e) Essential, it was once believed, in the prevention of crop destruction, the use of certain pesticides has been decreased by apple growers that have been identified by the FDA
Overall the structure is awkward, but the main error here is "apple growers that have been identified (...) as potentially carcinogenic" doesn not make sense.
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Re: Believed once to be essential in preventing crop destruction [#permalink]

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17 May 2013, 13:44
IMO B

not much convinced with C

b) Apple growers have decreased their use of certain pesticides that once were believed to be essential in the prevention of crop destruction, and they were identified by the FDA

I think here THEY correctly referred to PESTICIDES.

Apple growers can't be toxic to humans.

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Re: Believed once to be essential in preventing crop destruction [#permalink]

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18 May 2013, 02:23
eMJ wrote:
IMO B

not much convinced with C

b) Apple growers have decreased their use of certain pesticides that once were believed to be essential in the prevention of crop destruction, and they were identified by the FDA

I think here THEY correctly referred to PESTICIDES.

Apple growers can't be toxic to humans.

Zarrolou is right, 'they' is ambiguous in B.

Furthermore, B seems to change the meaning of the sentence slightly to say apple growers stopped using the pesticide and as a consequence FDA identified the pesticide as toxic! Or even worse B may be confused to a sentence with two independent and unrelated clauses.

All these adds to the ambiguities of B.

OA is C. Hope this helps.

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Re: Believed once to be essential in preventing crop destruction [#permalink]

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22 Jun 2013, 15:50
b) Apple growers have decreased their use of certain pesticides that once were believed to be essential in the prevention of crop destruction, and they were identified by the FDA

I think the problem with B is of pronoun ambiguity. "They" is not clearly referring to the pesticides. Although it is ridiculous to think that "they" would refer to "Apple Growers", but still it does introduce some degree of doubt.

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Re: Believed once to be essential in preventing crop [#permalink]

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06 Nov 2013, 01:15
I don't think that "they" is ambiguous in option "B". A pronoun always refers to the nearest noun and in this case the pesticides.

I think it is because all plural pronouns should refer to the same antecedent (source Manhattan SC book). In option B the pronouns are "THEIR" and "THEY". While "THEIR" refers to the apple growers, "THEY" refers to the pesticides and hence option B is incorrect.

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Re: Believed once to be essential in preventing crop [#permalink]

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31 Jan 2014, 13:05
yogirb8801 wrote:
Believed once to be essential in preventing crop destruction, apple growers have decreased their use of certain pesticides that were identified by the FDA as potentially carcinogenic or otherwise toxic to humans.

a) Believed once to be essential in preventing crop destruction, apple growers have decreased their use of certain pesticides that were identified by the FDA

b) Apple growers have decreased their use of certain pesticides that once were believed to be essential in the prevention of crop destruction, and they were identified by the FDA

c) Apple growers have decreased their use of certain pesticides once believed to be essential in the prevention of crop destruction, because the FDA has identified those poisons

d) Essential, it was once believed, in preventing crop destruction, apple growers have decreased their use of certain pesticides identified by the FDA

e) Essential, it was once believed, in the prevention of crop destruction, the use of certain pesticides has been decreased by apple growers that have been identified by the FDA

please explain why option b is incorrect.

C is active voice and correctly expresses the intended meaning. In A there's a modifier issue with believe once///apple growers/ In B they doesn't have a clear antecedent/ Om D the sentence construction is just awkward and essential incorrectly modifies apple growers. Finally, E has been decreased is incorrect.

Hope it helps

Cheers
J

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Re: Believed once to be essential in preventing crop [#permalink]

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21 Mar 2014, 14:36
C..

How can some once call pesticide a poison
Apple growers have decreased their use of certain pesticides once believed to be essential in the prevention of crop destruction, because the FDA has identified those poisons

Bad typo error I guess...I seriously fell for it as Pesticides=Poison (Sort of)
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Re: Believed once to be essential in preventing crop [#permalink]

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29 Aug 2017, 08:05
Hello from the GMAT Club VerbalBot!

Thanks to another GMAT Club member, I have just discovered this valuable topic, yet it had no discussion for over a year. I am now bumping it up - doing my job. I think you may find it valuable (esp those replies with Kudos).

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Believed once to be essential in preventing crop [#permalink]

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03 Oct 2017, 11:45
In OA it seems to imply a causal relationship between the events, whereas in original sentence there is no indication of such relationship.

Moreover, are pesticides and poisons interchangeable. I intially reject choice C seeing poisons in place of pesticides.
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Believed once to be essential in preventing crop   [#permalink] 03 Oct 2017, 11:45
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