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# Below is an excerpt from a letter that was sent by the

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Manager
Joined: 12 May 2004
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Below is an excerpt from a letter that was sent by the [#permalink]

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02 May 2005, 01:59
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32% (02:36) correct 68% (01:28) wrong based on 1134 sessions

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Below is an excerpt from a letter that was sent by the chairman of a corporation to the stockholders.

A number of charges have been raised against me, some serious, some trivial. Individuals seeking to control the corporation for their own purposes have demanded my resignation. Remember that no court of law in any state has found me guilty of any criminal offense whatsoever. In the American tradition, as you know, an individual is considered innocent until proven guilty. Furthermore, as the corporation’s unbroken six-year record of growth will show, my conduct of my official duties as chairman has only helped enhance the success of the corporation, and so benefited every stockholder.

Which of the following can be properly inferred from the excerpt?

(A) The chairman believes that all those who have demanded his resignation are motivated by desire to control the corporation for their own purposes.
(B) Any misdeeds that the chairman may have committed were motivated by his desire to enhance the success of the corporation.
(C) The chairman is innocent of any criminal offense.
(D) The corporation has expanded steadily over the past six years.
(E) Any legal proceedings against the chairman have resulted in his acquittal.

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[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
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16 Feb 2009, 12:10
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A number of charges have been raised against me, some serious, some trivial. Individuals seeking to control the corporation for their own purposes have demanded my resignation. Remember that no court of law in any state has found me guilty of any criminal offense whatsoever. In the American tradition, as you know, an individual is considered innocent until proven guilty. Furthermore, as the corporation’s unbroken six-year record of growth will show, my conduct of my official duties as chairman has only helped enhance the success of the corporation, and so benefited every stockholder.

Which of the following can be properly inferred from the excerpt?

-----------------------
(A) The chairman believes that all those who have demanded his resignation are motivated by desire to control the corporation for their own purposes. ---> The passage states that those who wanted to control the corporation for their own use demanded his resignation. This does NOT mean that they were the only ones who demanded his resignation; there may be many other people (with different motives) who would have demanded his resignation.

The statement is actually reversed.

Excerpt states that X --> Y
Option A states that Y --> X, which may not be true.

(B) Any misdeeds that the chairman may have committed were motivated by his desire to enhance the success of the corporation. ---> We cannot say that his misdeeds were motivated for the wellness of the corporation. Moreover, in the first place, we don't know whether he's guilty. To add to it, 'Any' is an extreme word.

(C) The chairman is innocent of any criminal offense. ---> We cannot conclude this. Acquittal from a court of law does not mean that the person is innocent. Acquittal may have happened due to lack of sufficient evidence against him. The word '...any criminal offence' is again moving to an extreme.

(D) The corporation has expanded steadily over the past six years. ---> This statement can be safely inferred from '...corporation’s unbroken six-year record of growth...'.

(E) Any legal proceedings against the chairman have resulted in his acquittal. ---> I feel that the trap here is legal vs. criminal proceedings. IMO, criminal is a subset of legal. That's the only reason I've discarded it otherwise, I found it close.
-----------------------

My choice is option D.

HTH.
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Re: complete the passage: kindly provide an explanation [#permalink]

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06 Mar 2013, 06:37
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This is a good question and adheres to a good gmat-like question but is not a complete the passage question. It is a must be true question or conclusion

A number of charges have been raised against me, some serious, some trivial. Individuals seeking to control the corporation for their own purposes have demanded my resignation.

In other words: someone tray to discredit someonelse. Untill now eveything is fine.

Remember that no court of law in any state has found me guilty of any criminal offense whatsoever. In the American tradition, as you know, an individual is considered innocent until proven guilty.

If I'm guilty then I am not innocent and viceversa. Ok

Furthermore, as the corporation’s unbroken six-year record of growth will show, my conduct of my official duties as chairman has only helped enhance the success of the corporation, and so benefited every stockholder.

The firm went well (maybe as never before) so my conduct was blameless

Which of the following can be properly inferred from the excerpt?

A must true question is always something that is unstated in the stimulus and that you can deduce from the passage

(A) The chairman believes that all those who have demanded his resignation are motivated by desire to control the corporation for their own purposes.

Stated in the passage. We already know. Wrong

(B) Any misdeeds that the chairman may have committed were motivated by his desire to enhance the success of the corporation.

True and not. W have not sufficient information from the passage. If you read carefully it , you can see that this is not completely true

(C) The chairman is innocent of any criminal offense.

We do not know, for sure

(D) The corporation has expanded steadily over the past six years.

This is what we know for SURE. we can infer this from the third sentence or part of the passage, above

(E) Any legal proceedings against the chairman have resulted in his acquittal.

An answer that I call filler, fluff.....wrong

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Below is an excerpt from a letter that was sent by the [#permalink]

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25 Jul 2009, 08:08
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Below is an excerpt from a letter that was sent by the chairman of a corporation to the stockholders.
A number of charges have been raised against me, some serious, some trivial. Individuals seeking to control the corporation for their own purposes have demanded my resignation. Remember that no court of law in any state has found me guilty of any criminal offense whatsoever. In the American tradition, as you know, an individual is considered innocent until proven guilty. Furthermore, as the corporation’s unbroken six-year record of growth will show, my conduct of my official duties as chairman has only helped enhance the success of the corporation, and so benefited every stockholder.
Which of the following can be properly inferred from the excerpt?
(A) The chairman believes that all those who have demanded his resignation are motivated by desire to control the corporation for their own purposes.
(B) Any misdeeds that the chairman may have committed were motivated by his desire to enhance the success of the corporation.
(C) The chairman is innocent of any criminal offense.
(D) The corporation has expanded steadily over the past six years.
(E) Any legal proceedings against the chairman have resulted in his acquittal.
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Joined: 06 Mar 2013
Posts: 4
A number of charges have been raised against me, some [#permalink]

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06 Mar 2013, 04:22
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A number of charges have been raised against me, some serious, some trivial. Individuals seeking to control the corporation for their own purposes have demanded my resignation. Remember that no court of law in any state has found me guilty of any criminal offense whatsoever. In the American tradition, as you know, an individual is considered innocent until proven guilty. Furthermore, as the corporation’s unbroken six-year record of growth will show, my conduct of my official duties as chairman has only helped enhance the success of the corporation, and so benefited every stockholder.

Which of the following can be properly inferred from the excerpt?

(A) The chairman believes that all those who have demanded his resignation are motivated by desire to control the corporation for their own purposes.
(B) Any misdeeds that the chairman may have committed were motivated by his desire to enhance the success of the corporation.
(C) The chairman is innocent of any criminal offense.
(D) The corporation has expanded steadily over the past six years.
(E) Any legal proceedings against the chairman have resulted in his acquittal.
Senior Manager
Joined: 10 Nov 2004
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02 May 2005, 03:45
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Yes both A and D seem fine. But I'll pick D.
The para says,
Individuals seeking to control the corporation for their own purposes have demanded my resignation.

A-> B

But in A. 'who have demanded his resignation are motivated by desire to control the corporation for their own purposes'

B-> A
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Re: CR #letter from Chairman [#permalink]

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21 Sep 2005, 18:32
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D.

A. could be true.
B. dont know.
C. dont know.
D. strongly know.
E. dont know.

its bet A and D. probably D is more plausiable.
Director
Joined: 23 Jun 2005
Posts: 841
GMAT 1: 740 Q48 V42

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22 Sep 2005, 18:44
1
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nakib77 wrote:
I picked A but OA is D.

Can you explain why you didn't pick A.
Thanks.

The letter reads "individuals seeking to control" which is not the same as "all those demanding his resignation" . So, I went for D too!
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Joined: 09 Sep 2005
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24 Sep 2005, 08:50
1
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Well my reasoning for this question is as follows
It is mainly between choice A and choice D.

In the argument it is written that Individuals seeking to control the corporation for their own purposes have demanded my resignation.
1. It says that individuals, who want X, demanded Y.
2. Thus there are other individuals, who do not want X, demanded Y.
However the choice A indicates all those who have demanded his resignation are motivated by desire to control the corporation for their own purposes.
Thus 2 option people also included in the option 1 which makes it wrong choice.

Hope it helps.
Director
Joined: 12 Jul 2007
Posts: 858
Re: CR - Chairman of corporation [#permalink]

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10 Jan 2008, 08:26
1
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Quote:
(A) The chairman believes that all those who have demanded his resignation are motivated by desire to control the corporation for their own purposes.

Individuals seeking to control the corporation for their own purposes have demanded my resignation

Assumption A can be properly inferred from the passage.

Quote:
(B) Any misdeeds that the chairman may have committed were motivated by his desire to enhance the success of the corporation.

He doesn't say anything that leads us to believe he even committed any misdeed, much less that he committed them for the good of the company (we don't even know what he's accused of doing! maybe it's embezzling company funds)

Quote:
(C) The chairman is innocent of any criminal offense.

We don't know whether or not he's innocent, we just know that he hasn't been convicted. He could be guilty of Murder 1 for all we know.

Quote:
(D) The corporation has expanded steadily over the past six years.

the corporation’s unbroken six-year record of growth
We don't know if it's expanded steadily over the past six years or has had great fluctuations in how much it's grown each year.

Quote:
(E) Any legal proceedings against the chairman have resulted in his acquittal

no court of law in any state has found me guilty of any criminal offense whatsoever
Have they? We know none of them have resulted in his conviction, but perhaps they resulted in mistrials or something of that nature. There are more than two outcomes of a trial, we can't assume that because he wasn't convicted he was acquitted.

I'd love to get an OA ruling on this one though.
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18 Feb 2009, 09:52
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For gmatavenue, at his/her request:

There is in fact NO difference between "inference" and "must be true" on the GMAT (nor on the LSAT, for that matter). The correct answer to an straight Inference question is an answer which MUST be true if the information in the paragraph is true. Even if the wording of the question says "would most likely agree with" or "can be inferred", you must interpret this as "must be true if the statements above are true".

gmatavenue wrote:

"For a must-be-true Q we can restate a premise or conclude on 2-3 premises etc.
But for inference Q , it has to be an external factor which is not directly stated in the premises."

In fact, for any Inference question (whether the exact wording is "must be true" or not), we must find a conclusion which logically follows from 2 or 3 premises. In a few cases, the correct answer is actually a necessary assumption. The "must be true" rule still works for these cases, because if the other evidence in the stimulus is true, and the conclusion in the stimulus is true, then any NECESSARY assumption has to be true as well.

The correct answer must NEVER depend on an external factor which is not stated in the stimulus.

I agree with those who say that this is a badly constructed question. The correct answer appears to be (D), because none of the others logically follow from the paragraph (stimulus). That is, none of them must be true if the paragraph is true. The problem with (D) is that it is actually STATED in the paragraph, rather than being something that we can logically PROVE or DEDUCE from the paragraph. In a proper Inference question, the correct answer is DEDUCED from the information in the paragraph.

I strongly suspect that this is NOT a real GMAT question from the GMAC.
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Re: complete the passage: kindly provide an explanation [#permalink]

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07 Mar 2013, 05:59
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Expert's post
A number of charges have been raised against me, some serious, some trivial. Individuals seeking to control the corporation for their own purposes have demanded my resignation. Remember that no court of law in any state has found me guilty of any criminal offense whatsoever. In the American tradition, as you know, an individual is considered innocent until proven guilty. Furthermore, as the corporation’s unbroken six-year record of growth will show, my conduct of my official duties as chairman has only helped enhance the success of the corporation, and so benefited every stockholder.

Which of the following can be properly inferred from the excerpt?

(A) The chairman believes that all those who have demanded his resignation are motivated by desire to control the corporation for their own purposes.
(B) Any misdeeds that the chairman may have committed were motivated by his desire to enhance the success of the corporation.
(C) The chairman is innocent of any criminal offense.
(D) The corporation has expanded steadily over the past six years.
(E) Any legal proceedings against the chairman have resulted in his acquittal.

This is a conclusion/inference question. The correct answer would be something already given in the passage or something you can infer without a doubt.
Let's look at each option:

(A) The chairman believes that all those who have demanded his resignation are motivated by desire to control the corporation for their own purposes.

The chairman only says, "Individuals seeking to control the corporation for their own purposes have demanded my resignation."
It is possible that A, B and C are three individuals who are seeking to control the corporation and have demanded his resignation. That makes his statement correct. In addition, there could be others who are not seeking to control the corporation but have demanded his resignation. This will make option (A) incorrect. So we cannot say that the chairman's statement implies that EVERYONE who demanded his resignation is motivated by desire to control the corporation. Note that the chairman's statement only gives you partial information - there is at least one person who wishes to control the corp and has demanded his resignation. The chairman doesn't talk about everyone who wants his resignation.

(B) Any misdeeds that the chairman may have committed were motivated by his desire to enhance the success of the corporation.
Not mentioned. His misdeeds and his success as the chairman are two different things.

(C) The chairman is innocent of any criminal offense.
We cannot infer that. All we can say is that he hasn't been found guilty yet and he will be considered innocent (as of now at least) in the American tradition. Whether he actually is innocent, we can't say.

(D) The corporation has expanded steadily over the past six years.
The corporation has an unbroken six year record of growth. So we can say that the corporation has been expanding for the past six years. Here, I would doubt the 'steadily' part since we don't know whether the growth has been steady (let's say same rate of growth) but considering that no other option comes close to being an inference, I would have to overlook it.

(E) Any legal proceedings against the chairman have resulted in his acquittal.
We don't know that. All we know is that no court has found him guilty yet. Perhaps, some cases are still pending and the verdict is not out yet. We cannot say that he has been acquitted in every case.

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Re: Below is an excerpt from a letter that was sent by the [#permalink]

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23 Jul 2013, 10:36
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wunderbar03 wrote:
Below is an excerpt from a letter that was sent by the chairman of a corporation to the stockholders.

A number of charges have been raised against me, some serious, some trivial. Individuals seeking to control the corporation for their own purposes have demanded my resignation. Remember that no court of law in any state has found me guilty of any criminal offense whatsoever. In the American tradition, as you know, an individual is considered innocent until proven guilty. Furthermore, as the corporation’s unbroken six-year record of growth will show, my conduct of my official duties as chairman has only helped enhance the success of the corporation, and so benefited every stockholder.

Which of the following can be properly inferred from the excerpt?

(A) The chairman believes that all those who have demanded his resignation are motivated by desire to control the corporation for their own purposes. There is a possibility that some of the people that demanded the chairman's resignation might have no interest in obtaining control of the corporation. If all was replaced by some then the answer would be correct. In inference questions, I recommend avoiding answer choices that contain "all", "most", etc
(B) Any misdeeds that the chairman may have committed were motivated by his desire to enhance the success of the corporation. chairman never mentions that he did anything wrong
(C) The chairman is innocent of any criminal offense. passage never mentions that the chairman is innocent
(D) The corporation has expanded steadily over the past six years. came from passage, correct answer
(E) Any legal proceedings against the chairman have resulted in his acquittal. we don't know if this has happened yet

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Re: Below is an excerpt from a letter that was sent by the [#permalink]

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19 Jun 2015, 01:43
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Expert's post
Unfortunately, the questions which generate the most discussion are often the questions least worth studying. Some questions generate discussion because they don't really have any good answer.

I gather D is the 'OA' here, but for D to be right, you have to think that "steady" means something different from what it really means ('unbroken' and 'steady' are not even close to being synonyms), and that "growth" and "expansion" mean the same thing (they don't). So D just is not a good answer here.

I think you can read the stem a certain way that makes A seem true, but if this were a real GMAT question (which it's not) then the use of 'all' in A would be problematic.

The bigger problem with both A and D is that neither is any kind of inference. They just restate information in the stem.

E might be right, depending on what you think they mean by 'legal proceedings' and 'acquittal'. The stem tells us "no court of law ... has found me guilty of any criminal offense", but there are legal proceedings that are not criminal, and other outcomes of legal proceedings besides a guilty finding and an acquittal.

B finds no support at all in the passage.

C is the most interesting option, because the stem itself redefines the meaning of the word "innocent": "an individual is considered innocent until proven guilty". That is not what "innocent" actually means, but if we forget the real meaning of the word, and accept that as the definition of "innocent", then C is right, and it has the added benefit of being a genuine inference.
No real GMAT question will ever invent a new definition for a common word and ask you to draw an inference on the basis of that definition, so this is also a very strange answer.

That's a long way of saying: this is a question with no good answer, so is not worth reviewing in any detail.
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02 May 2005, 03:36
A looks correct. So does D.
B is wrong. The Chairman doesn't mention his "misdeeds".
C is wrong. The Chairman says he's not been "found" guilty. Nither proves he's not guilty, not that he'd been aquitted. Thus E is also wrong.

Unless there's some catch in "unbroken six year record of growth", I'd go for A, which finds a direct mention in the passage.

Any ideas/suggestions/counterviews on this one?
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03 May 2005, 07:35
D)..."unbroken six-year record of growth" means that in each of the 6 years the corporation grew. so we can infer a steady growth.

A)...is out because it may be that there are others than the individuals who demanded his resignation.
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03 May 2005, 07:39
Folaa3 wrote:
Why not E?
A is explicitly stated in the stem thus it cannot be inferred since it is explicitly stated. Please correct me if i am wrong. I read in the OG that inference questions cannot be directly grabbed from the passage/question stem.
If it is inferred in the stem, does it mean it's an excerpt from the stem?

E)...is out because he was acquitted of criminal offense, but that does not mean that he maybe was convicted for negligence or something else.
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04 May 2005, 13:18
I choose (A).
JPV: I don't think (D) is mentioned in the stem. IMO, (D) means that the coy steadily expanded. What if sometime within the 6-yr period, the coy declined, but later on picked-up significantly?
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04 May 2005, 21:59
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D

The question says "the corporation’s unbroken six-year record of growth will show". From this steady can be inferred. " Steady growth is not directly mentioned in the question.

"Individuals seeking to control the corporation for their own purposes have demanded my resignation." Choice A restates this part of the question. Hence A is out.
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Below is an excerpt from a letter that was sent by the [#permalink]

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14 Jul 2005, 10:36
1. Below is an excerpt from a letter that was sent by the chairman of a corporation to the stockholders.

A number of charges have been raised against me, some serious, some trivial. Individuals seeking to control the corporation for their own purposes have demanded my resignation. Remember that no court of law in any state has found me guilty of any criminal offense whatsoever. In the American tradition, as you know, an individual is considered innocent until proven guilty. Furthermore, as the corporationâ€™s unbroken six-year record of growth will show, my conduct of my official duties as chairman has only helped enhance the success of the corporation, and so benefited every stockholder.

Which of the following can be properly inferred from the excerpt?

(A) The chairman believes that all those who have demanded his resignation are motivated by desire to control the corporation for their own purposes.

(B) Any misdeeds that the chairman may have committed were motivated by his desire to enhance the success of the corporation.

(C) The chairman is innocent of any criminal offense.

(D) The corporation has expanded steadily over the past six years.

(E) Any legal proceedings against the chairman have resulted in his acquittal
Below is an excerpt from a letter that was sent by the   [#permalink] 14 Jul 2005, 10:36

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