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# Bihar is Indias poorest state, with an annual per capita

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Director
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Bihar is Indias poorest state, with an annual per capita [#permalink]

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27 Mar 2009, 05:27
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177. Bihar is India’s poorest state, with an annual per capita income of \$111, lower than in the most impoverished countries of the world.
(A) lower than in
(B) lower than that of
(C) and lower than that of
(D) which is lower than in
(E) which is lower than it is in

[Reveal] Spoiler:
why D is wrong here? please explain
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

Last edited by Abhishek009 on 30 Apr 2016, 01:48, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Bihar is Indias poorest state, with an annual per capita [#permalink]

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27 Mar 2009, 05:32
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ugimba wrote:
177. Bihar is India’s poorest state, with an annual per capita income of \$111, lower than in the most impoverished countries of the world.
(A) lower than in
(B) lower than that of
(C) and lower than that of
(D) which is lower than in
(E) which is lower than it is in

why D is wrong here? please explain

It is B (OA), Which cannot be used here, which will allways follows what it refers to (here which does not refer to income of \$111).
Director
Joined: 01 Aug 2008
Posts: 725
Re: Bihar is Indias poorest state, with an annual per capita [#permalink]

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27 Mar 2009, 05:46
patedhav wrote:
ugimba wrote:
177. Bihar is India’s poorest state, with an annual per capita income of \$111, lower than in the most impoverished countries of the world.
(A) lower than in
(B) lower than that of
(C) and lower than that of
(D) which is lower than in
(E) which is lower than it is in

why D is wrong here? please explain

It is B (OA), Which cannot be used here, which will allways follows what it refers to (here which does not refer to income of \$111).

Hey Thanks for the explanation. I was thinking that here 'which' refers to income of \$111. So now If I used the same sentece (D) ...then which referes to 'poor state'?
Director
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Re: Bihar is Indias poorest state, with an annual per capita [#permalink]

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28 Mar 2009, 03:17
OA is B.

Thanks
Director
Joined: 04 Jan 2008
Posts: 893
Re: Bihar is Indias poorest state, with an annual per capita [#permalink]

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28 Mar 2009, 03:30
Cant be D as there is UNEQUAL Comparison issue
you need a "that"

Ref:OG 11 #100. Explanation is Better.
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Manager
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Posts: 162
Location: Mumbai
Re: Bihar is Indias poorest state, with an annual per capita [#permalink]

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28 Mar 2009, 07:02
For one, that should be used instead of which.
Second, B is more apt here.

So it is B.
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Re: Bihar is Indias poorest state, with an annual per capita [#permalink]

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29 Jun 2010, 19:37
It should be b , because we are comparing per capita income of Bihar with other states
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Posts: 413
Re: Bihar is Indias poorest state, with an annual per capita [#permalink]

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09 Jul 2010, 22:46
It should be b , because we are comparing per capita income of Bihar with other states

pls explain a lttle more clearly why not A..thanx
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Posts: 137
Re: Bihar is Indias poorest state, with an annual per capita [#permalink]

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11 Jul 2010, 04:58
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Bihar is India’s poorest state, with an annual per capita income of \$111, lower than in the most impoverished countries of the world.
(A) lower than in
You would only compare two prepositional phrases when you are comparing something to itself.

Correct: Sue reads more at night than in the day. (The sentence compares the two time periods.)

Incorrect: Sue reads more than at night. (There is a second time period but no first time period to complete the comparison.)

In A, there is no first prepositional phrase to complete the comparison ending with "...than in the most impoverished countries..."

(B) lower than that of
A tip regarding comparisons!

To compare something to itself, use "it" or "they".
Ex. The legs of chair A are more wobbly than they were yesterday.

To compare one thing to another, use "that" or "those".
Ex. The legs of chair A are more wobbly than those of chair B.

Thus, in the problem above, we want to compare one per-capita income to another. Any time you want to compare one thing to another you must use 'that'/'those'.

(C) and lower than that of

Tip: [,and] connects two independent clauses!

Ex. I eat steak [,and] my brother eats fish.

There is no full subject+verb after the 'and' in C.

(D) which is lower than in
Same problem as A.

(E) which is lower than it is in
See B.
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Re: Bihar is Indias poorest state, with an annual per capita [#permalink]

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05 Sep 2010, 13:21
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SaraiGMAXonline wrote:
Bihar is India’s poorest state, with an annual per capita income of \$111, lower than in the most impoverished countries of the world.
(A) lower than in
You would only compare two prepositional phrases when you are comparing something to itself.

Correct: Sue reads more at night than in the day. (The sentence compares the two time periods.)

Incorrect: Sue reads more than at night. (There is a second time period but no first time period to complete the comparison.)

In A, there is no first prepositional phrase to complete the comparison ending with "...than in the most impoverished countries..."

(B) lower than that of
A tip regarding comparisons!

To compare something to itself, use "it" or "they".
Ex. The legs of chair A are more wobbly than they were yesterday.

To compare one thing to another, use "that" or "those".
Ex. The legs of chair A are more wobbly than those of chair B.

Thus, in the problem above, we want to compare one per-capita income to another. Any time you want to compare one thing to another you must use 'that'/'those'.

(C) and lower than that of

Tip: [,and] connects two independent clauses!

Ex. I eat steak [,and] my brother eats fish.

There is no full subject+verb after the 'and' in C.

(D) which is lower than in
Same problem as A.

(E) which is lower than it is in
See B.

Thanks Sarai. So for D, if it said "which is lower than that of", would that make it right? Does which here refer to the value of 111 or the whole phrase 'income of 111'? Thanks
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Posts: 181
Re: Bihar is Indias poorest state, with an annual per capita [#permalink]

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05 Sep 2010, 15:18
ugimba wrote:
177. Bihar is India’s poorest state, with an annual per capita income of \$111, lower than in the most impoverished countries of the world.
(A) lower than in
(B) lower than that of
(C) and lower than that of
(D) which is lower than in
(E) which is lower than it is in

In case of D and E which refers to the poorest state that cannot be lower than.....
we cannot use and in C. And breaks the sentence into two and the second sentence doesn't have any verb

Between A and B, B is correct as we should use that of here instead of in. See SaraiGMAXonline's post

mainhoon wrote:
Thanks Sarai. So for D, if it said "which is lower than that of", would that make it right? Does which here refer to the value of 111 or the whole phrase 'income of 111'? Thanks

to answer your question, which is always referring to the poorest state.
with an annual per capita income of \$111 is just a prepositional modifier.
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Re: Bihar is Indias poorest state, with an annual per capita [#permalink]

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05 Sep 2010, 16:17
geturdream wrote:
ugimba wrote:
177. Bihar is India’s poorest state, with an annual per capita income of \$111, lower than in the most impoverished countries of the world.
(A) lower than in
(B) lower than that of
(C) and lower than that of
(D) which is lower than in
(E) which is lower than it is in

In case of D and E which refers to the poorest state that cannot be lower than.....
we cannot use and in C. And breaks the sentence into two and the second sentence doesn't have any verb

Between A and B, B is correct as we should use that of here instead of in. See SaraiGMAXonline's post

mainhoon wrote:
Thanks Sarai. So for D, if it said "which is lower than that of", would that make it right? Does which here refer to the value of 111 or the whole phrase 'income of 111'? Thanks

to answer your question, which is always referring to the poorest state.
with an annual per capita income of \$111 is just a prepositional modifier.

Are you sure? Which refers to Bihar? I don't think so. Which refers to what comes immediately before it, in this case it should be 111
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Re: Bihar is Indias poorest state, with an annual per capita [#permalink]

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05 Sep 2010, 16:45
mainhoon wrote:
geturdream wrote:
ugimba wrote:
177. Bihar is India’s poorest state, with an annual per capita income of \$111, lower than in the most impoverished countries of the world.
(A) lower than in
(B) lower than that of
(C) and lower than that of
(D) which is lower than in
(E) which is lower than it is in

In case of D and E which refers to the poorest state that cannot be lower than.....
we cannot use and in C. And breaks the sentence into two and the second sentence doesn't have any verb

Between A and B, B is correct as we should use that of here instead of in. See SaraiGMAXonline's post

mainhoon wrote:
Thanks Sarai. So for D, if it said "which is lower than that of", would that make it right? Does which here refer to the value of 111 or the whole phrase 'income of 111'? Thanks

to answer your question, which is always referring to the poorest state.
with an annual per capita income of \$111 is just a prepositional modifier.

Are you sure? Which refers to Bihar? I don't think so. Which refers to what comes immediately before it, in this case it should be 111

Which refers to what comes immediately before it only if there is no comma. Here you will find a comma after \$111.
And with an annual per capita income of \$111 is a prepositional modifier. That's why which can modify the state.

Any second opinion on this....
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Re: Bihar is Indias poorest state, with an annual per capita [#permalink]

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05 Sep 2010, 16:47
Which must have a comma come before it in GMAT, this is my understanding.. Unless we are using it in a sentence "in which" or "of which" etc...
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Re: Bihar is Indias poorest state, with an annual per capita [#permalink]

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05 Sep 2010, 19:30
SaraiGMAXonline wrote:
Bihar is India’s poorest state, with an annual per capita income of \$111, lower than in the most impoverished countries of the world.
(A) lower than in
You would only compare two prepositional phrases when you are comparing something to itself.

Correct: Sue reads more at night than in the day. (The sentence compares the two time periods.)

Incorrect: Sue reads more than at night. (There is a second time period but no first time period to complete the comparison.)

In A, there is no first prepositional phrase to complete the comparison ending with "...than in the most impoverished countries..."

(B) lower than that of
A tip regarding comparisons!

To compare something to itself, use "it" or "they".
Ex. The legs of chair A are more wobbly than they were yesterday.

To compare one thing to another, use "that" or "those".
Ex. The legs of chair A are more wobbly than those of chair B.

Thus, in the problem above, we want to compare one per-capita income to another. Any time you want to compare one thing to another you must use 'that'/'those'.

(C) and lower than that of

Tip: [,and] connects two independent clauses!

Ex. I eat steak [,and] my brother eats fish.

There is no full subject+verb after the 'and' in C.

(D) which is lower than in
Same problem as A.

(E) which is lower than it is in
See B.

Sarai this was the great help.
Thanks!
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Re: Bihar is Indias poorest state, with an annual per capita [#permalink]

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18 Dec 2011, 21:17
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The Great Bihar is even highlighted in a GMAT forum also....keep going Bihar...lol...
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Re: Bihar is Indias poorest state, with an annual per capita [#permalink]

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26 Jun 2012, 23:40
SaraiGMAXonline wrote:
Bihar is India’s poorest state, with an annual per capita income of \$111, lower than in the most impoverished countries of the world.
(A) lower than in
You would only compare two prepositional phrases when you are comparing something to itself.

Correct: Sue reads more at night than in the day. (The sentence compares the two time periods.)

Incorrect: Sue reads more than at night. (There is a second time period but no first time period to complete the comparison.)

In A, there is no first prepositional phrase to complete the comparison ending with "...than in the most impoverished countries..."

(B) lower than that of
A tip regarding comparisons!

To compare something to itself, use "it" or "they".
Ex. The legs of chair A are more wobbly than they were yesterday.

To compare one thing to another, use "that" or "those".
Ex. The legs of chair A are more wobbly than those of chair B.

Thus, in the problem above, we want to compare one per-capita income to another. Any time you want to compare one thing to another you must use 'that'/'those'.

(C) and lower than that of

Tip: [,and] connects two independent clauses!

Ex. I eat steak [,and] my brother eats fish.

There is no full subject+verb after the 'and' in C.

(D) which is lower than in
Same problem as A.

(E) which is lower than it is in
See B.

Will it be fine if we write the sentence in the following way :-

Annual per capita income income of Bihar,which is India's poorest state , is lower than in the most impoverished countries of the world.
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Re: Bihar is Indias poorest state, with an annual per capita [#permalink]

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27 Jun 2012, 05:51
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arunmehta89 wrote:
Will it be fine if we write the sentence in the following way :-

Annual per capita income income of Bihar,which is India's poorest state , is lower than in the most impoverished countries of the world.

Hi there,
Annual per capita income of Bihar, which is India's poorest state, is lower than in the most impoverished countries of the world.

I’m afraid this sentence is not correct. It has the same error as in the original sentence. The comparison is not clear here. This sentence fails to convey what we are comparing the annual per capita income of Bihar with. After “lower than” we have “in the most impoverished countries” but what in these impoverished countries are we comparing the per capita income of Bihar with? This is not mentioned in the sentence.

The correct version of the sentence will be:

Annual per capita income of Bihar, which is India's poorest state, is lower than that of the most impoverished countries of the world.

We can also write the sentence by replacing “that of” with the “annual per capita income”.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
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Re: Bihar is Indias poorest state, with an annual per capita [#permalink]

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27 Jun 2012, 06:11
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Hi All,

The discussion regarding the reference of “which” in answer choices D and E has prompted me to explain what “which” is modifying in these two choices. Yes, these two choices are incorrect choices, alright. But the information, I feel, is vital and can be usefully applied for GMAT problems related to “relative pronoun” clauses.

This is the sentence with answer choice D:

Bihar is India’s poorest state, with an annual per capita income of \$111, which is lower than in the most impoverished countries of the world.

According to the general rule, relative pronouns modify the immediate preceding noun. However, in some cases, these pronouns can also refer to a slightly far away noun. This modification completely depends on the context of the sentence.
In this sentence, “which” refers to “annual per capita income of \$111” and not only “\$111”, the immediate preceding noun. This is so because the prepositional phrase “of \$111” cannot be placed anywhere else in the sentence. This phrase only makes sense after “annual per capita income”. So now, we have a big noun phrase here “annual per capita income of \$111”, and hence “which” modifies the head of this noun phrase that is “annual per capita income”.

Same is applicable to the sentence with choice E also.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
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Re: Bihar is Indias poorest state, with an annual per capita [#permalink]

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