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Billions of people in the world suffer from water scarcity. The proble

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Billions of people in the world suffer from water scarcity. The proble  [#permalink]

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28 Aug 2019, 07:31
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New Project RC Butler 2019 - Practice 2 RC Passages Everyday
Passage # 295, Date : 28-Aug-2019
This post is a part of New Project RC Butler 2019. Click here for Details

Billions of people in the world suffer from water scarcity. The problem is not a lack of suitable water in the world; it is an uneven distribution of that water--an uneven distribution, to be more exact, of the resources and facilities needed to manage water, as well as the natural sources of water themselves. It has been estimated that a billion people lack access to potable water, and 2.4 billion lack access to the basic sanitation that is necessary for basic water usage.

In the case of the domestic shortage of water, which is small in demand relative to commercial uses of water, the problem is not so much that there are no water resources, but that those without water lack the political and financial capital to access that water. Granted, natural forces do play a role. In regions of need, terrestrial water resources may be distributed quite unevenly, leaving large populations at great distances without such sources, and rainwater may fall only sporadically throughout the course of a given year. In such regions, making water accessible is costlier and may require considerable investment in infrastructure.

I would like to propose a radical measure to address water shortage, especially in African countries. I suggest that multinational soft drink companies be given incentives to enter the countries afflicted by water shortage and invest in the development of the water infrastructure. This proposal is not as absurd as it may first sound. First of all, most major soft drink companies nowadays are also in the business of selling bottled water; they have expertise in purification and other relevant knowledge areas. Second, the soft drink industry is among the very first industries to penetrate and profit in emerging markets, because of the general appeal and low price of their product. Moreover, the more a given economy develops, the more that particular soft drink provider stands to profit. In other words, soft drink companies have both the capability to help and some interest to operate in a given country that needs assistance.

You may object that soft drink companies already would have entered a country to help if they had seen benefit in doing so. That critique may be true, but it does not necessarily mean that a company could not be driven to action through direct financial incentives, partial ownership of constructed infrastructure, assistance from international organizations and pressure from more developed neighboring countries in which that company already has an entrenched interest. Moreover, to the criticism that infrastructure building is the work of governments, not companies, there is a valid response: partnerships between governments and corporations have thrived for centuries in major projects and could benefit both the people and involved corporations in this case, as well.

1. The primary purpose of the passage is to propose

A. a cheaper way to develop water infrastructure
B. a way to address water scarcity that benefits both people and corporations
C. direct financial incentives to commercial bottling operations
D. a new system for partnerships between government and corporations
E. an alternative to traditional efforts to combat water scarcity

2. The author implies that all of the following statements about water scarcity are true EXCEPT

A. the scarcity of domestic drinking water is not primarily due to insufficient quantities of water
C. lack of purification contributes to the problem of water scarcity
D. addressing water scarcity in a country would help its economy develop
E. in some areas, the business of providing drinkable water would benefit soft drink companies more than that of selling soft drinks

3. According to the passage, which of the following statements would best explain why local governments alone cannot address water scarcity?

A. Local governments are unwilling to give up partial ownership of water infrastructure.
B. Local laws inhibit the construction of water infrastructure.
C. Transporting unevenly distributed water would require the cooperation of neighboring countries that have strained relations.
D. Local governments lack expertise in purification and other relevant knowledge areas.
E. Local governments, to the extent they have sufficient political capital to build water infrastructure, lack sufficient financial capital.

Source: GMAT Free (3)
Difficulty Level: 650

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Re: Billions of people in the world suffer from water scarcity. The proble  [#permalink]

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28 Aug 2019, 20:09
in this passeage, in q3, why option d is not appropiate
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Re: Billions of people in the world suffer from water scarcity. The proble  [#permalink]

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28 Aug 2019, 20:23
Para 1 Summary – Author introduces the actual reason behind water shortage problem with some acts.

Para 2 Summary – Author particularly discusses about domestic shortage of water that it is due to uneven distribution of water and lack of political and financial capital among people who face the problem. Also author gives reasons why providing access is costlier in cases where people live in faraway places.

Para 3 Summary – Author proposes a solution for the African countries, which involves giving incentives to soft drink companies so that they enter those countries facing the issue and finally gives his reasoning why his/her proposal is not absurd.

Para 4 Summary – In this para author finally addresses possible opposition of his/her proposal and gives reasoning how that can be dealt.

Passage Summary – Author introduces problem of water shortage discusses root cause particularly of domestic shortage and how that can be addressed by providing his/her proposal.

1. The primary purpose of the passage is to propose

A. a cheaper way to develop water infrastructure – WRONG. Irrelevant.
B. a way to address water scarcity that benefits both people and corporations – CORRECT. In broader terms this what passage tries to elaborate.
C. direct financial incentives to commercial bottling operations – WRONG. Limited scope.
D. a new system for partnerships between government and corporations – WRONG. Irrelevant.
E. an alternative to traditional efforts to combat water scarcity – WRONG. Its not alternative to traditional efforts .

2. The author implies that all of the following statements about water scarcity are true EXCEPT

A. the scarcity of domestic drinking water is not primarily due to insufficient quantities of water – WRONG. Mentioned in para 1.
B. addressing water scarcity potentially has business value – WRONG. Mentioned in para 3
C. lack of purification contributes to the problem of water scarcity – WRONG. “lack access to potable water” n para 1 shows it adds to the problem.
D. addressing water scarcity in a country would help its economy develop – WRONG. Mentioned in para 3.
E. in some areas, the business of providing drinkable water would benefit soft drink companies more than that of selling soft drinks – CORRECT. A comparison is nowhere addressed by author.

3. According to the passage, which of the following statements would best explain why local governments alone cannot address water scarcity?

Marked D, though was stuck between D and E and got it wrong. Point E says local governments having political capital lack financial capital but the way passage is constructed and transitions from para 1 to 2 it seems people who lack political and financial capital access face water shortage. So eliminated this option. On the other hand, D says local government lack purification knowledge which perfectly makes sense. Thus marked D.
This is an inference question so passage understanding is a must to answer the question.

A. Local governments are unwilling to give up partial ownership of water infrastructure. – WRONG. Unwillingness of local governments is irrelevant.
B. Local laws inhibit the construction of water infrastructure. – WRONG. No such mention anywhere in the passage.
C. Transporting unevenly distributed water would require the cooperation of neighboring countries that have strained relations. – WRONG. Goes out of scope to say neighboring countries have strained relations.
D. Local governments lack expertise in purification and other relevant knowledge areas. – WRONG.
E. Local governments, to the extent they have sufficient political capital to build water infrastructure, lack sufficient financial capital. – CORRECT.

Experts’ opinion requested for how D is incorrect.
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Re: Billions of people in the world suffer from water scarcity. The proble   [#permalink] 28 Aug 2019, 20:23