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Biologists agree that human beings evolved from a fish, but they disag

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Biologists agree that human beings evolved from a fish, but they disag  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Jan 2019, 23:59
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Biologists agree that human beings evolved from a fish, but they disagree about which species of fish. Since biologists agree that frogs are definitely related to the species of fish from which human beings evolved, on the basis of a close match between the mitochondrial DNA of lungfish and that of frogs Dr. Stevens-Hoyt claims that this ancestor must be lungfish. Dr. Grover, on the other hand, contends that mitochondrial DNA evolves too rapidly to be a reliable indicator of relationships between species over long periods of time, and citing the close chemical match between the hemoglobin of coelacanths (a saltwater fish) and that of tadpoles, claims that human beings must be descended from coelacanths.

Which one of the following most accurately describes the role played in the dispute above by the proposition that frogs are definitely related to the species of fish from which human beings evolved?


(A) Since it implies that human beings are not descended from lungfish, it is cited as evidence against the claim that humans are descended from lungfish.

(B) Since it implies that human beings are not descended from coelacanths, it is offered as evidence against the claim that human beings are descended from coelacanths.

(C) It is offered as evidence for the contention that human beings must be descended from either lungfish or coelacanths.

(D) It is an assumption that both parties to the dispute use as a starting point for their arguments about human evolution.

(E) It implies that either a match of mitochondrial DNA or a match of hemoglobin between lungfish and coelacanths would show that human beings evolved from one of these two species.

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Re: Biologists agree that human beings evolved from a fish, but they disag  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Jan 2019, 00:26
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In the above premise, the boldfaced statement is something on the basis of which the two scientists presented their claims, so it is something which is agreed by both scientist

(A) Since it implies that human beings are not descended from lungfish, it is cited as evidence against the claim that humans are descended from lungfish. Wrong as stated above

(B) Since it implies that human beings are not descended from coelacanths, it is offered as evidence against the claim that human beings are descended from coelacanths. WRONG it is not the evidence

(C) It is offered as evidence for the contention that human beings must be descended from either lungfish or coelacanths. WRONG it is not the evidence

(D) It is an assumption that both parties to the disputed use as a starting point for their arguments about human evolution. Correct as per our thinking

(E) It implies that either a match of mitochondrial DNA or a match of hemoglobin between lungfish and coelacanths would show that human beings evolved from one of these two species.
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Re: Biologists agree that human beings evolved from a fish, but they disag  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Jan 2019, 21:15
Biologists agree that human beings evolved from a fish, but they disagree about which species of fish. Since biologists agree that frogs are definitely related to the species of fish from which human beings evolved, on the basis of a close match between the mitochondrial DNA of lungfish and that of frogs Dr. Stevens-Hoyt claims that this ancestor must be lungfish. Dr. Grover, on the other hand, contends that mitochondrial DNA evolves too rapidly to be a reliable indicator of relationships between species over long periods of time, and citing the close chemical match between the hemoglobin of coelacanths (a saltwater fish) and that of tadpoles, claims that human beings must be descended from coelacanths.

Boil it down-Scientists all agree that humans came from fish
Biologists all agree that frogs are related to the kind of fish humans came from

Dr. Stevens-Hoyt- a close match between the mitochondrial DNA of lungfish--> ancestor must be lungfish

Dr. Grover- mitochondrial DNA unreliable
close chemical match between the hemoglobin of coelacanths (a saltwater fish) and that of tadpoles ---> ancestor must be coelacanths


Which one of the following most accurately describes the role played in the dispute above by the proposition that frogs are definitely related to the species of fish from which human beings evolved?

(A) Since it implies that human beings are not descended from lungfish, it is cited as evidence against the claim that humans are descended from lungfish. - It is not used as evidence and it is also not used as evidence AGAINST anything. No one is even arguing AGAINST anything; both doctors are simply arguing for their hypothesis.
(B) Since it implies that human beings are not descended from coelacanths, it is offered as evidence against the claim that human beings are descended from coelacanths. - Correct
(C) It is offered as evidence for the contention that human beings must be descended from either lungfish or coelacanths. - Incorrect - The doctors definitely only argue for lungfish or coelacanth.But this doesn't mean that the statement is used to say that "Because frogs are definitely related to the fish from which human beings evolved, so humans only evolved from either X or Y."
(D) It is an assumption that both parties to the dispute use as a starting point for their arguments about human evolution. - Correct
(E) It implies that either a match of mitochondrial DNA or a match of hemoglobin between lungfish and coelacanths would show that human beings evolved from one of these two species. - Irrelevant

Answer D
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Re: Biologists agree that human beings evolved from a fish, but they disag  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Jan 2019, 23:22
S1 on the basis of a close match between the mitochondrial DNA of lungfish and that of frogs Dr. Stevens-Hoyt claims that this ancestor must be lungfish.
S2 r. Grover, on the other hand,citing the close chemical match between the hemoglobin of coelacanths (a saltwater fish) and that of tadpoles, claims that human beings must be descended from coelacanths

Which one of the following most accurately describes the role played in the dispute above by the proposition that frogs are definitely related to the species of fish from which human beings evolved?
or role played in dispute in form of examples
(A) Since it implies that human beings are not descended from lungfish, it is cited as evidence against the claim that humans are descended from lungfish.
No, irrelevant
(B) Since it implies that human beings are not descended from coelacanths, it is offered as evidence against the claim that human beings are descended from coelacanths.
Same as A irrelevant
(C) It is offered as evidence for the contention that human beings must be descended from either lungfish or coelacanths.
This is not evidence as , they used word claim
(D) It is an assumption that both parties to the dispute use as a starting point for their arguments about human evolution.
Correct answer
(E) It implies that either a match of mitochondrial DNA or a match of hemoglobin between lungfish and coelacanths would show that human beings evolved from one of these two species.
No , implication only claim

BY POE ,
D is correct
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Re: Biologists agree that human beings evolved from a fish, but they disag   [#permalink] 22 Jan 2019, 23:22
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Biologists agree that human beings evolved from a fish, but they disag

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