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# Black Americans are, on the whole, about twice as likely as

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Black Americans are, on the whole, about twice as likely as [#permalink]

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03 Mar 2012, 14:41
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Black Americans are, on the whole, about twice as likely as White Americans to develop high blood pressure. This likelihood also holds for Westernized Black Africans when compared to White Africans.
Researchers have hypothesized that this predisposition in westernized blacks may reflect an interaction between western high-salt diets and genes that adapted to environmental scarcity of salt.
Which of the following statements about present-day, westernized black Africans, if true, would most tend to confirm the researchers hypothesis?

a) The blood pressures of those descended from peoples situated throughout their history in Senegal and Gambia, where salt was always available, are low.

b) The usually high salt consumption in certain areas of Africa represents a serious health problem.

c) Because of their blood pressure levels, most White Africans have markedly decreased their salt consumption.

d) Blood pressures are low among the Yorubam who throughout their history, have been situated far inland from sources of sea salt and far south of Saharan salt mines

e) No significant differences in salt metabolism have been found between those people who have had salt available throughout their history and those who have not.

[Reveal] Spoiler:
Guys I need help with the following question. The correct answer is A. I chose D and would like to know the reasoning for the correct answer. If someone can help me understand the reasoning and the way to approach the correct answer, I will certainly appreciate it.
Thanks,
Sameer.
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

Last edited by JarvisR on 25 Jul 2015, 00:05, edited 1 time in total.

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Re: Black Americans are, on the whole, about twice as likely as [#permalink]

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03 Mar 2012, 19:54
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According to A: Blood pressures are low among westernized black africans who have descended entirely from people of senegal and gambia where salt was always available. This implies that these people have descended from a people who were used to metabolizing a moderate to high level of salt because there was no scarcity. The fact that these descendants of senegalese and gambian africans have low blood pressure shows that they can metabolize higher levels of salts like their Sengalese and Gambian ancestors. Thus the link must be genetic and predisposition to high blood pressure may reflect an interaction between western high-salt diets and genes of most africans (not senegalese and gambian) that adapted to environmental scarcity of salt. Thus A is correct.

that was a tough one to write for me. must work on writing skills

D refers to the yorubams blood pressure but does not relate it to those of modern day westernized black africans. so incorrect.

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Re: Black Americans are, on the whole, about twice as likely as [#permalink]

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04 Mar 2012, 13:33
karun0109 wrote:
According to A: Blood pressures are low among westernized black africans who have descended entirely from people of senegal and gambia where salt was always available. This implies that these people have descended from a people who were used to metabolizing a moderate to high level of salt because there was no scarcity. The fact that these descendants of senegalese and gambian africans have low blood pressure shows that they can metabolize higher levels of salts like their Sengalese and Gambian ancestors. Thus the link must be genetic and predisposition to high blood pressure may reflect an interaction between western high-salt diets and genes of most africans (not senegalese and gambian) that adapted to environmental scarcity of salt. Thus A is correct.

that was a tough one to write for me. must work on writing skills

D refers to the yorubams blood pressure but does not relate it to those of modern day westernized black africans. so incorrect.

Looks like to answer above question, one needs to have clear understanding about various geogrophies on earth.

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Re: Black Americans are, on the whole, about twice as likely as [#permalink]

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04 Mar 2012, 18:48
This is a tough answer to refer the metabolism of Western Black American. Choice A states that "The blood pressures of those descended from peoples situated throughout their history in Senegal and Gambia, where salt was always available, are low". So, these descendants are the exceptional cases of overall African people. Other Africans will get the high blood pressure caused by the interaction between genes and high-salt diets.
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Re: Black Americans are, on the whole, about twice as likely as [#permalink]

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05 Mar 2012, 01:26
could someone provide a detailed reasoning on how to arrive at correct answer??

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Re: Black Americans are, on the whole, about twice as likely as [#permalink]

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05 Mar 2012, 08:52
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conclusion: "Researchers have hypothesized that this predisposition in westernized Blacks may reflect an interaction between western high-salt diets and genes that adapted to an environmental scarcity of salt." This is saying that researchers believe that westernized blacks have high blood pressure because their ancestors adapted to low sodium diets. This adaptation & the tons of salt in a western diet are what these researchers say causes high blood pressure.

(A) The blood pressures of those descended from peoples situated throughout their history in Senegal and Gambia, where salt was always available, are low."
Rember that high blood pressure is caused by high salt diet + genetic adaptation to LOW salt environments. Those in Senegal and Gambia are in a place where there is PLENTY of salt and they don't have high blood pressure. This suggests that the researchers are right because those from Gambia and Senagal have had generations to adapt their genes to this kind of diet, unlike other africans.
(B) certain areas in Africa ? out of scope
(c) argument is about western black Americans not about white Americans . out of scope.
(D) It just give info about Yoruba and not relating to anyone in the argument.
(E) certainly out of scope

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Re: Black Americans are, on the whole, about twice as likely as [#permalink]

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03 Apr 2012, 04:42
IMO A
......

Is it GMAT prep question?

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Re: Black Americans are, on the whole, about twice as likely as [#permalink]

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29 Apr 2012, 10:46
Dang it, i forgot to check the source and did a gmat prep question ( I am trying to save it for later). Still, this is the hard one for me.

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Re: Black Americans are, on the whole, about twice as likely as [#permalink]

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19 Oct 2013, 22:15
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Premise: BP in BA ~ (equivalent to) 2(BP in WA) and BP in WBAf ~ 2(BP in WWAf)
Conclusion: Reason for above trend - Interaction b/w high salt in western diet and genes for low salt availability.

Let's see A and D.
a) The blood pressures of those descended from peoples situated throughout their history in Senegal and Gambia, where salt was always available, are low.
Salt always available; therefore normal genes; therefore BP is not high. Somewhat similar to the research.

d) Blood pressures are low among the Yorubam who throughout their history, have been situated far inland from sources of sea salt and far south of Saharan salt mines.
Salt unavailable; therefore genes should be low salt genes; therefore BP should be high but it is given to be low here. Hence, there is a contradiction.

A is better than D here.

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Re: Black Americans are, on the whole, about twice as likely as [#permalink]

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11 Jan 2014, 07:33
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Got trouble with this one!

Here is the explanation I have:

- Your are looking for something that proves the link btw: scarcity of salt ==> change in habit ==> high blood pressure.
- Therefore, it will strenghten the argument if you claim that descendent of black american have low blood pressure. Why? Well because they did not get used to scarcity in salt!

If the descendent of people coming from Africa have low blood pressure, it means that the only factor that enables the developpement of high blood pressure is the fact that your organism was used to a scarcity in salt

This is explained in answer A...

Hope it is clear for everyone!
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Re: Black Americans are, on the whole, about twice as likely as [#permalink]

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20 Mar 2014, 05:08
Hi E-gmat team,

Can you help on this question.
I was not able to understand this question.

Regards
Akhil
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Re: Black Americans are, on the whole, about twice as likely as [#permalink]

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18 Jul 2014, 20:44
akhil911 wrote:
Hi E-gmat team,

Can you help on this question.
I was not able to understand this question.

Regards
Akhil

Lemme try..I assume its A vs D..

A is clear in its intent as it shows that people with high salt access in the past do not suffer with the same condition as Africans living in salt scarce areas do suffer..
D is talking about proximity to 2 major salt sources..but we cannot be sure of their eating habits or about availablity of other salt sources etc

A is better than D
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Re: Black Americans are, on the whole, about twice as likely as [#permalink]

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27 Jul 2014, 06:21
Since passage is talking about adaption A talks about that ; strengthen the premise so it is correct
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Re: Black Americans are, on the whole, about twice as likely as [#permalink]

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Re: Black Americans are, on the whole, about twice as likely as [#permalink]

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29 Aug 2015, 11:41
Can someone explain the above CR ?

Is this really GMATPrep question?

Please explain option A in detail.
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Re: Black Americans are, on the whole, about twice as likely as [#permalink]

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22 Mar 2016, 22:11
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I got it wrong too. It's very tricky question.

After reviewing, I think I understand why A is correct.

The argument goes like this:

People who have specific genes get high blood pressure more easily when eating high salt diets.

It means that if someone have these genes, they will likely to get high blood pressure.
(X causes Y)

So, one way to strengthen the argument is to confirm that if the cause doesn't occur, then the result will not occur.

Choice A says that people who don't have those specific genes(becasue their ancestors lived in the place where salt is not scarce) will not get high blood pressure.
(Not X then Not Y)

Correct me if I'm wrong

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Re: Black Americans are, on the whole, about twice as likely as [#permalink]

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29 Mar 2016, 00:07
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samirashok wrote:
Black Americans are, on the whole, about twice as likely as White Americans to develop high blood pressure. This likelihood also holds for Westernized Black Africans when compared to White Africans.
Researchers have hypothesized that this predisposition in westernized blacks may reflect an interaction between western high-salt diets and genes that adapted to environmental scarcity of salt.
Which of the following statements about present-day, westernized black Africans, if true, would most tend to confirm the researchers hypothesis?

a) The blood pressures of those descended from peoples situated throughout their history in Senegal and Gambia, where salt was always available, are low.

b) The usually high salt consumption in certain areas of Africa represents a serious health problem.

c) Because of their blood pressure levels, most White Africans have markedly decreased their salt consumption.

d) Blood pressures are low among the Yorubam who throughout their history, have been situated far inland from sources of sea salt and far south of Saharan salt mines

e) No significant differences in salt metabolism have been found between those people who have had salt available throughout their history and those who have not.

[Reveal] Spoiler:
Guys I need help with the following question. The correct answer is A. I chose D and would like to know the reasoning for the correct answer. If someone can help me understand the reasoning and the way to approach the correct answer, I will certainly appreciate it.
Thanks,
Sameer.

I suppose the choice is really between A and D.

Let's analyze the researchers hypothesis - high BP in WB is due to 2 reasons - 1) high salt western diets, and 2) genes adapted to environmental scarcity of salt.

A) normal salt availability - genes not adapted to scarcity of salt - low BP. (This means that because the genes did not have to adapt to low salt environment, they are still able to cope with high salt diet, and hence BP is low) - supports the researchers' hypothesis.

D) Low salt environment - low BP - but the genes are still adapted to low salt environments -which means when exposed to high salt diets in the west they should have developed high BP, but did not - This actually weakens the argument.

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Re: Black Americans are, on the whole, about twice as likely as [#permalink]

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29 Mar 2016, 17:16
samirashok wrote:
Black Americans are, on the whole, about twice as likely as White Americans to develop high blood pressure. This likelihood also holds for Westernized Black Africans when compared to White Africans.
Researchers have hypothesized that this predisposition in westernized blacks may reflect an interaction between western high-salt diets and genes that adapted to environmental scarcity of salt.
Which of the following statements about present-day, westernized black Africans, if true, would most tend to confirm the researchers hypothesis?

a) The blood pressures of those descended from peoples situated throughout their history in Senegal and Gambia, where salt was always available, are low.

b) The usually high salt consumption in certain areas of Africa represents a serious health problem.

c) Because of their blood pressure levels, most White Africans have markedly decreased their salt consumption.

d) Blood pressures are low among the Yorubam who throughout their history, have been situated far inland from sources of sea salt and far south of Saharan salt mines

e) No significant differences in salt metabolism have been found between those people who have had salt available throughout their history and those who have not.

[Reveal] Spoiler:
Guys I need help with the following question. The correct answer is A. I chose D and would like to know the reasoning for the correct answer. If someone can help me understand the reasoning and the way to approach the correct answer, I will certainly appreciate it.
Thanks,
Sameer.

Seriously there is a thousand and one assumption in this argument nay plenty conclusions.
What if it wasn't about the gene adaption to environment? That means IF THERE ARE BLACK AFRICANS LIVING IN HISTORICALLY SALTY DIET ENVIRONMENT THEY WOULDN'T ADAPT. THEY WOULD HAVE HYPERTENSION.
Now only option A says They Would Adapt, reassuring us that it's gene adaptation to environ.

Now do know why it doesn't matter anymore figuring out how to tell if the listed countries are black Africans?
Because there is no other option that is directed at the assumption above. Gmat knows you don't need to know even simple geography. Just hardcore logic. period.
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Re: Black Americans are, on the whole, about twice as likely as [#permalink]

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15 May 2016, 12:49
Please correct me if iam wrong in my thinking :-

The scarcity might have forced the ancestors of a certain race to long for salt, and when the salt was provided through Western Diets they went on an overdrive, and ended up developing High Blood pressure.

Hence any choice that may prove the link between the scarcity of salt and HBP.

The answer choice A says since Senegal and Gambia has salt, they never longed for it, hence the diets did not attracted them, and at the end of it did not get HBP....

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Re: Black Americans are, on the whole, about twice as likely as [#permalink]

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04 Aug 2016, 23:49
samirashok wrote:
Black Americans are, on the whole, about twice as likely as White Americans to develop high blood pressure. This likelihood also holds for Westernized Black Africans when compared to White Africans.
Researchers have hypothesized that this predisposition in westernized blacks may reflect an interaction between western high-salt diets and genes that adapted to environmental scarcity of salt.
Which of the following statements about present-day, westernized black Africans, if true, would most tend to confirm the researchers hypothesis?

a) The blood pressures of those descended from peoples situated throughout their history in Senegal and Gambia, where salt was always available, are low.

b) The usually high salt consumption in certain areas of Africa represents a serious health problem.

c) Because of their blood pressure levels, most White Africans have markedly decreased their salt consumption.

d) Blood pressures are low among the Yorubam who throughout their history, have been situated far inland from sources of sea salt and far south of Saharan salt mines

e) No significant differences in salt metabolism have been found between those people who have had salt available throughout their history and those who have not.

[Reveal] Spoiler:
Guys I need help with the following question. The correct answer is A. I chose D and would like to know the reasoning for the correct answer. If someone can help me understand the reasoning and the way to approach the correct answer, I will certainly appreciate it.
Thanks,
Sameer.

I still have problem to understand why choice 'D' is incorrect
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Re: Black Americans are, on the whole, about twice as likely as   [#permalink] 04 Aug 2016, 23:49
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