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# Black Americans are, on the whole, about twice as likely as

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Black Americans are, on the whole, about twice as likely as [#permalink]

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03 Dec 2012, 06:26
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Black Americans are, on the whole, about twice as likely as White Americans to develop high blood pressure. This likelihood also holds for westernized Black Africans when compared to White Africans. Researchers have hypothesized that this predisposition in westernized Blacks may reflect an interaction between western high-salt diets and genes that adapted to an environmental scarcity of salt.

Which of the following statements about present-day, westernized Black Africans, if true, would most tend to confirm the researchers' hypothesis?

(A) The blood pressures of those descended from peoples situated throughout their history in Senegal and Gambia, where salt was always available, are low.

(B) The unusually high salt consumption in certain areas of Africa represents a serious health problem.

(C) Because of their blood pressure levels, most White Africans have markedly decreased their salt consumption.

(D) Blood pressures are low among the Yoruba, who, throughout their history, have been situated far inland from sources of sea salt and far south of Saharan salt mines

(E) No significant differences in salt metabolism have been found between those people who have had salt available throughout their history and those who have not.

OA soon after discussions.
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

Last edited by nelz007 on 03 Dec 2012, 07:11, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Black Americans are, on the whole, about twice as likely as [#permalink]

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03 Dec 2012, 06:58
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Answer should be A.

The argument says that high blood pressure is due to the fact that black americans' genes had adapted to accomodate low salt levels.

A shows that people whose genes did not have to adapt to low salt levels did not have high blood pressure.
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Re: Black Americans are, on the whole, about twice as likely as [#permalink]

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03 Dec 2012, 07:10
I just read your gym question haha nice one macfauz prep. A it is
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Re: Black Americans are, on the whole, about twice as likely as [#permalink]

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03 Dec 2012, 07:42
nelz007 wrote:
I just read your gym question haha nice one macfauz prep. A it is

Thanks nelz.... Would help if you could go through the other posts and still think the answer is A.... Because I framed that one to be the wrong answer.. If you still feel its A maybe I could make some changes...
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Re: Black Americans are, on the whole, about twice as likely as [#permalink]

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03 Dec 2012, 07:44
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IMO: A
Cause: High salt in diet by people in Africa, America
Result: High Blood Pressure(BP) in those people
Argument says, High BP in people is a natural response to deal with scarcity of salt. Genes adopted themselves to prevent eradication of available salt.

Answer should support that Blood Pressure is caused as stimulus to prevent the existence of salt in that geographical area.

(A) The blood pressures of those descended from peoples situated throughout their history in Senegal and Gambia, where salt was always available, are low. When salt was always available abundantly , BP didn't increase, it means, BP increased in areas only where presence of salt is very low. Correct.

(B) The unusually high salt consumption in certain areas of Africa represents a serious health problem. It doesn't help to support the conclusion.

(C) Because of their blood pressure levels, most White Africans have markedly decreased their salt consumption. This statement doesn't mention any interrelation between Decrease in salt consumption & Availability of salt in that area.

(D) Blood pressures are low among the Yoruba, who, throughout their history, have been situated far inland from sources of sea salt and far south of Saharan salt mines. BP is low throughout the history doesn't help to prove anything.

(E) No significant differences in salt metabolism have been found between those people who have had salt available throughout their history and those who have not. Salt metabolism is out of context.
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Re: Black Americans are, on the whole, about twice as likely as [#permalink]

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03 Dec 2012, 08:17
MacFauz wrote:
nelz007 wrote:
I just read your gym question haha nice one macfauz prep. A it is

Thanks nelz.... Would help if you could go through the other posts and still think the answer is A.... Because I framed that one to be the wrong answer.. If you still feel its A maybe I could make some changes...

I was referring to this question as A. For that post, it is C though I did like your explanation for D.
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Re: Black Americans are, on the whole, about twice as likely as [#permalink]

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04 Nov 2013, 07:29
Jeeeeeeej, another almost exact replica from an official question.

Thank you Gmatpill, you are way too kind for the gmat-community.
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Re: Black Americans are, on the whole, about twice as likely as [#permalink]

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01 Dec 2013, 15:29
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I think answer is D for a reason
Well there are three factors in context:

a- Blood pressure
b- Gene adaptation to salt availability in surroundings
c- Salt consumption

The conclusion says: low salt level adapted gene (scarcity of salt) + high salt diet = high blood pressure. REMEMBER THE CONSLUSION IS TRYING TO LINK BLOOD PRESSURE WITH SALT CONSUMPTION AND GENE'S ADAPTABILITY TO IT.
Option A tells that low blood pressure and salt availability in surrounding ( We don’t know high or low and it does not tell whether genes were accustom to high or low salt levels). Further, A does not tell that the low blood pressure is due to which of the combination -low salt consumption + low salt level adapted gene OR low salt consumption + high salt level adapted gene. It does not prove a link of gene with level of salt consumption.

now look at option d
a. It tells that the area was facing scarcity of salt → low adaptability of gene to salt
b. It tells that blood pressure was low -> lesser consumption of salt
c. Hence it tells when low gene adaptability to salt is clubbed with a level of salt consumption the blood pressure follows the salt consumption level ( remember in option D and conclusion the gene adaptability to salt is constant-> low)
d. D will work as a new source to prove the given hypothesis

thanks
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Re: Black Americans are, on the whole, about twice as likely as [#permalink]

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15 Dec 2013, 09:03
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One of the best ways to strengthen a Cause and Effect relationship is to prove:
->If Cause(environmental scarcity of salt or low-salt diets) DOES NOT occur, then Effect(high blood pressure) DOES NOT occur.

OR

High salt levels(C) -> Low blood Pressure(E)

Option A does exactly that.

(A) The blood pressures of those descended from peoples situated throughout their history in Senegal and Gambia, where salt was always available, are low.
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Re: Black Americans are, on the whole, about twice as likely as [#permalink]

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11 Feb 2016, 00:33
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Re: Black Americans are, on the whole, about twice as likely as   [#permalink] 11 Feb 2016, 00:33
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