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Brunei, the only sovereign nation on Borneo, is located on the north

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Brunei, the only sovereign nation on Borneo, is located on the north  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Jun 2019, 23:44
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Project SC Butler: Day 125: Sentence Correction (SC2)


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Brunei, the only sovereign nation on Borneo, is located on the north coast of the island and is divided into four separate districts: Belait, Tulong, Brunei-Muara, and Temburong.

A) is located on the north coast of the island and is divided into four separate districts: Belait

B) is located on the north coast of the island and is divided into four separate districts; Belait

C) located on the north coast of the island, is divided into four separate districts, Belait

D) is located on the north coast of the island and divided into four separate districts, that being Belait

E) on the north coast of the island, has been divided into four separate districts: Belait

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Brunei, the only sovereign nation on Borneo, is located on the north  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Jun 2019, 23:44
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OFFICIAL EXPLANATION

HIGHLIGHTS

• MEANING
Gagan0009 is spot on:
Quote:
The sentence here is trying to convey two things about Brunei.
Brunei is the only sovereign nation on Borneo
- that it is located at north coast of island
- and that is divided into 4 separate district


• COLON

Some GMAT questions include the use of a colon to make a sentence rhetorically effective and stylistically sound.
Although the usage of a colon is tested here and there, almost always there are other errors in the options that do not use a colon.
That said, if you cannot spot those errors, knowing the simple rule for a colon can help.

-- a colon must contain a full sentence (an independent clause) before the colon. Whatever comes after the colon does not have to be a full clause
-- colons are used
(1) to say something more about the sentence, something that follows logically from the sentence before the colon;
(2) to introduce a list; and
(3) to introduce quotes

To read more about how colons are used, see my post HERE

• SEMICOLON

-- A semicolon must separate two independent clauses (two full sentences with a subject and a verb that are complete thoughts)

• COMMA

Sometimes a comma is not enough to make the meaning of the sentence crystal clear.
We have too many commas already. We need a colon to separate the clause from the list.

Commas are not used to introduce lists.
-- If the list is short, a comma can be followed by something such as "namely" and then the list, this way:
He ate only two kinds of vegetables, namely, asparagus and broccoli.

In this kind of question that includes a first clause with a comma and a list with commas,
merely adding a comma to separate the thoughts is not preferred.

Colons are preferred in this case. An em dash could also be used.

• MODIFIERS

When two modifiers such as those in option E follow a subject, read carefully.
The other sentences do not set off on the north coast of the island with a comma
That fact is not dispositive, but it is a reason to wonder why the phrase is set off in only one option.

THE PROMPT and THE ANSWER CHOICES

Brunei, the only sovereign nation on Borneo, is located on the north coast of the island and is divided into four separate districts: Belait, Tulong, Brunei-Muara, and Temburong.

Quote:
A) is located on the north coast of the island and is divided into four separate districts: Belait

• Brunei . . . is located . . . and is divided into four separate districts: A, B, C, and D.
• Seems fine. Keep

Quote:
B) is located on the north coast of the island and is divided into four separate districts; Belait

• the semicolon does not separate two full sentences. We need a colon.

Quote:
C) located on the north coast of the island, is divided into four separate districts, Belait

• located is a past participle (a verbED). On the GMAT, past participles modify the immediately preceding noun.
-- so located refers to Borneo. Huh? The island of Borneo is located on the north coast of itself?
-- this test is multiple choice. Compare to option A. Which one is clearer?
• We need a colon, not a a comma
-- This is the sentence with option C inserted
(C) Brunei, the only sovereign nation on Borneo, located on the north coast of the island, is divided into four separate districts, Belait, Tulong, Brunei-Muara, and Temburong.
-- Compare to option A. Which one is clearer?

Quote:
D) is located on the north coast of the island and divided into four separate districts , that being Belait

• pronoun/noun disagreement
-- districts is plural. THAT is singular. If we want to refer to districts, we use "THOSE" [those four districts are]
• The use of a comma in this case to introduce a list mimics what I described in the section on commas, above.
The sentence is trying to create a way to introduce the list with the comma. If you do not catch the pronoun error, compare this version to option A. Which is better?

Quote:
E) on the north coast of the island, has been divided into four separate districts: Belait

• has been (present perfect) suggests that Brunei was divided recently into four districts. That fact is okay—not great, but okay.
• we have no reason to believe that the division was recent, so we can just compare has been to IS in other options. Concision and crispness? IS wins.
• meaning ambiguity: Is Brunei the only sovereign nation in all of Borneo, or the only sovereign nation on the north coast of Borneo?

What about the repetition of IS in answer A?
zhanbo is correct:
Quote:
Regarding A, the only question I asked myself is the repetitive use of "is" in both "is located on the north coast of the island" and "is divided into four separate districts". Can the second "is" be omitted for economy? probably, but the current construction is okay.


The answer is A

COMMENTS

Yeisha9289 , welcome to SC Butler. :)

In this sentence, explaining the errors in the incorrect options is not easy.
Why?
Answer: Because other than (D), the errors are not horrible, but it is clear by comparing each option to (A) that (A) is better.
I am not suggesting that you look for the correct answer. Bad idea.
I am suggesting that we can find the errors to eliminate by comparing one option to another. The better option stays. The worse option goes.

Takeaway: If you cannot find an obvious error but you have a feeling that something is wrong, find the option that seems the clearest and compare. Or find any other option that makes sense and compare.
Try not to get stuck trying to find a slam dunk reason to eliminate an option if another option is clearer and contains no errors.

I quoted a couple of people today because they used phrasing that was exactly what I needed. If I did not quote you, do not worry.
All of the answers are excellent.

Nice work, all. Happy kudos.
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Re: Brunei, the only sovereign nation on Borneo, is located on the north  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Jun 2019, 00:19
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My answer is A. It took me 1 minute 36 seconds to make the call.

Regarding A, the only question I asked myself is the repetitive use of "is" in both "is located on the north coast of the island" and "is divided into four separate districts". Can the second "is" be omitted for economy? probably, but the current construction is okay.

Issue with B: Semicolon (;) separates two IC (independent Clause). But what is after semicolon in B is just a list of nouns.
Issue with C: Comma cannot be used to provide specifics (list of 4 districts) for "separate districts".
Issue with D: The use of "that being" is awkward and almost almost wrong in GMAT. Also, shouldn't it be "those being"?
Issue with E: I think there is no justification for the use of present perfect tense. For the mere fact that the nation is divided into 4 disparate districts, simple present should be used. Also, "on the north coast of the island" should merge with "the only sovereign nation on Borneo".
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Re: Brunei, the only sovereign nation on Borneo, is located on the north  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Jun 2019, 03:09
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generis wrote:

Project SC Butler: Day 125: Sentence Correction (SC2)


For SC butler Questions Click Here



Brunei, the only sovereign nation on Borneo, is located on the north coast of the island and is divided into four separate districts: Belait, Tulong, Brunei-Muara, and Temburong.

A) is located on the north coast of the island and is divided into four separate districts: Belait

B) is located on the north coast of the island and is divided into four separate districts; Belait

C) located on the north coast of the island, is divided into four separate districts, Belait

D) is located on the north coast of the island and divided into four separate districts, that being Belait

E) on the north coast of the island, has been divided into four separate districts: Belait



A) is located on the north coast of the island and is divided into four separate districts: BelaitCorrect option; Is located and is divided (parallel and logical), ":" is used for lists which is correct

B) is located on the north coast of the island and is divided into four separate districts; Belait";" is used to separate two IC and not for giving lists

C) located on the north coast of the island, is divided into four separate districts, Belait - Located acts as a modifier to Boreno rather than Brunei

D) is located on the north coast of the island and divided into four separate districts, that being Belait - Divided is not parallel to "is located"

E) on the north coast of the island, has been divided into four separate districts: BelaitModifies the island "Boreno" itself that is "island is located on the north cost of the island"
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Re: Brunei, the only sovereign nation on Borneo, is located on the north  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Jun 2019, 04:29
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I think answer should be A.

Is located and is divided are parallel.

Colon : is used to list out the islands

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Re: Brunei, the only sovereign nation on Borneo, is located on the north  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Jun 2019, 09:45
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IMO : A

A) is located on the north coast of the island and is divided into four separate districts: Belait - Correct intended meaning and maintains parallelism.

B) is located on the north coast of the island and is divided into four separate districts; Belait : As an example is given here, we cannot use semicolon, instead colon should be used.

C) located on the north coast of the island, is divided into four separate districts, Belait : 'Located' incorrectly modifies Borneo.

D) is located on the north coast of the island and divided into four separate districts, that being Belait : Wordy and passive.

E) on the north coast of the island, has been divided into four separate districts: Belait : Meaning change - Has been indicates that the separation of districts has recently taken place.
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Brunei, the only sovereign nation on Borneo, is located on the north  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Jun 2019, 12:11
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generis wrote:

Project SC Butler: Day 125: Sentence Correction (SC2)


For SC butler Questions Click Here



Brunei, the only sovereign nation on Borneo, is located on the north coast of the island and is divided into four separate districts: Belait, Tulong, Brunei-Muara, and Temburong.

A) is located on the north coast of the island and is divided into four separate districts: Belait
correctly lists out the districts after the colon (trick - when you see a colon (no pun intended), replace it with "namely", and then check whether this fits in the sentence; correctly lists out the parallelism - is located and is divided, and both these verb-ed forms are modifying "Brunei" without any ambiguity.
B) is located on the north coast of the island and is divided into four separate districts; Belait
This is incorrect because semicolon is generally used to divide two independent sentences or standalone sentences, but here, the district names cannot stand alone as a full sentence so B is out. Another use of semicolon is to separate a long list when the list itself contains multiple commas, or other punctuation marks. A quick google search and you'll know what all functions a semicolon can perform.
C) located on the north coast of the island, is divided into four separate districts, Belait
This is incorrect because located is modifying "the only sovereign nation" whereas our requirement is it should modify "Brunei".
D) is located on the north coast of the island and divided into four separate districts, that being Belait
This is incorrect because here the usage of that has to modify a singular subject so replace that with Brunei and then read the sentence, does it make sense, no right.
E) on the north coast of the island, has been divided into four separate districts: Belait
Same as C, the clause - "on the north..island" is modifying "the only sovereign nation" whereas our requirement is it should modify "Brunei". Hence, incorrect.


P.S.- I am still learning the nuances of SC so if my reasoning seems faulty, do point out the mistake. Thanks in advance.
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Re: Brunei, the only sovereign nation on Borneo, is located on the north  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Jun 2019, 22:37
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Brunei, the only sovereign nation on Borneo, is located on the north coast of the island and is divided into four separate districts: Belait, Tulong, Brunei-Muara, and Temburong.

Understand the meaning and sentence structure.

Meaning --> Brunei is the only sovereign nation of Borneo and description about its location and districts is provided.
the only sovereign nation on Borneo--> Modifies Brunei and is placed correctly.

S-V is accounted for in this sentence.

Second thing what the sentence test is the usage of :

We can see below colon is used to present the four districts or elaborate the name of the four districts and is used correctly.

separate districts: Belait, Tulong, Brunei-Muara, and Temburong.

Thus, understanding the nuances of sentence construction is the key here.

IMHO A.
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Re: Brunei, the only sovereign nation on Borneo, is located on the north  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Jun 2019, 02:12
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Sentence here is trying to convey two things about brunei which is only sovereign nation on borneo
- that it is located at north coast of island
- and that it is divided into 4 seperate districts.

Both are essential and cares equal weight.

Brunei, the only sovereign nation on Borneo, is located on the north coast of the island and is divided into four separate districts: Belait, Tulong, Brunei-Muara, and Temburong.

A) is located on the north coast of the island and is divided into four separate districts: Belait -- no grammar error as such and use of colon is accurate.

B) is located on the north coast of the island and is divided into four separate districts; Belait -- using a semi colon only indicates starting of an independent sentence and 4 noun can't make an independent for sure.
WRONG

C) located on the north coast of the island, is divided into four separate districts, Belait -- located on the north coast doesn't seems to modifying the island and by placing it between comma makes it non essential as well. Comma at end can't be used to introduce examples
WRONG

D) is located on the north coast of the island and divided into four separate districts, that being Belait -- using "that" with a comma is completely wrong and "that" can't point to plural obeject i.e. districts.
"being: shows temporary state of being which isn't true for those district
WRONG

E) on the north coast of the island, has been divided into four separate districts: Belait -- present perfect needs a time marker such as "since 1920
Brunei has been separated into 4 districts" and "on the north coast" is classic case or misplaced modifier.
WRONG

IMO Option A

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Re: Brunei, the only sovereign nation on Borneo, is located on the north  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Jun 2019, 12:19
I have posted the official explanation HERE
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Re: Brunei, the only sovereign nation on Borneo, is located on the north   [#permalink] 16 Jun 2019, 12:19
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