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# Building on civilizations that preceded them in coastal Peru, the Mohi

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Intern
Joined: 04 Apr 2011
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Re: Building on civilizations that preceded them in coastal Peru, the Mohi [#permalink]

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04 Apr 2011, 11:16
cvinod wrote:
So, why not A ? Are cultivating, harvesting and exploiting ....not in parallel ?

The second problem problem is with the usage of such crops like. The correct usage should be such crops as, as in answer B.

OA is B.

Trying to understand why A doesn't meet parallelism, more so when OA explains that cultivating, harvesting and exploiting ....are the correct parallel forms for this sentence.

This is from the OG-12 (SC#28).

Answer B is correct. A has the word "the" before the word "harvesting". This breaks parallelism.

"based on cultivating such crops like corn and beans, the harvesting of fish and shellfish, and exploiting"
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Re: Building on civilizations that preceded them in coastal Peru, the Mohi [#permalink]

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05 Apr 2011, 22:43
There are three actions here- cultivate, harvest and exploit
either it should be cultivating, harvesting and exploiting (verb forms)
or it should be cultivation of, harvesting of and exploitation of (noun form)
A uses cultivating and exploiting in verb form and harvesting in noun form (by putting an 'of' after it) Hence A is incorrect.
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Re: Building on civilizations that preceded them in coastal Peru, the Mohi [#permalink]

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06 Apr 2011, 01:32
cvinod wrote:
Building on civilizations that preceded them in coastal Peru, the Mohica developed their own elaborate society, based on cultivating such crops like corn and beans, the harvesting of fish and shellfish, and exploiting other wild and domestic resources.

(A) based on cultivating such crops like corn and beans, the harvesting of fish and shellfish, and exploiting
(B) based on the cultivation of such crops as corn and beans, the harvesting of fish and seafood, and the exploitation of
(C) and basing it on the cultivation of crops like corn and beans, harvesting fish and seafood, and the exploiting of
(D) and [color=#FF0000]they based it o[/color]n their cultivation of crops such as corn and beans, the harvest of fish and seafood, and exploting
(E) and they based it on their cultivating such crops like corn and beans, their harvest of fish and shellfish, and they exploited

Any one like to answer this ?

By method of elimination i got B.
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Re: Building on civilizations that preceded them in coastal Peru, the Mohi [#permalink]

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01 Oct 2011, 21:43
The issue in A --when we have to give example then use such as not like or such ...like..
B is fine
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Re: Building on civilizations that preceded them in coastal Peru, the Mohi [#permalink]

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02 Oct 2011, 23:08
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If you really want to apply parallelism to this sentence, you'll need to know a slightly arcane rule about gerunds. Let's lay out some terms first. Gerunds are verbs transformed into nouns by the addition of -ing.

A simple gerund is one that could function as a verb, modifiers and all. In the following sentences, the simple gerund is in bold.
I love skiing.
Skiing is my favorite winter sport.
Skiing through avalanche territory is especially exciting.

Again, the bolded portions above are simple gerunds, because they could serve as verbs in a sentence such as I am skiing, or I am skiing through avalanche country.

A complex gerund is one that could not serve as a verb. I won't list here all the ways to create complex gerunds, but watch out in particular for articles and for of phrases. I'll give you a reference to some additional information below. In the meantime, here is an example of a complex gerund.
The opening of the new shopping mall drew fewer customers than the developers had hoped.
You couldn't say I am opening of...

OK, here's the slightly arcane rule. There are three sorts of nouns: (1) concrete nouns, (2) action nouns and complex gerunds, (3) simple gerunds. No list or other parallel structure can mix these. (It's easy to find perfectly good sentences that violate this rule, but not on the GMAT: this rule applies reliably to GMAT SC.)

Now let's apply that rule here:

Every list means parallelism. Let's see what is being compared in each answer choice, and ask whether the elements are structurally similar and logically comparable.

In A, the list is cultivating..., the harvesting of ..., and exploiting. Cultivating and exploiting are simple gerunds, but the harvesting of is a complex gerund. ELIMINATE.

In B, the list is the cultivation..., the harvesting..., and the exploitation of.... Cultivation is not a gerund at all, but remember that action nouns can be parallel with complex gerunds. So fine.

In C, the list is the cultivation..., harvesting..., and the exploiting of . Harvesting is a simple gerund, while the exploiting of is a complex gerund. ELIMINATE.

In D, the list is their cultivation..., the harvest..., and exploiting of. Similar problem with gerunds and other nouns. ELIMINATE.

In E, the list is their cultivating..., their harvest..., and they exploited. This is the most egregious error. They exploited is a clause, while cultivating and harvest are nouns. ELIMINATE.

That leaves B. If you want the more nuanced account of gerunds I mentioned above, go to 213-215 of the MGMAT SC Strategy Guide.
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Last edited by MichaelS on 12 Dec 2012, 00:04, edited 2 times in total.
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Re: Building on civilizations that preceded them in coastal Peru, the Mohi [#permalink]

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03 Oct 2011, 07:29
Thanks MichaelS for the fastidious explanation.

Cheers!
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Re: Building on civilizations that preceded them in coastal Peru, the Mohi [#permalink]

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03 Oct 2011, 10:01
Clear B...very nicely explained Michael
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Re: Building on civilizations that preceded them in coastal Peru, the Mohi [#permalink]

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20 Dec 2011, 01:56
-- like cannot introduce examples, hence wrong
hence, we are left with B and D.
Among the two B is the best for ||, and 'based on the cultivation of such crops as corn and beans' correctly modifies the noun society.
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Re: Building on civilizations that preceded them in coastal Peru, the Mohi [#permalink]

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16 Apr 2012, 21:23
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Building on civilizations that preceded them in coastal Peru, the Mochica developed their own elaborat society, based on cultivating such crops like corn and beans, the harvesting of fish and shellfish, and exploiting other wild and domestic resources.

(A) based on cultivating such crops like corn and beans, the harvesting of fish and shellfish, and exploiting
(B) based on the cultivation of such crops as corn and beans, the harvesting of fish and seafood, and the exploitation of
(C) and basing it on the cultivation of crops like corn and beans, harvesting fish and seafood, and the exploiting of
(D) and they based it on their cultivation of crops such as corn and beans, the harvest of fish and seafood, and exploiting
(E) and they based it on their cultivating such crops like corn and beans, their harvest of fish and shellfish, and they exploited

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Re: Building on civilizations that preceded them in coastal Peru, the Mohi [#permalink]

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16 Apr 2012, 21:53
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(A) based on cultivating such crops like corn and beans, the harvesting of fish and shellfish, and exploiting->wrong
the three phrases are not parallel
(B) based on the cultivation of such crops as corn and beans, the harvesting of fish and seafood, and the exploitation of-->correct the three noun phrases are parallel ,please see the bold faced nouns(C) and basing it on the cultivation of crops like corn and beans, harvesting fish and seafood, and the exploiting of-->parallelism error
(D) and they based it on their cultivation of crops such as corn and beans, the harvest of fish and seafood, and exploiting--> unnecessary use of the word they and also parallelism error
(E) and they based it on their cultivating such crops like corn and beans, their harvest of fish and shellfish, and they exploited-->wrong use of the pronoun their and also parallelism error.
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Re: Building on civilizations that preceded them in coastal Peru, the Mohi [#permalink]

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16 Apr 2012, 22:16
saikarthikreddy wrote:
(A) based on cultivating such crops like corn and beans, the harvesting of fish and shellfish, and exploiting->wrong
the three phrases are not parallel
(B) based on the cultivation of such crops as corn and beans, the harvesting of fish and seafood, and the exploitation of-->correct the three noun phrases are parallel ,please see the bold faced nouns(C) and basing it on the cultivation of crops like corn and beans, harvesting fish and seafood, and the exploiting of-->parallelism error
(D) and they based it on their cultivation of crops such as corn and beans, the harvest of fish and seafood, and exploiting--> unnecessary use of the word they and also parallelism error
(E) and they based it on their cultivating such crops like corn and beans, their harvest of fish and shellfish, and they exploited-->wrong use of the pronoun their and also parallelism error.

Hi saikarthikreddy, the cultivation and the harvesting are not in parallel. It should be cultivating & harvesting.
Correct me if I am wrong.
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Re: Building on civilizations that preceded them in coastal Peru, the Mohi [#permalink]

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17 Apr 2012, 02:34
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subhajeet wrote:
saikarthikreddy wrote:
(A) based on cultivating such crops like corn and beans, the harvesting of fish and shellfish, and exploiting->wrong
the three phrases are not parallel
(B) based on the cultivation of such crops as corn and beans, the harvesting of fish and seafood, and the exploitation of-->correct the three noun phrases are parallel ,please see the bold faced nouns(C) and basing it on the cultivation of crops like corn and beans, harvesting fish and seafood, and the exploiting of-->parallelism error
(D) and they based it on their cultivation of crops such as corn and beans, the harvest of fish and seafood, and exploiting--> unnecessary use of the word they and also parallelism error
(E) and they based it on their cultivating such crops like corn and beans, their harvest of fish and shellfish, and they exploited-->wrong use of the pronoun their and also parallelism error.

Hi saikarthikreddy, the cultivation and the harvesting are not in parallel. It should be cultivating & harvesting.
Correct me if I am wrong.

based on the cultivation of such crops as corn and beans, the harvesting of fish and seafood, and the exploitation of

"the harvesting of " - complex gerund
"cultivation" and "exploitation" - action noun

complex gerund and action noun can be parallel.

Hope this helps..!!
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Re: Building on civilizations that preceded them in coastal Peru, the Mohi [#permalink]

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17 Apr 2012, 04:57
harvesting is used as a noun, it is a gerund. Also every article (a,an,the) must be followed by a NOUN so there you go
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Re: Building on civilizations that preceded them in coastal Peru, the Mohi [#permalink]

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17 Apr 2012, 13:19
I can't point to a specific rule or terminology, but such shouldn't be followed by like when providing examples. It's either "such as" or "like"

"such crops like" - wrong
"such crops as" - correct
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Re: Building on civilizations that preceded them in coastal Peru, the Mohi [#permalink]

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17 Apr 2012, 21:13
Went for B. Great information above, I still can't dissect the answers with specifics though. C D E sounded awkward to me and B had the correct usage of "such crops as".
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Re: Building on civilizations that preceded them in coastal Peru, the Mohi [#permalink]

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18 Apr 2012, 06:33
vikram4689 wrote:
aalba005 wrote:
Went for B. Great information above, I still can't dissect the answers with specifics though. C D E sounded awkward to me and B had the correct usage of "such crops as".

do you have any specific doubt

No, after I read the explainations it was clear why C D and E were incorrect but I still need more practice in this regard.
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Re: Building on civilizations that preceded them in coastal Peru, the Mohi [#permalink]

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18 Apr 2012, 07:02
aalba005 wrote:
vikram4689 wrote:
aalba005 wrote:
Went for B. Great information above, I still can't dissect the answers with specifics though. C D E sounded awkward to me and B had the correct usage of "such crops as".

do you have any specific doubt

No, after I read the explainations it was clear why C D and E were incorrect but I still need more practice in this regard.

Great, let us know wherever you have any queries
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Re: Building on civilizations that preceded them in coastal Peru, the Mohi [#permalink]

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18 May 2012, 04:16
Building on civilizations that preceded them in coastal
Peru, the Mochica developed their own elaborate
society, based on cultivating such crops like corn and
beans, the harvesting of fi sh and shellfi sh, and
exploiting other wild and domestic resources.
(A) based on cultivating such crops like corn and
beans, the harvesting of fi sh and shellfi sh, and
exploiting
there are two problem : 1) not parallel cultivating and harvesting of
2) such crops like is incorrect. As is correct word

(B) based on the cultivation of such crops as corn
and beans, the harvesting of fi sh and seafood,
and the exploitation of
Correct

(C) and basing it on the cultivation of crops like corn
and beans, harvesting fi sh and seafood, and the
exploiting of
not parallel
exploiting of is incorrect

(D) and they based it on their cultivation of crops
such as corn and beans, the harvest of fi sh and
seafood, and exploiting
not parallel, usage of they ambiguous

(E) and they based it on their cultivating such crops
like corn and beans, their harvest of fi sh and
shellfi sh, and they exploited
usage of they ambiguous
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Re: Building on civilizations that preceded them in coastal Peru, the Mohi [#permalink]

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24 Jul 2012, 23:31
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Building on civilizations that preceded them in coastal Peru, the Mochica developed their own elaborate society, based on cultivating such crops like corn and beans, the harvesting of fish and shellfish, and exploiting other wild and domestic resources.

A. based on cultivating such crops like corn and beans, the harvesting of fish and shellfish, and exploiting
B. based on the cultivation of such crops as corn and beans, the harvesting of fish and shellfish, and exploiting of
C. and basing it on cultivating such crops like corn and beans, the harvesting of fish and shellfish, and the exploiting of
D. and they based it on cultivation of crops such as corn and beans, the harvest of fish and seafood, and exploiting
E. and they based it on cultivating crops like corn and beans, their harvest of fish and shellfish, and exploited

Please explain me the answer as I think, A should be correct, considering parallelism.
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Re: Building on civilizations that preceded them in coastal Peru, the Mohi [#permalink]

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25 Jul 2012, 01:18
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This post was
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Building on civilizations that preceded them in coastal Peru, the Mochica developed their own elaborate society, based on cultivating such crops like corn and beans, the harvesting of fish and shellfish, and exploiting other wild and domestic resources.

A. based on cultivating such crops like corn and beans, the harvesting of fish and shellfish, and exploiting
B. based on the cultivation such crops as corn and beans, the harvesting of fish and shellfish, and exploiting of
C. and basing it on cultivating such crops like corn and beans, the harvesting of fish and shellfish, and the exploiting of
D. and they based it on cultivation of crops such as corn and beans, the harvest of fish and seafood, and exploiting
E. and they based it on cultivating crops like corn and beans, their harvest of fish and shellfish, and exploited

Go step by step:
In the underlined statement such -like is given which is incorrect
1. so now we have to pick between such as or Like

as corn and beans are examples of crops we will pick such as - because such as is used to list examples. Eliminate A,C,E
2. how to choose Between B and D.
If you notice there is a comma just before the underlined statement. So we know "and" can not be preceded by comma. so strike off D.

3. Most important re-read the statement with B

hope this help! Don't forget to Kudos!
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Re: Building on civilizations that preceded them in coastal Peru, the Mohi   [#permalink] 25 Jul 2012, 01:18

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