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Building on civilizations that preceded them in coastal Peru, the Mohi

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Building on civilizations that preceded them in coastal Peru, the Mochica developed their own elaborate society, based on cultivating such crops like corn and beans, the harvesting of fish and shellfish, and exploiting other wild and domestic resources.

A. based on cultivating such crops like corn and beans, the harvesting of fish and shellfish, and exploiting
B. based on the cultivation such crops as corn and beans, the harvesting of fish and shellfish, and exploiting of correct
C. and basing it on cultivating such crops like corn and beans, the harvesting of fish and shellfish, and the exploiting of
D. and they based it on cultivation of crops such as corn and beans, the harvest of fish and seafood, and exploiting
E. and they based it on cultivating crops like corn and beans, their harvest of fish and shellfish, and exploited
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Re: Building on civilizations that preceded them in coastal Peru, the Mohi [#permalink]

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Building on civilizations that preceded them in coastal Peru, the Mochica developed their own elaborate society, based on cultivating such crops like corn and beans, the harvesting of fish and shellfish, and exploiting other wild and domestic resources.

a) based on cultivating such crops like corn and beans, the harvesting of fish and shellfish, and exploiting

b) based on the cultivation of such crops as corn and beans, the harvesting of fish and seafood, and the exploitation of

c) and basing it on the cultivation of crops like corn and beans, harvesting fish and seafood, and the exploiting of

d) and they based it on their cultivation of crops such as corn and beans, the harvest of fish and seafood, and exploiting

e) and they based it on their cultivating such crops like corn and beans, their harvest of fish and shellfish, and they exploited

This is an open and shut parallelism problem; The parallel arms are 1. the cultivation of,2. the harvesting of, and 3 the exploitation of. You may note only B has such a parallel structure I do not think one needs any more. If you have plenty of time still left, you may also confirm via - like vs such as -.


As per the text by the original poster, even B is wrong , because it is missing on the article //ism.
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Re: Building on civilizations that preceded them in coastal Peru, the Mohi [#permalink]

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Hi @nehadass,

Firstly, let me post the correct version of the question and the answer choices here:

Building on civilizations that preceded them in coastal Peru, the Mochica developed their own elaborate society, based on cultivating such crops like corn and beans, the harvesting of fish and shellfish, and exploiting other wild and domestic resources.

a) based on cultivating such crops like corn and beans, the harvesting of fish and shellfish, and exploiting

b) based on the cultivation of such crops as corn and beans, the harvesting of fish and seafood, and the exploitation of

c) and basing it on the cultivation of crops like corn and beans, harvesting fish and seafood, and the exploiting of

d) and they based it on their cultivation of crops such as corn and beans, the harvest of fish and seafood, and exploiting

e) and they based it on their cultivating such crops like corn and beans, their harvest of fish and shellfish, and they exploited

It seems that you are not able to figure out how “harvesting” is parallel to “cultivation” and “exploitation” in choice B while “cultivating, harvesting, and exploiting” look absolutely parallel in Choice A.

Notice the presence of the preposition “of” after “harvesting”. “Harvesting” is the noun form of the verb “harvest”. There is no noun form of “harvest” that ends in “-ion”. However, the verbs “cultivate” and “exploit” do have their noun forms ending with “-ion” – “cultivation” and “exploitation”. That makes all these three noun parallel to each other even if “harvesting” looks a little different from the rest.

Now, “cultivating” and “exploiting” cannot be parallel to “harvesting of” because the first two are gerunds – the “-ing” form of verbs that act as noun but denotes action. Whenever the sentence requires the noun form of any word, we must write the real noun form of that word and not the gerund form.

Choice B is the only choice where all the entities appear in one uniform manner – “cultivation of”, “harvesting of”, and “exploitation of” – all noun forms followed by “of”.

And again, choice A cannot be the correct answer because it uses “like” for examples. The correct idiom to present examples is “such as”, correctly used in Choice B.

Hope this helps.
Thanks
Shraddha
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Re: Building on civilizations that preceded them in coastal Peru, the Mohi [#permalink]

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New post 25 Jul 2012, 11:31
Thanks Shraddha. Makes sense to me now. :)
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Re: Building on civilizations that preceded them in coastal Peru, the Mohi [#permalink]

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New post 04 Aug 2012, 05:21
Hi Shraddha, say in this example, if in the option D, it had the exploitation of .. then would the sentence be correct by ,+fanboys fundamental?
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Re: Building on civilizations that preceded them in coastal Peru, the Mohi [#permalink]

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New post 29 Jun 2013, 11:00
Source: The Official Guide for GMAT Review 12th Edition
Chapter: 9
Topic: Sentence Correction
Question: 28
Question: Page 662
Solution: Page 698

28. Building on civilizations that preceded them in coastal Peru, the Mochica developed their own elaborate society, based on cultivating such crops like corn and beans, the harvesting of fish and shellfish, and exploiting other wild and domestic resources.
(A) based on cultivating such crops like corn and beans, the harvesting of fish and shellfish, and exploiting
(B) based on the cultivation of such crops as corn and beans, the harvesting of fish and seafood, and the exploitation of
(C) and basing it on the cultivation of crops like corn and beans, harvesting fish and seafood, and the exploiting of
(D) and they based it on their cultivation of crops such as corn and beans, the harvest of fish and seafood, and exploiting
(E) and they based it on their cultivating such crops like corn and beans, their harvest of fish and shellfish, and they exploited

The solution provide on page 698 states that answer choice B is correct. The answer choices contain fish and shellfish or fish and seafood. In answer choice B the content has been changed from fish and shellfish to fish and seafood. Can someone please explain that such a change of content is allowed and a regular occurrence. The reason i am asking is because i elimnated choices containing fish and seafood as the word "seafood" was not originally there and it changes the meaning of the sentence.

Thank you in advance.
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Re: Building on civilizations that preceded them in coastal Peru, the Mohi [#permalink]

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New post 29 Jun 2013, 11:58
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hb wrote:
Source: The Official Guide for GMAT Review 12th Edition

28. Building on civilizations that preceded them in coastal Peru, the Mochica developed their own elaborate society, based on cultivating such crops like corn and beans, the harvesting of fish and shellfish, and exploiting other wild and domestic resources.

(A) based on cultivating such crops like corn and beans, the harvesting of fish and shellfish, and exploiting
(B) based on the cultivation of such crops as corn and beans, the harvesting of fish and seafood, and the exploitation of
(C) and basing it on the cultivation of crops like corn and beans, harvesting fish and seafood, and the exploiting of
(D) and they based it on their cultivation of crops such as corn and beans, the harvest of fish and seafood, and exploiting
(E) and they based it on their cultivating such crops like corn and beans, their harvest of fish and shellfish, and they exploited

The solution provide on page 698 states that answer choice B is correct. The answer choices contain fish and shellfish or fish and seafood. In answer choice B the content has been changed from fish and shellfish to fish and seafood. Can someone please explain that such a change of content is allowed and a regular occurrence. The reason i am asking is because i elimnated choices containing fish and seafood as the word "seafood" was not originally there and it changes the meaning of the sentence.


Thank you in advance.


It's quite normal for the GMAT to flip things around in the answer choices. Your bigger concern here should be the structure of the underlined portion. I am not sure what types of studying materials you are using, but you should get definitely get your hands on a sentence correction guide (MGMAT SC Guide is popular here). The most apparent mistake that the initial answer A is making is that there isn't proper parallelism. Train yourself first to notice these quick structural differences first and THEN move on to meanings (where the flip things around).

Building on civilizations that preceded them in coastal Peru, the Mochica developed their own elaborate society, based on cultivating such crops like corn and beans, the harvesting of fish and shellfish, and exploiting other wild and domestic resources.

First, notice in the initial sentence that they are using ", and", which most of time means that there are going to be a list of two or more things parallel. This is a BIG indicator that they are probably going to be testing out parallelism.

(A) based on cultivating such crops like corn and beans, the harvesting of fish and shellfish, and exploiting
(B) based on the cultivation of such crops as corn and beans, the harvesting of fish and seafood, and the exploitation of
the cultivation... the harvesting... the exploitation these are all in parallel form
Technically, when "the" added it is turned into a complex gerund form, turning "the -ing or the -ion" into a noun. BUT don't worry about the technical terms yet, just get the basic parallelism rules down from some study guide.... Learn to scan from these, you'll easily knock out answer choices
(C) and basing it on the cultivation of crops like corn and beans, harvesting fish and seafood, and the exploiting of
(D) and they based it on their cultivation of crops such as corn and beans, the harvest of fish and seafood, and exploiting
(E) and they based it on their cultivating such crops like corn and beans, their harvest of fish and shellfish, and they exploited

Post again if you need more info :)
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Re: Building on civilizations that preceded them in coastal Peru, the Mohi [#permalink]

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New post 03 Jul 2013, 15:48
DelSingh wrote:
hb wrote:
Source: The Official Guide for GMAT Review 12th Edition

28. Building on civilizations that preceded them in coastal Peru, the Mochica developed their own elaborate society, based on cultivating such crops like corn and beans, the harvesting of fish and shellfish, and exploiting other wild and domestic resources.

(A) based on cultivating such crops like corn and beans, the harvesting of fish and shellfish, and exploiting
(B) based on the cultivation of such crops as corn and beans, the harvesting of fish and seafood, and the exploitation of
(C) and basing it on the cultivation of crops like corn and beans, harvesting fish and seafood, and the exploiting of
(D) and they based it on their cultivation of crops such as corn and beans, the harvest of fish and seafood, and exploiting
(E) and they based it on their cultivating such crops like corn and beans, their harvest of fish and shellfish, and they exploited

The solution provide on page 698 states that answer choice B is correct. The answer choices contain fish and shellfish or fish and seafood. In answer choice B the content has been changed from fish and shellfish to fish and seafood. Can someone please explain that such a change of content is allowed and a regular occurrence. The reason i am asking is because i elimnated choices containing fish and seafood as the word "seafood" was not originally there and it changes the meaning of the sentence.


Thank you in advance.


It's quite normal for the GMAT to flip things around in the answer choices. Your bigger concern here should be the structure of the underlined portion. I am not sure what types of studying materials you are using, but you should get definitely get your hands on a sentence correction guide (MGMAT SC Guide is popular here). The most apparent mistake that the initial answer A is making is that there isn't proper parallelism. Train yourself first to notice these quick structural differences first and THEN move on to meanings (where the flip things around).

Building on civilizations that preceded them in coastal Peru, the Mochica developed their own elaborate society, based on cultivating such crops like corn and beans, the harvesting of fish and shellfish, and exploiting other wild and domestic resources.

First, notice in the initial sentence that they are using ", and", which most of time means that there are going to be a list of two or more things parallel. This is a BIG indicator that they are probably going to be testing out parallelism.

(A) based on cultivating such crops like corn and beans, the harvesting of fish and shellfish, and exploiting
(B) based on the cultivation of such crops as corn and beans, the harvesting of fish and seafood, and the exploitation of
the cultivation... the harvesting... the exploitation these are all in parallel form
Technically, when "the" added it is turned into a complex gerund form, turning "the -ing or the -ion" into a noun. BUT don't worry about the technical terms yet, just get the basic parallelism rules down from some study guide.... Learn to scan from these, you'll easily knock out answer choices
(C) and basing it on the cultivation of crops like corn and beans, harvesting fish and seafood, and the exploiting of
(D) and they based it on their cultivation of crops such as corn and beans, the harvest of fish and seafood, and exploiting
(E) and they based it on their cultivating such crops like corn and beans, their harvest of fish and shellfish, and they exploited

Post again if you need more info :)



I am using Veritas Prep Course Material and eGMAT. Recently i purchased the MGMAT books as well. I can agree with you that the MGMAT Sentence Correction and the MGMAT Foundations of GMAT Verbal are both very well written and really stand out. Thank you for your comments.
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Re: Building on civilizations that preceded them in coastal Peru, the Mohi [#permalink]

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nehadass wrote:
Building on civilizations that preceded them in coastal Peru, the Mochica developed their own elaborate society, based on cultivating such crops like corn and beans, the harvesting of fish and shellfish, and exploiting other wild and domestic resources.

A. based on cultivating such crops like corn and beans, the harvesting of fish and shellfish, and exploiting
B. based on the cultivation such crops as corn and beans, the harvesting of fish and shellfish, and exploiting of
C. and basing it on cultivating such crops like corn and beans, the harvesting of fish and shellfish, and the exploiting of
D. and they based it on cultivation of crops such as corn and beans, the harvest of fish and seafood, and exploiting
E. and they based it on cultivating crops like corn and beans, their harvest of fish and shellfish, and exploited


Please explain me the answer as I think, A should be correct, considering parallelism.


first of all the 3-2 combination is inverted and that happens only on this section of the test. i.e. the three choices with and are unlikely choices, B is also incorrect so stay with A

however C uses all the 'ing' clauses in tune and is for a change the right answer.

C

if B is correct it has been copied incorrectly from the OQ
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Re: Building on civilizations that preceded them in coastal Peru, the Mohi [#permalink]

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New post 09 Jul 2013, 12:14
hb wrote:
DelSingh wrote:
hb wrote:
Source: The Official Guide for GMAT Review 12th Edition

28. Building on civilizations that preceded them in coastal Peru, the Mochica developed their own elaborate society, based on cultivating such crops like corn and beans, the harvesting of fish and shellfish, and exploiting other wild and domestic resources.

(A) based on cultivating such crops like corn and beans, the harvesting of fish and shellfish, and exploiting
(B) based on the cultivation of such crops as corn and beans, the harvesting of fish and seafood, and the exploitation of
(C) and basing it on the cultivation of crops like corn and beans, harvesting fish and seafood, and the exploiting of
(D) and they based it on their cultivation of crops such as corn and beans, the harvest of fish and seafood, and exploiting
(E) and they based it on their cultivating such crops like corn and beans, their harvest of fish and shellfish, and they exploited

The solution provide on page 698 states that answer choice B is correct. The answer choices contain fish and shellfish or fish and seafood. In answer choice B the content has been changed from fish and shellfish to fish and seafood. Can someone please explain that such a change of content is allowed and a regular occurrence. The reason i am asking is because i elimnated choices containing fish and seafood as the word "seafood" was not originally there and it changes the meaning of the sentence.


Thank you in advance.


It's quite normal for the GMAT to flip things around in the answer choices. Your bigger concern here should be the structure of the underlined portion. I am not sure what types of studying materials you are using, but you should get definitely get your hands on a sentence correction guide (MGMAT SC Guide is popular here). The most apparent mistake that the initial answer A is making is that there isn't proper parallelism. Train yourself first to notice these quick structural differences first and THEN move on to meanings (where the flip things around).

Building on civilizations that preceded them in coastal Peru, the Mochica developed their own elaborate society, based on cultivating such crops like corn and beans, the harvesting of fish and shellfish, and exploiting other wild and domestic resources.

First, notice in the initial sentence that they are using ", and", which most of time means that there are going to be a list of two or more things parallel. This is a BIG indicator that they are probably going to be testing out parallelism.

(A) based on cultivating such crops like corn and beans, the harvesting of fish and shellfish, and exploiting
(B) based on the cultivation of such crops as corn and beans, the harvesting of fish and seafood, and the exploitation of
the cultivation... the harvesting... the exploitation these are all in parallel form
Technically, when "the" added it is turned into a complex gerund form, turning "the -ing or the -ion" into a noun. BUT don't worry about the technical terms yet, just get the basic parallelism rules down from some study guide.... Learn to scan from these, you'll easily knock out answer choices
(C) and basing it on the cultivation of crops like corn and beans, harvesting fish and seafood, and the exploiting of
(D) and they based it on their cultivation of crops such as corn and beans, the harvest of fish and seafood, and exploiting
(E) and they based it on their cultivating such crops like corn and beans, their harvest of fish and shellfish, and they exploited

Post again if you need more info :)



I am using Veritas Prep Course Material and eGMAT. Recently i purchased the MGMAT books as well. I can agree with you that the MGMAT Sentence Correction and the MGMAT Foundations of GMAT Verbal are both very well written and really stand out. Thank you for your comments.



No problem, thank you for my first kudos!

I truly believe if you master MGMAT SC's first 5 chapters, which are very short in reading material, you'll be set for 80% of sentence correction. Good luck with your studies
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Re: Building on civilizations that preceded them in coastal Peru, the Mohi [#permalink]

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New post 25 Jul 2013, 11:23
in case you want to solve the question without ll-ism,
c, d and e go off due to the presence of 'it' which makes it ambigouus
between A and B, like vs as
crops like corn has to be corn or some food that acts as corn which is not the meaning intended
leaves us with answer option B for BRAVO
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Re: Building on civilizations that preceded them in coastal Peru, the Mohi [#permalink]

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New post 10 Aug 2013, 16:13
Use "like" for comparisons on the GMAT. Use "such as" for listing things. Here you are listing things so you need "such as"
(B) is what we want.
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Re: Building on civilizations that preceded them in coastal Peru, the Mohi [#permalink]

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New post 19 Sep 2013, 22:35
Building on civilizations that preceded them in coastal Peru, the Mochica developed their own elaborat society, based on cultivating such crops like corn and beans, the harvesting of fish and shellfish, and exploiting other wild and domestic resources.

(A) based on cultivating such crops like corn and beans, the harvesting of fish and shellfish, and exploiting - > like cant be used for examples and not parallel
(B) based on the cultivation of such crops as corn and beans, the harvesting of fish and seafood, and the exploitation of -> correct answer
(C) and basing it on the cultivation of crops like corn and beans, harvesting fish and seafood, and the exploiting of - > like cant be used for examples
(D) and they based it on their cultivation of crops such as corn and beans, the harvest of fish and seafood, and exploiting- > not parallel
(E) and they based it on their cultivating such crops like corn and beans, their harvest of fish and shellfish, and they exploited ->not parallel

Hope it helps.
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Re: Building on civilizations that preceded them in coastal Peru, the Mohi [#permalink]

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New post 20 Sep 2013, 03:23
WaterFlowsUp wrote:
Bumping for review and further discussion*.
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subhajeet wrote:
Building on civilizations that preceded them in coastal Peru, the Mochica developed their own elaborat society, based on cultivating such crops like corn and beans, the harvesting of fish and shellfish, and exploiting other wild and domestic resources.

(A) based on cultivating such crops like corn and beans, the harvesting of fish and shellfish, and exploiting
(B) based on the cultivation of such crops as corn and beans, the harvesting of fish and seafood, and the exploitation of
(C) and basing it on the cultivation of crops like corn and beans, harvesting fish and seafood, and the exploiting of
(D) and they based it on their cultivation of crops such as corn and beans, the harvest of fish and seafood, and exploiting
(E) and they based it on their cultivating such crops like corn and beans, their harvest of fish and shellfish, and they exploited


Answer = B

The pattern in the original sentence is based on cultivating.......(verb), the harvesting of.......(Gerund), and exploiting ..........(verb), which is clearly an issue of Parallelism. Moreover this choice uses such crops like which is not idiomatic. The accepted usage is such crops as or crops such as

For the sentence to have parallel structure, we would need 3 things followed by based on, to be noun or something that plays the role of a noun (e.g. Gerund)

A) INCORRECT - for the reasons cited above

B) CORRECT - This choice maintains the parallelism. based on the cultivation of.......(noun phrase), the harvesting of..........(gerund phrase), and the exploitation of.........(noun phrase). Such crops as is idiomatic.

C) INCORRECT - basing it.....(verb), harvesting......(verb), and exploiting of.......(noun)

D) INCORRECT - their has no logical referent.

E) INCORRECT - for the same reason cited in Choice D.

Hope that helps!
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Hello from the GMAT Club VerbalBot!

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Re: Building on civilizations that preceded them in coastal Peru, the Mohi [#permalink]

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(B) based on the cultivation of such crops as corn and beans, the harvesting of fish and seafood, and the exploitation of
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Hello from the GMAT Club VerbalBot!

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Hello from the GMAT Club VerbalBot!

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Re: Building on civilizations that preceded them in coastal Peru, the Mohi [#permalink]

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New post 09 May 2015, 23:54
MichaelS wrote:
If you really want to apply parallelism to this sentence, you'll need to know a slightly arcane rule about gerunds. Let's lay out some terms first. Gerunds are verbs transformed into nouns by the addition of -ing.

A simple gerund is one that could function as a verb, modifiers and all. In the following sentences, the simple gerund is in bold.
I love skiing.
Skiing is my favorite winter sport.
Skiing through avalanche territory is especially exciting.

Again, the bolded portions above are simple gerunds, because they could serve as verbs in a sentence such as I am skiing, or I am skiing through avalanche country.

A complex gerund is one that could not serve as a verb. I won't list here all the ways to create complex gerunds, but watch out in particular for articles and for of phrases. I'll give you a reference to some additional information below. In the meantime, here is an example of a complex gerund.
The opening of the new shopping mall drew fewer customers than the developers had hoped.
You couldn't say I am opening of...

OK, here's the slightly arcane rule. There are three sorts of nouns: (1) concrete nouns, (2) action nouns and complex gerunds, (3) simple gerunds. No list or other parallel structure can mix these. (It's easy to find perfectly good sentences that violate this rule, but not on the GMAT: this rule applies reliably to GMAT SC.)

Now let's apply that rule here:


Every list means parallelism. Let's see what is being compared in each answer choice, and ask whether the elements are structurally similar and logically comparable.

In A, the list is cultivating..., the harvesting of ..., and exploiting. Cultivating and exploiting are simple gerunds, but the harvesting of is a complex gerund. ELIMINATE.

In B, the list is the cultivation..., the harvesting..., and the exploitation of.... Cultivation is not a gerund at all, but remember that action nouns can be parallel with complex gerunds. So fine.

In C, the list is the cultivation..., harvesting..., and the exploiting of . Harvesting is a simple gerund, while the exploiting of is a complex gerund. ELIMINATE.

In D, the list is their cultivation..., the harvest..., and exploiting of. Similar problem with gerunds and other nouns. ELIMINATE.

In E, the list is their cultivating..., their harvest..., and they exploited. This is the most egregious error. They exploited is a clause, while cultivating and harvest are nouns. ELIMINATE.


That leaves B. If you want the more nuanced account of gerunds I mentioned above, go to 213-215 of the MGMAT SC Strategy Guide.


parallelism is the favourite thing of gmat. it takes us a lot of time to figure out which meaning is paralel to which meaning. consideration of meaning is hard and is cornerstone of gmat sc. but mastering of consideration of meaning requires a good basic grammar knowledge .

pls, help me find the British girl living in Bradford visiting Halong bay Vietnam on 27 Jan 2014. I am not crazy. I am made crazy
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visit my facebook to help me.
on facebook, my name is: thang thang thang

Re: Building on civilizations that preceded them in coastal Peru, the Mohi   [#permalink] 09 May 2015, 23:54

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