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By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen

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Re: By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen [#permalink]

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sunita123 wrote:
I have already gone through the video.
in video,they say earning modifies pilot . that is my doubt. Earning is placed near to record , that means earning is modifying records not the pilot.


sunita123 wrote:
Hi There,

Option B and C starts with earning . here it looks to me earning is modifying records not pilot .I know B and C are wrong as" at a time " followed by wrong word.

But I do not understand , why all explanation says earning is modifying pilot not the records?

can you please explain?

Thank you .

GMATPill wrote:
For those interested in a video walkthrough of this question, we've posted our approach to eliminating A, B, C, and D in the OG13 Tracker here: http://www.gmatpill.com/official-guide- ... ?id=ogsc35



Hi sunita123,

Thank you for the post. :)

As it is clear from your post, you are facing problems in the concept of verb-ing modifiers. The verb-ing modifiers modify different entities depending on their placement:

If a verb-ing modifier is placed after a clause and it is preceded by a comma, then it modifies the preceding clause. This modifier:

1. Either provides additional information about the preceding clause

Tom killed the snake, using a stick. (Additional information)

2. Or it presents the result of the preceding clause.

The recession adversely affected the company’s business, reducing its profits by 50%. (Outcome)



If a verb-ing modifier is placed after a clause and it is not preceded by a comma then it modifies the preceding noun.

Ron got into the cab waiting outside his house. (‘waiting’ modifies ‘the cab’)


If you want to learn more about the verb-ing modifiers, please go through the following two articles. Once you have finished the articles, try to attempt the question above. In case, you still have doubt, look at the explanation below.

usage-of-verb-ing-modifiers-135220.html
verb-ing-modifiers-part-2-in-our-first-article-on-verb-ing-135567.html



Let’s take option B of this sentence to understand the usage of the modifier ‘earning’ in this sentence:

• By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen official national and international speed records, earning them at a time that aviation was still so new for many of the planes she flew were of dangerously experimental design.

In this sentence the modifier ‘earning’ modifies the preceding clause. It provides us additional information about the clause. Also, this modifier makes sense with the subject of the clause since Jacqueline Cochran was the one who earned these records. So, this modifier is correctly used in the context of this sentence.


Hope this helps! :)
Deepak
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Re: By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen [#permalink]

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New post 18 Sep 2014, 08:02
A - is totally confusing, is not making sense. Omitted.
B - at a time that - incorrect, time should follow relative pronoun when or in which.
C - where incorrect relative pronoun where - is used only for noun places.
Between D and E -
after "," it’s an Absolute phrase - earned at a time...
so new.. such that... - "such" is redundant here.
so.. that.. - is correct idiom.
in which - is also used for situations and circumstances.
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Re: By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen [#permalink]

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New post 15 Nov 2014, 22:59
macjas wrote:
By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen official national and international speed records, and she earned them at a time when aviation was still so new for many of the planes she flew to be of dangerously experimental design.

A and she earned them at a time when avation was still so new for many of the planes she flew to be
B earning them at a time that aviation was still so new for many of the planes she flew were
C earning these at a time where aviation was still so new that many of the planes she flew were
D earned at a time in which aviation was still so new such that many of the planes she flew were
E earned at a time when aviation was still so new that many of the planes she flew were



we are representing a time - so use of "when"
Only E does that.
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Re: By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen [#permalink]

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New post 15 Nov 2014, 22:59
macjas wrote:
By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen official national and international speed records, and she earned them at a time when aviation was still so new for many of the planes she flew to be of dangerously experimental design.

A and she earned them at a time when avation was still so new for many of the planes she flew to be
B earning them at a time that aviation was still so new for many of the planes she flew were
C earning these at a time where aviation was still so new that many of the planes she flew were
D earned at a time in which aviation was still so new such that many of the planes she flew were
E earned at a time when aviation was still so new that many of the planes she flew were



we are representing a time - so use of "when"
Only E does that.
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Re: By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen [#permalink]

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New post 04 Mar 2015, 03:12
Chose E. Don't think -ing is right in B and C.
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Re: By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen [#permalink]

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New post 30 Sep 2015, 21:48
macjas wrote:
By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen official national and international speed records, and she earned them at a time when aviation was still so new for many of the planes she flew to be of dangerously experimental design.

A and she earned them at a time when avation was still so new for many of the planes she flew to be
B earning them at a time that aviation was still so new for many of the planes she flew were
C earning these at a time where aviation was still so new that many of the planes she flew were
D earned at a time in which aviation was still so new such that many of the planes she flew were
E earned at a time when aviation was still so new that many of the planes she flew were


Ans E

poe:

A) "avation was still so new for many of the planes"... changes meaning
B) "time that" .. should be when.
C) same as B
D) Same as C
E) Only choice left.

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Re: By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen [#permalink]

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New post 14 Oct 2015, 11:04
Hi egmat,

Thanks for the awesome explanation in the website at https://e-gmat.com/blog/official-guide- ... ne-cochran (I am currently a student of E-GMAT; however, still I am not able to post comment in that blog post so posting over here).

I have query regarding this part:
Quote:
When we say that “something was so X”, we must then say “that Y”. So “that Y” part is missing from this sentence. Instead, we have “to be” that renders the sentence ungrammatical


I always have difficulty in understanding usage of idiom "so ... ".

What all forms of so is correct. IMO following constructions are correct:

So as to
So to
So that

1) Is the list right and exhaustive? Do we have any other correct constructions of "so".
2) Can "so" never come as standalone (without that/to/as to etc)? If it can come what are the scenarios?

Thanks
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By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen [#permalink]

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New post 19 Jun 2016, 12:45
Hi, Just wanted to understand the usage of Verb-ing modifier here. Had the choice 'C' been correct if the relative modifier for time was 'when'? Also you mentioned that earning here modifies the subject, doesn't Verb-ing modifier correct the entire clause when used with a comma?

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Re: By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen [#permalink]

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New post 19 Jun 2016, 13:37
jjindal wrote:
Hi, Just wanted to understand the usage of Verb-ing modifier here. Had the choice 'C' been correct if the relative modifier for time was 'when'? Also you mentioned that earning here modifies the subject, doesn't Verb-ing modifier correct the entire clause when used with a comma?


The present participle modifier may refer to either the whole clause or the subject of the preceding clause.

Moreover a present participle modifier in such cases is used to convey either of the following meanings:

1. The preceding clause has been possible by doing something. e.g. Federer won Wimbledon, defeating Nadal. (refers to the subject of preceding clause)
2. The preceding clause results in something. e.g. Federer won Wimbledon, spreading a wave of joy among his fans. (refers to the whole clause)

Neither of the above two usages fit to justify the use of present participle "earning" in option C:
1. JC held 17 records by earning them. ...Wrong.
2. JC held 17 records, causing her to earn them... Wrong.

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Re: By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen [#permalink]

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New post 20 Jun 2016, 09:12
But, the verb-ed modifier when used with comma cannot modify the preceeding subject. Can you please explain that if it does ?

Thanks again
(in this case
sayantanc2k wrote:
jjindal wrote:
Hi, Just wanted to understand the usage of Verb-ing modifier here. Had the choice 'C' been correct if the relative modifier for time was 'when'? Also you mentioned that earning here modifies the subject, doesn't Verb-ing modifier correct the entire clause when used with a comma?


The present participle modifier may refer to either the whole clause or the subject of the preceding clause.

Moreover a present participle modifier in such cases is used to convey either of the following meanings:

1. The preceding clause has been possible by doing something. e.g. Federer won Wimbledon, defeating Nadal. (refers to the subject of preceding clause)
2. The preceding clause results in something. e.g. Federer won Wimbledon, spreading a wave of joy among his fans. (refers to the whole clause)

Neither of the above two usages fit to justify the use of present participle "earning" in option C:
1. JC held 17 records by earning them. ...Wrong.
2. JC held 17 records, causing her to earn them... Wrong.

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Re: By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen [#permalink]

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New post 21 Jun 2016, 13:25
jjindal wrote:
But, the verb-ed modifier when used with comma cannot modify the preceeding subject. Can you please explain that if it does ?

Thanks again
(in this case
sayantanc2k wrote:
jjindal wrote:
Hi, Just wanted to understand the usage of Verb-ing modifier here. Had the choice 'C' been correct if the relative modifier for time was 'when'? Also you mentioned that earning here modifies the subject, doesn't Verb-ing modifier correct the entire clause when used with a comma?


The present participle modifier may refer to either the whole clause or the subject of the preceding clause.

Moreover a present participle modifier in such cases is used to convey either of the following meanings:

1. The preceding clause has been possible by doing something. e.g. Federer won Wimbledon, defeating Nadal. (refers to the subject of preceding clause)
2. The preceding clause results in something. e.g. Federer won Wimbledon, spreading a wave of joy among his fans. (refers to the whole clause)

Neither of the above two usages fit to justify the use of present participle "earning" in option C:
1. JC held 17 records by earning them. ...Wrong.
2. JC held 17 records, causing her to earn them... Wrong.


No,verb-ed modifiers can't. I mentioned above present participle modifiers, i.e., verb-ing modifier.

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Re: By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen [#permalink]

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sayantanc2k wrote:
jjindal wrote:
Hi, Just wanted to understand the usage of Verb-ing modifier here. Had the choice 'C' been correct if the relative modifier for time was 'when'? Also you mentioned that earning here modifies the subject, doesn't Verb-ing modifier correct the entire clause when used with a comma?


The present participle modifier may refer to either the whole clause or the subject of the preceding clause.

Moreover a present participle modifier in such cases is used to convey either of the following meanings:

1. The preceding clause has been possible by doing something. e.g. Federer won Wimbledon, defeating Nadal. (refers to the subject of preceding clause)
2. The preceding clause results in something. e.g. Federer won Wimbledon, spreading a wave of joy among his fans. (refers to the whole clause)

Neither of the above two usages fit to justify the use of present participle "earning" in option C:
1. JC held 17 records by earning them. ...Wrong.
2. JC held 17 records, causing her to earn them... Wrong.



Do you mean that use of "earning" is wrong in choice C and B. (I am ignoring the other errors in the sentence). till now i understood what e-gmat's explanation mentioned above. here is that piece:

"In this sentence the modifier ‘earning’ modifies the preceding clause. It provides us additional information about the clause. Also, this modifier makes sense with the subject of the clause since Jacqueline Cochran was the one who earned these records. So, this modifier is correctly used in the context of this sentence. "

#1. e-gmat says "earning" provides additional information and this usage is correct.
#2. You are saying if verb-ing modifier is not aligned with the two usage you mentioned then it's wrong (hope i understood correctly).

Now i am confused. . both are expert's opinions and till now i believed #2 is correct. Please clear the doubt sayantanc2k and egmat.
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Re: By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen [#permalink]

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New post 26 Jun 2016, 01:21
Hi Experts,
Here is a trouble I am facing with this questions. Although the answer can be derived very quickly through other splits, my questions is regarding the usage of verb-ed modifiers.
In a separate post on gmatclub by e-gmat it said two things:
1. verb-ed modifies preceding noun
2. if the subject of the sentence is the doer of the action it is not a verb-ed modifier

if i apply those two rules to this problem I get earned is not a modifier since JC the pilot earned them and she is the subject.
Also, even if we considered earned a modifier it is modifying the records.
So as far as my understanding goes if i were to pick the options basis of modifiers -ing vs -ed i would have taken earning instead of earned, and that as the answer key suggests would have been incorrect. What am I missing here??

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By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen [#permalink]

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New post 26 Jun 2016, 15:07
banerjee06 wrote:
Hi Experts,
Here is a trouble I am facing with this questions. Although the answer can be derived very quickly through other splits, my questions is regarding the usage of verb-ed modifiers.
In a separate post on gmatclub by e-gmat it said two things:
1. verb-ed modifies preceding noun
2. if the subject of the sentence is the doer of the action it is not a verb-ed modifier

if i apply those two rules to this problem I get earned is not a modifier since JC the pilot earned them and she is the subject.
Also, even if we considered earned a modifier it is modifying the records.
So as far as my understanding goes if i were to pick the options basis of modifiers -ing vs -ed i would have taken earning instead of earned, and that as the answer key suggests would have been incorrect. What am I missing here??

Tagging the experts I know:sayantanc2k, mikemcgarry, egmat, carcass


First..... "earned" is definitely a modifier here. The past participle modifier "earned" is not referring to JC, but to "speed records", as you have already recognised. JC was not earned, but the speed records were earned.

Second.... I suppose, e-gmat meant that ".... it is not a verb-ed modifier( of the subject) ", in which case I do not see any contradiction. If the subject of the sentence is the doer of the action, it (verb-ed) can be a modifier, but not of the subject.

(nonetheless the present participle modifier "earning" refers to JC)

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By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen [#permalink]

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New post 26 Jun 2016, 15:15
HKD1710 wrote:
sayantanc2k wrote:
jjindal wrote:
Hi, Just wanted to understand the usage of Verb-ing modifier here. Had the choice 'C' been correct if the relative modifier for time was 'when'? Also you mentioned that earning here modifies the subject, doesn't Verb-ing modifier correct the entire clause when used with a comma?


The present participle modifier may refer to either the whole clause or the subject of the preceding clause.

Moreover a present participle modifier in such cases is used to convey either of the following meanings:

1. The preceding clause has been possible by doing something. e.g. Federer won Wimbledon, defeating Nadal. (refers to the subject of preceding clause)
2. The preceding clause results in something. e.g. Federer won Wimbledon, spreading a wave of joy among his fans. (refers to the whole clause)

Neither of the above two usages fit to justify the use of present participle "earning" in option C:
1. JC held 17 records by earning them. ...Wrong.
2. JC held 17 records, causing her to earn them... Wrong.



Do you mean that use of "earning" is wrong in choice C and B. (I am ignoring the other errors in the sentence). till now i understood what e-gmat's explanation mentioned above. here is that piece:

"In this sentence the modifier ‘earning’ modifies the preceding clause. It provides us additional information about the clause. Also, this modifier makes sense with the subject of the clause since Jacqueline Cochran was the one who earned these records. So, this modifier is correctly used in the context of this sentence. "

#1. e-gmat says "earning" provides additional information and this usage is correct.
#2. You are saying if verb-ing modifier is not aligned with the two usage you mentioned then it's wrong (hope i understood correctly).

Now i am confused. . both are expert's opinions and till now i believed #2 is correct. Please clear the doubt sayantanc2k and egmat.


Yes, in my view, the use of present participle "earning" is wrong in options B and C because of the reason stated in my previous post. However please note that I mentioned that "a present participle modifier in such cases is used....". What I mean by "in such cases" is "in cases when the present partciple is used to modify a clause".

In addition, a present participle modifier can be used to modify a noun as well, in which case it is used as an adjective. example:
Waking to the buzz of the alarm clock, Freddie cursed the arrival of another Monday.

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New post 27 Jun 2016, 01:12
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banerjee06 wrote:
Hi Experts,
Here is a trouble I am facing with this questions. Although the answer can be derived very quickly through other splits, my questions is regarding the usage of verb-ed modifiers.
In a separate post on gmatclub by e-gmat it said two things:
1. verb-ed modifies preceding noun
2. if the subject of the sentence is the doer of the action it is not a verb-ed modifier

if i apply those two rules to this problem I get earned is not a modifier since JC the pilot earned them and she is the subject.
Also, even if we considered earned a modifier it is modifying the records.
So as far as my understanding goes if i were to pick the options basis of modifiers -ing vs -ed i would have taken earning instead of earned, and that as the answer key suggests would have been incorrect. What am I missing here??

Tagging the experts I know:sayantanc2k, mikemcgarry, egmat, carcass


Responding to a PM......
"Now my question is I used the following rules to identify whether the -ed form is a verb or a verb-ed modifier:
1. The subject should not be the doer of the verb-ed action (I read it from a separate post by e-gmat).

Kindly advise if this rule is the correct one to go by? If not what should I use as a rule to understand if the verb-ed form is a modifier or not."

The rule is correct as long as it is meant that the verb-ed modifier does not refer to the subject. A verb-ed structure can STILL be a modifier if the subject is the doer of the action, but in this case the verb-ed modifier would refer to not the subject, but some other noun in the sentence.

I would say, the folowing method is intuitive for some (for me as well) to identify whether verb-ed construction is a verb or a past participle:

1. Verb-ed structure has only two uses: Verb (simple past), Past participle.
2. FIRST task is to identify the main verb of the sentence. (in general, this is an excellent practice to solve SC questions, not just to identify the verb-ed modifier)
3. If it is not found, then the verb-ed could be the main verb.
4. If it is found, then too the verb-ed could be a second main verb , if it is added with a conjunction "and" / "but".
5. If a main verb is found and the verb-ed construction is NOT added by a conjunction, then it could be a participle.

The above is not as complicated as it may appear - the process is intuitive and naturally occurs while analysing - let us take option E in the question:

What is the main verb? "held"
Can "earned" be a second main verb? No, since there is no conjunction. Thus "earned" is a past participle.

Nonetheless as per the rule above, "earned " would not refer to the subject (JC), but to something else in the sentence (records).

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Re: By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen [#permalink]

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New post 27 Jun 2016, 06:52
banerjee06 wrote:
Hi Experts,
Here is a trouble I am facing with this questions. Although the answer can be derived very quickly through other splits, my questions is regarding the usage of verb-ed modifiers.
In a separate post on gmatclub by e-gmat it said two things:
1. verb-ed modifies preceding noun
2. if the subject of the sentence is the doer of the action it is not a verb-ed modifier

if i apply those two rules to this problem I get earned is not a modifier since JC the pilot earned them and she is the subject.

Hi banerjee06, students do find it tricky to distinguish between Simple Past Tense (Verb) and Past Participle (Modifier)

Our book EducationAisle Sentence Correction Nirvana discusses a simple framework to distinguish between Simple Past Tense and Past Participle . If someone is interested, PM me your email-id, I can mail the corresponding section.
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Re: By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen [#permalink]

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New post 10 Oct 2016, 07:35
Split1) Construction: "so_for many x to be y" vs "so_that many x were y". The second one is correct grammar. A and B are out.

Split2) "to be" is wrong. Whenever I see "to be" in a sentence I see a red flag. A and B are out.

Split3) "time + when" vs "time + where" vs "time + in which" vs "time + that". The correct usage is "time + when" because when refers to time correctly. "Where" is a space so it cannot refer to "time". C and D are out. Additional read: http://esl.fis.edu/grammar/rules/relative.htm

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By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen [#permalink]

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New post 25 Oct 2016, 00:08
sayantanc2k wrote:
Responding to a PM......
"Now my question is I used the following rules to identify whether the -ed form is a verb or a verb-ed modifier:
1. The subject should not be the doer of the verb-ed action (I read it from a separate post by e-gmat).

Kindly advise if this rule is the correct one to go by? If not what should I use as a rule to understand if the verb-ed form is a modifier or not."

The rule is correct as long as it is meant that the verb-ed modifier does not refer to the subject. A verb-ed structure can STILL be a modifier if the subject is the doer of the action, but in this case the verb-ed modifier would refer to not the subject, but some other noun in the sentence.

I would say, the folowing method is intuitive for some (for me as well) to identify whether verb-ed construction is a verb or a past participle:

1. Verb-ed structure has only two uses: Verb (simple past), Past participle.
2. FIRST task is to identify the main verb of the sentence. (in general, this is an excellent practice to solve SC questions, not just to identify the verb-ed modifier)
3. If it is not found, then the verb-ed could be the main verb.
4. If it is found, then too the verb-ed could be a second main verb , if it is added with a conjunction "and" / "but".
5. If a main verb is found and the verb-ed construction is NOT added by a conjunction, then it could be a participle.

The above is not as complicated as it may appear - the process is intuitive and naturally occurs while analysing - let us take option E in the question:

What is the main verb? "held"
Can "earned" be a second main verb? No, since there is no conjunction. Thus "earned" is a past participle.

Nonetheless as per the rule above, "earned " would not refer to the subject (JC), but to something else in the sentence (records).


very helpful,
thanks sayantan2c,

it will be appreciate if you point out my fault.
1/
IMO, participle V-ING in B and C makes sense, because it states the simultaneous, and V-ing can state this simultaneous actions.

2/
earned in D and E,
I can totally understand earned modifies records,
what confused me is official explanation that earned is preferable,
but, before I read the answers D E, I would consider V-ING preferable,

How to identify which one , V-ING or V-ed, preferable if both works

waiting for your reply

Have a nice day
>_~

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Re: By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen [#permalink]

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New post 14 May 2017, 12:49
macjas wrote:
By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen official national and international speed records, and she earned them at a time when aviation was still so new for many of the planes she flew to be of dangerously experimental design.

A and she earned them at a time when avation was still so new for many of the planes she flew to be
B earning them at a time that aviation was still so new for many of the planes she flew were
C earning these at a time where aviation was still so new that many of the planes she flew were
D earned at a time in which aviation was still so new such that many of the planes she flew were
E earned at a time when aviation was still so new that many of the planes she flew were


A "So new for" is incorrect because "so" + adj must be followed by "that"
B "So new for" is incorrect because "so" + adj must be followed by "that"
C "Time where" is incorrect.
D "So new such that" is incorrect because "so" + adj must be followed by "that"
E Correct

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Re: By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen   [#permalink] 14 May 2017, 12:49

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