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# By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen

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Re: By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen  [#permalink]

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25 Jun 2016, 12:18
1
sayantanc2k wrote:
jjindal wrote:
Hi, Just wanted to understand the usage of Verb-ing modifier here. Had the choice 'C' been correct if the relative modifier for time was 'when'? Also you mentioned that earning here modifies the subject, doesn't Verb-ing modifier correct the entire clause when used with a comma?

The present participle modifier may refer to either the whole clause or the subject of the preceding clause.

Moreover a present participle modifier in such cases is used to convey either of the following meanings:

1. The preceding clause has been possible by doing something. e.g. Federer won Wimbledon, defeating Nadal. (refers to the subject of preceding clause)
2. The preceding clause results in something. e.g. Federer won Wimbledon, spreading a wave of joy among his fans. (refers to the whole clause)

Neither of the above two usages fit to justify the use of present participle "earning" in option C:
1. JC held 17 records by earning them. ...Wrong.
2. JC held 17 records, causing her to earn them... Wrong.

Do you mean that use of "earning" is wrong in choice C and B. (I am ignoring the other errors in the sentence). till now i understood what e-gmat's explanation mentioned above. here is that piece:

"In this sentence the modifier ‘earning’ modifies the preceding clause. It provides us additional information about the clause. Also, this modifier makes sense with the subject of the clause since Jacqueline Cochran was the one who earned these records. So, this modifier is correctly used in the context of this sentence. "

#1. e-gmat says "earning" provides additional information and this usage is correct.
#2. You are saying if verb-ing modifier is not aligned with the two usage you mentioned then it's wrong (hope i understood correctly).

Now i am confused. . both are expert's opinions and till now i believed #2 is correct. Please clear the doubt sayantanc2k and egmat.
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Re: By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen  [#permalink]

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26 Jun 2016, 01:21
Hi Experts,
Here is a trouble I am facing with this questions. Although the answer can be derived very quickly through other splits, my questions is regarding the usage of verb-ed modifiers.
In a separate post on gmatclub by e-gmat it said two things:
1. verb-ed modifies preceding noun
2. if the subject of the sentence is the doer of the action it is not a verb-ed modifier

if i apply those two rules to this problem I get earned is not a modifier since JC the pilot earned them and she is the subject.
Also, even if we considered earned a modifier it is modifying the records.
So as far as my understanding goes if i were to pick the options basis of modifiers -ing vs -ed i would have taken earning instead of earned, and that as the answer key suggests would have been incorrect. What am I missing here??

Tagging the experts I know:sayantanc2k, mikemcgarry, egmat, carcass
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By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen  [#permalink]

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26 Jun 2016, 15:07
banerjee06 wrote:
Hi Experts,
Here is a trouble I am facing with this questions. Although the answer can be derived very quickly through other splits, my questions is regarding the usage of verb-ed modifiers.
In a separate post on gmatclub by e-gmat it said two things:
1. verb-ed modifies preceding noun
2. if the subject of the sentence is the doer of the action it is not a verb-ed modifier

if i apply those two rules to this problem I get earned is not a modifier since JC the pilot earned them and she is the subject.
Also, even if we considered earned a modifier it is modifying the records.
So as far as my understanding goes if i were to pick the options basis of modifiers -ing vs -ed i would have taken earning instead of earned, and that as the answer key suggests would have been incorrect. What am I missing here??

Tagging the experts I know:sayantanc2k, mikemcgarry, egmat, carcass

First..... "earned" is definitely a modifier here. The past participle modifier "earned" is not referring to JC, but to "speed records", as you have already recognised. JC was not earned, but the speed records were earned.

Second.... I suppose, e-gmat meant that ".... it is not a verb-ed modifier( of the subject) ", in which case I do not see any contradiction. If the subject of the sentence is the doer of the action, it (verb-ed) can be a modifier, but not of the subject.

(nonetheless the present participle modifier "earning" refers to JC)
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By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen  [#permalink]

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26 Jun 2016, 15:15
HKD1710 wrote:
sayantanc2k wrote:
jjindal wrote:
Hi, Just wanted to understand the usage of Verb-ing modifier here. Had the choice 'C' been correct if the relative modifier for time was 'when'? Also you mentioned that earning here modifies the subject, doesn't Verb-ing modifier correct the entire clause when used with a comma?

The present participle modifier may refer to either the whole clause or the subject of the preceding clause.

Moreover a present participle modifier in such cases is used to convey either of the following meanings:

1. The preceding clause has been possible by doing something. e.g. Federer won Wimbledon, defeating Nadal. (refers to the subject of preceding clause)
2. The preceding clause results in something. e.g. Federer won Wimbledon, spreading a wave of joy among his fans. (refers to the whole clause)

Neither of the above two usages fit to justify the use of present participle "earning" in option C:
1. JC held 17 records by earning them. ...Wrong.
2. JC held 17 records, causing her to earn them... Wrong.

Do you mean that use of "earning" is wrong in choice C and B. (I am ignoring the other errors in the sentence). till now i understood what e-gmat's explanation mentioned above. here is that piece:

"In this sentence the modifier ‘earning’ modifies the preceding clause. It provides us additional information about the clause. Also, this modifier makes sense with the subject of the clause since Jacqueline Cochran was the one who earned these records. So, this modifier is correctly used in the context of this sentence. "

#1. e-gmat says "earning" provides additional information and this usage is correct.
#2. You are saying if verb-ing modifier is not aligned with the two usage you mentioned then it's wrong (hope i understood correctly).

Now i am confused. . both are expert's opinions and till now i believed #2 is correct. Please clear the doubt sayantanc2k and egmat.

Yes, in my view, the use of present participle "earning" is wrong in options B and C because of the reason stated in my previous post. However please note that I mentioned that "a present participle modifier in such cases is used....". What I mean by "in such cases" is "in cases when the present partciple is used to modify a clause".

In addition, a present participle modifier can be used to modify a noun as well, in which case it is used as an adjective. example:
Waking to the buzz of the alarm clock, Freddie cursed the arrival of another Monday.
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By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen  [#permalink]

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27 Jun 2016, 01:12
2
1
banerjee06 wrote:
Hi Experts,
Here is a trouble I am facing with this questions. Although the answer can be derived very quickly through other splits, my questions is regarding the usage of verb-ed modifiers.
In a separate post on gmatclub by e-gmat it said two things:
1. verb-ed modifies preceding noun
2. if the subject of the sentence is the doer of the action it is not a verb-ed modifier

if i apply those two rules to this problem I get earned is not a modifier since JC the pilot earned them and she is the subject.
Also, even if we considered earned a modifier it is modifying the records.
So as far as my understanding goes if i were to pick the options basis of modifiers -ing vs -ed i would have taken earning instead of earned, and that as the answer key suggests would have been incorrect. What am I missing here??

Tagging the experts I know:sayantanc2k, mikemcgarry, egmat, carcass

Responding to a PM......
"Now my question is I used the following rules to identify whether the -ed form is a verb or a verb-ed modifier:
1. The subject should not be the doer of the verb-ed action (I read it from a separate post by e-gmat).

Kindly advise if this rule is the correct one to go by? If not what should I use as a rule to understand if the verb-ed form is a modifier or not."

The rule is correct as long as it is meant that the verb-ed modifier does not refer to the subject. A verb-ed structure can STILL be a modifier if the subject is the doer of the action, but in this case the verb-ed modifier would refer to not the subject, but some other noun in the sentence.

I would say, the folowing method is intuitive for some (for me as well) to identify whether verb-ed construction is a verb or a past participle:

1. Verb-ed structure has only two uses: Verb (simple past), Past participle.
2. FIRST task is to identify the main verb of the sentence. (in general, this is an excellent practice to solve SC questions, not just to identify the verb-ed modifier)
3. If it is not found, then the verb-ed could be the main verb.
4. If it is found, then too the verb-ed could be a second main verb , if it is added with a conjunction "and" / "but".
5. If a main verb is found and the verb-ed construction is NOT added by a conjunction, then it could be a participle.

The above is not as complicated as it may appear - the process is intuitive and naturally occurs while analysing - let us take option E in the question:

What is the main verb? "held"
Can "earned" be a second main verb? No, since there is no conjunction. Thus "earned" is a past participle.

Nonetheless as per the rule above, "earned " would not refer to the subject (JC), but to something else in the sentence (records).
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Re: By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen  [#permalink]

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27 Jun 2016, 06:52
banerjee06 wrote:
Hi Experts,
Here is a trouble I am facing with this questions. Although the answer can be derived very quickly through other splits, my questions is regarding the usage of verb-ed modifiers.
In a separate post on gmatclub by e-gmat it said two things:
1. verb-ed modifies preceding noun
2. if the subject of the sentence is the doer of the action it is not a verb-ed modifier

if i apply those two rules to this problem I get earned is not a modifier since JC the pilot earned them and she is the subject.

Hi banerjee06, students do find it tricky to distinguish between Simple Past Tense (Verb) and Past Participle (Modifier)

Our book EducationAisle Sentence Correction Nirvana discusses a simple framework to distinguish between Simple Past Tense and Past Participle . If someone is interested, PM me your email-id, I can mail the corresponding section.
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By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen  [#permalink]

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25 Oct 2016, 00:08
sayantanc2k wrote:
Responding to a PM......
"Now my question is I used the following rules to identify whether the -ed form is a verb or a verb-ed modifier:
1. The subject should not be the doer of the verb-ed action (I read it from a separate post by e-gmat).

Kindly advise if this rule is the correct one to go by? If not what should I use as a rule to understand if the verb-ed form is a modifier or not."

The rule is correct as long as it is meant that the verb-ed modifier does not refer to the subject. A verb-ed structure can STILL be a modifier if the subject is the doer of the action, but in this case the verb-ed modifier would refer to not the subject, but some other noun in the sentence.

I would say, the folowing method is intuitive for some (for me as well) to identify whether verb-ed construction is a verb or a past participle:

1. Verb-ed structure has only two uses: Verb (simple past), Past participle.
2. FIRST task is to identify the main verb of the sentence. (in general, this is an excellent practice to solve SC questions, not just to identify the verb-ed modifier)
3. If it is not found, then the verb-ed could be the main verb.
4. If it is found, then too the verb-ed could be a second main verb , if it is added with a conjunction "and" / "but".
5. If a main verb is found and the verb-ed construction is NOT added by a conjunction, then it could be a participle.

The above is not as complicated as it may appear - the process is intuitive and naturally occurs while analysing - let us take option E in the question:

What is the main verb? "held"
Can "earned" be a second main verb? No, since there is no conjunction. Thus "earned" is a past participle.

Nonetheless as per the rule above, "earned " would not refer to the subject (JC), but to something else in the sentence (records).

thanks sayantan2c,

it will be appreciate if you point out my fault.
1/
IMO, participle V-ING in B and C makes sense, because it states the simultaneous, and V-ing can state this simultaneous actions.

2/
earned in D and E,
I can totally understand earned modifies records,
what confused me is official explanation that earned is preferable,
but, before I read the answers D E, I would consider V-ING preferable,

How to identify which one , V-ING or V-ed, preferable if both works

Have a nice day
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By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen  [#permalink]

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19 May 2017, 03:27
zoezhuyan wrote:
sayantanc2k wrote:
Responding to a PM......
"Now my question is I used the following rules to identify whether the -ed form is a verb or a verb-ed modifier:
1. The subject should not be the doer of the verb-ed action (I read it from a separate post by e-gmat).

Kindly advise if this rule is the correct one to go by? If not what should I use as a rule to understand if the verb-ed form is a modifier or not."

The rule is correct as long as it is meant that the verb-ed modifier does not refer to the subject. A verb-ed structure can STILL be a modifier if the subject is the doer of the action, but in this case the verb-ed modifier would refer to not the subject, but some other noun in the sentence.

I would say, the folowing method is intuitive for some (for me as well) to identify whether verb-ed construction is a verb or a past participle:

1. Verb-ed structure has only two uses: Verb (simple past), Past participle.
2. FIRST task is to identify the main verb of the sentence. (in general, this is an excellent practice to solve SC questions, not just to identify the verb-ed modifier)
3. If it is not found, then the verb-ed could be the main verb.
4. If it is found, then too the verb-ed could be a second main verb , if it is added with a conjunction "and" / "but".
5. If a main verb is found and the verb-ed construction is NOT added by a conjunction, then it could be a participle.

The above is not as complicated as it may appear - the process is intuitive and naturally occurs while analysing - let us take option E in the question:

What is the main verb? "held"
Can "earned" be a second main verb? No, since there is no conjunction. Thus "earned" is a past participle.

Nonetheless as per the rule above, "earned " would not refer to the subject (JC), but to something else in the sentence (records).

thanks sayantan2c,

it will be appreciate if you point out my fault.
1/
IMO, participle V-ING in B and C makes sense, because it states the simultaneous, and V-ing can state this simultaneous actions.

2/
earned in D and E,
I can totally understand earned modifies records,
what confused me is official explanation that earned is preferable,
but, before I read the answers D E, I would consider V-ING preferable,

How to identify which one , V-ING or V-ed, preferable if both works

Have a nice day
>_~

Comma + present participle (V-ing) acts as a verb modifier, whereas past participle (V-ed) acts as a noun modifier.

Here a noun modifier is required (referring to "speed records").

[Note: a present participle modifier without a comma may also act as a noun modifier:
I saw a bird flying above the tree: "flying.." refers to noun "bird" - implies that the bird was flying.
I saw a bird, flying above the tree: "flying.. " refers to the verb "saw".. when did I see the bird? - while flying - this sentence implies that I was flying.]
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Re: By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen  [#permalink]

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22 Mar 2018, 01:44
By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen official national and international speed records, and she earned them at a time when aviation was still so new for many of the planes she flew to be of dangerously experimental design.

A and she earned them at a time when avation was still so new for many of the planes she flew to be - usage of to be is incorrect
B earning them at a time that aviation was still so new for many of the planes she flew were - usage of at a time that is incorrect
C earning these at a time where aviation was still so new that many of the planes she flew were - ‘where’ refers to a place, not ‘time’ ; The use of demonstrative pronoun ‘these’ without a noun following it is incorrect
D earned at a time in which aviation was still so new such that many of the planes she flew were - usage of in which for time is incorrect ; structure ‘so new such that’ is incorrect
E earned at a time when aviation was still so new that many of the planes she flew were - Correct

In option A(even in B) , has "for" been used as a conjunction (FANBOYS) or a preposition ?
“aviation was still so new for many of the planes she flew” communicates that aviation was new for the planes!! Logically, it seems we want to use ‘so X that Y” idiom.

AjiteshArun , GMATNinja , mikemcgarry , egmat , sayantanc2k, DmitryFarber , MagooshExpert , chetan2u , daagh , other experts- please help
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Re: By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen  [#permalink]

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22 Mar 2018, 07:20
Skywalker18 wrote:
By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen official national and international speed records, and she earned them at a time when aviation was still so new for many of the planes she flew to be of dangerously experimental design.

A and she earned them at a time when avation was still so new for many of the planes she flew to be - usage of to be is incorrect
B earning them at a time that aviation was still so new for many of the planes she flew were - usage of at a time that is incorrect
C earning these at a time where aviation was still so new that many of the planes she flew were - ‘where’ refers to a place, not ‘time’ ; The use of demonstrative pronoun ‘these’ without a noun following it is incorrect
D earned at a time in which aviation was still so new such that many of the planes she flew were - usage of in which for time is incorrect ; structure ‘so new such that’ is incorrect
E earned at a time when aviation was still so new that many of the planes she flew were - Correct

In option A(even in B) , has "for" been used as a conjunction (FANBOYS) or a preposition ?
“aviation was still so new for many of the planes she flew” communicates that aviation was new for the planes!! Logically, it seems we want to use ‘so X that Y” idiom. ...experts- please help

Hello Skywalker18,

Thank you for the query.

IMHO, In Choice A, for has been used as a preposition. The structure of this choice makes me say so. Generally, when for is used as a conjunction, it is followed by a clause. But there is no verb for many of the planes.

In Choice B, the structure indicates that for has been used as a conjunction because it is followed by a clause.

But use of for is altogether incorrect in this official sentence because per the context of the sentence, we need the expression so X that Y to express the intended logical meaning.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
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By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen  [#permalink]

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30 Mar 2018, 10:37
macjas wrote:
By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen official national and international speed records, and she earned them at a time when aviation was still so new for many of the planes she flew to be of dangerously experimental design.

A and she earned them at a time when aviation was still so new for many of the planes she flew to be
B earning them at a time that aviation was still so new for many of the planes she flew were
C earning these at a time where aviation was still so new that many of the planes she flew were
D earned at a time in which aviation was still so new such that many of the planes she flew were
E earned at a time when aviation was still so new that many of the planes she flew were

A and she earned them at a time when aviation was still so new for many of the planes she flew to be Modifier issue

B earning them at a time that aviation was still so new for many of the planes she flew were We require"when"

C earning these at a time where aviation was still so new that many of the planes she flew were We require"when"

D earned at a time in which aviation was still so new such that many of the planes she flew were We require"when"

E earned at a time when aviation was still so new that many of the planes she flew were

(E)
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Re: By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen  [#permalink]

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16 Jun 2018, 05:00
daagh,

what's your view on "earning them " or "earning these"

daagh wrote:
A. and she earned them at a time when aviation was still so new for many of the planes she flew to be------ flew to be -- is bad usage; to be is not a verb. We need a past tense verb such as were to mark the plural subject planes. (For is used in the menaing of because)

B. earning them at a time that aviation was still so new for many of the planes she flew were --- at a time needs when as the relative pronoun

C earning these at a time where aviation was still so new that many of the planes she flew were—at a time where is wrong

D earned at a time in which aviation was still so new such that many of the planes she flew were—at a time in which is not proper - when is required; in addition so new such that is bad idiom.

E earned at a time when aviation was still so new that many of the planes she flew were; --- correct structure; earned is not a verb here. It is a past participle

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Re: By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen  [#permalink]

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16 Jun 2018, 05:33
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gmatbusters

'earning these' is not acceptable since the demonstrative pronoun 'these' is coloquial.
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By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen  [#permalink]

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05 Aug 2018, 18:42
1
alexlearning17 wrote:
E. 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen official national and international speed records, earned at a time when aviation was still so new that many of the planes she flew were of dangerously experimental design.

Hi experts, I have a question that nobody asked yet. In answer E, we have "the planes she flew were of dangerously experimental design... I cannot elaborate the use of preposition "of" here. What type of phrase is that? After to be verb we suppose to have a NOUN and here it is a preposition + adverb + adjective + noun. How is it fine to have an "of" in here? Wouldn't it sound better as follows:

the planes she flew were dangerous experimental designs

I do feel like there was an omitted noun. The whole clause would be as follows:

many of the planes she flew were [ones] of dangerously experimental design

This is a standard expression that means "one of a kind".

Example:

1. Dress of red color = red dress
2. He is of French heritage = He is French
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Re: By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen  [#permalink]

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08 Sep 2018, 22:28
I WAS LOOKING FOR THE SUBJECT IN THE UNDERLINED PORTION.
AS IF WHO EARNED THOSE RECORDS.
KINDLY EXPLAIN THIS PART AS IT CREATED A CONFUSION WHEN I ATTEMPTED THIS QUESTION.
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Re: By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen  [#permalink]

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11 Sep 2018, 00:10
Naveen91 wrote:
I WAS LOOKING FOR THE SUBJECT IN THE UNDERLINED PORTION.
AS IF WHO EARNED THOSE RECORDS.
KINDLY EXPLAIN THIS PART AS IT CREATED A CONFUSION WHEN I ATTEMPTED THIS QUESTION.

The underlined portion does not need a subject. "earned" is not used as a verb here.

"earned at a time ..." is a past participle modifying the noun "records".

To understand the use of participles on GMAT, check out this post:
https://www.veritasprep.com/blog/2014/1 ... -the-gmat/
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Re: By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen  [#permalink]

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11 Oct 2018, 12:05
Hello Everyone!

Let's take a closer look at this question, one issue at a time, to narrow it down to the correct option! Before we get started, here is the original question, with any major differences between the options highlighted in orange:

By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen official national and international speed records, and she earned them at a time when aviation was still so new for many of the planes she flew to be of dangerously experimental design.

A) and she earned them at a time when aviation was still so new for many of the planes she flew to be
B) earning them at a time that aviation was still so new for many of the planes she flew were
C) earning these at a time where aviation was still so new that many of the planes she flew were
D) earned at a time in which aviation was still so new such that many of the planes she flew were
E) earned at a time when aviation was still so new that many of the planes she flew were

After a quick glance over the options, it's clear that there are some major differences between the options:

1. ...earned at a time when / that / where / in which / when
2. for many / that many / such that many

Let's start with #1 on our list, since it seems like it will be fairly easy to rule out wrong options quickly. Whenever we refer to time, it's best to use other words that also refer to time so things are absolutely clear to readers. Let's see how each option handles this:

A) and she earned them at a time when aviation was still so new for many of the planes she flew to be --> OK
(The word "when" is referring to time, so let's keep this for later)

B) earning them at a time that aviation was still so new for many of the planes she flew were --> WRONG
(The word "that" isn't clearly referring to time, so let's rule this one out because it's not as clear as saying "when.")

C) earning these at a time where aviation was still so new that many of the planes she flew were --> WRONG
(The word "where" refers to location, not time! Let's rule this one out!)

D) earned at a time in which aviation was still so new such that many of the planes she flew were --> WRONG
(The phrase "in which" doesn't refer to time specifically, so let's rule this one out.)

E) earned at a time when aviation was still so new that many of the planes she flew were --> OK
(The word "when" is referring to time, so let's keep this for later)

We can rule out options B, C, and D because they don't use the right words to clearly refer to time!

Now that we're only left with 2 options, let's look at #2 on our list: for many vs. that many. We need to make sure for/that are being used properly, and that they convey the proper meaning:

A) and she earned them at a time when aviation was still so new for many of the planes she flew to be

This option is INCORRECT because it conveys the wrong meaning to the reader. By using the word "for" as a conjunction here, it suggests that aviation was new BECAUSE the planes were dangerous. Even if it were the correct conjunction to use here, it would still need a comma before it as well. We can't choose this one because it's unclear and sounds awkward.

E) earned at a time when aviation was still so new that many of the planes she flew were

This option is CORRECT! It uses the word "when" to correctly refer back to "at a time." It also uses "that" to suggest that the planes being dangerous is an effect of aviation being new, which makes perfect sense.

There you have it - option E is the correct choice!

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Re: By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen  [#permalink]

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31 Dec 2018, 04:27
macjas wrote:
By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen official national and international speed records, and she earned them at a time when aviation was still so new for many of the planes she flew to be of dangerously experimental design.

A and she earned them at a time when avation was still so new for many of the planes she flew to be
B earning them at a time that aviation was still so new for many of the planes she flew were
C earning these at a time where aviation was still so new that many of the planes she flew were
D earned at a time in which aviation was still so new such that many of the planes she flew were
E earned at a time when aviation was still so new that many of the planes she flew were

my approach..
concept - so X that Y is the usage and we use "where for places"

reject A,B on the missing "that"

for others
C - where modifies time which is wrong moreover usage of "These" is also wrong.
D - mixes so..that and such..that

E is OA
Re: By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen   [#permalink] 31 Dec 2018, 04:27

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