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# By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen

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By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen [#permalink]

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12 May 2012, 05:35
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By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen official national and international speed records, and she earned them at a time when aviation was still so new for many of the planes she flew to be of dangerously experimental design.

A and she earned them at a time when avation was still so new for many of the planes she flew to be
B earning them at a time that aviation was still so new for many of the planes she flew were
C earning these at a time where aviation was still so new that many of the planes she flew were
D earned at a time in which aviation was still so new such that many of the planes she flew were
E earned at a time when aviation was still so new that many of the planes she flew were
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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Re: By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen officia [#permalink]

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12 May 2012, 09:02
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A. and she earned them at a time when aviation was still so new for many of the planes she flew to be------ flew to be -- is bad usage; to be is not a verb. We need a past tense verb such as were to mark the plural subject planes. (For is used in the menaing of because)

B. earning them at a time that aviation was still so new for many of the planes she flew were --- at a time needs when as the relative pronoun

C earning these at a time where aviation was still so new that many of the planes she flew were—at a time where is wrong

D earned at a time in which aviation was still so new such that many of the planes she flew were—at a time in which is not proper - when is required; in addition so new such that is bad idiom.

E earned at a time when aviation was still so new that many of the planes she flew were; --- correct structure; earned is not a verb here. It is a past participle

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Re: By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen [#permalink]

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19 Nov 2013, 07:11
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suyash23n wrote:
Though i figured out that the OA is E, i was wondering if the grammatical error in option A is rectified, and the new answer choices are :

A- and she earned them at a time when aviation was still so new that many of the planes she flew were
E - earned at a time when aviation was still so new that many of the planes she flew were

Will we still eliminate Option A ? (may be just because it is wordy).

Need help!!

A is still wrong IMO.

A did X and Y. Here, X and Y should be independent; i.e Y cannot be describing X further.

However, the original sentence intends to give further information ( a modifier) about the awards won. So using a "and" conjunction distorts the meaning.

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Re: By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen officia [#permalink]

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04 Aug 2012, 16:12
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Quote:
E earned at a time when aviation was still so new that many of the planes she flew were; --- correct structure; earned is not a verb here. It is a past participle

if it is a past participle, should it be used without comma??
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Pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen national records [#permalink]

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18 Mar 2014, 12:19
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By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen official national and international speed records, and she earned them at a time when aviation was still so new for many of the planes she flew to be of dangerously experimental design.

A and she earned them at a time when avation was still so new for many of the planes she flew to be
B earning them at a time that aviation was still so new for many of the planes she flew were
C earning these at a time where aviation was still so new that many of the planes she flew were
D earned at a time in which aviation was still so new such that many of the planes she flew were
E earned at a time when aviation was still so new that many of the planes she flew were

Last edited by crackball on 19 Mar 2014, 12:20, edited 1 time in total.

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By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen [#permalink]

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27 Jun 2016, 01:12
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banerjee06 wrote:
Hi Experts,
Here is a trouble I am facing with this questions. Although the answer can be derived very quickly through other splits, my questions is regarding the usage of verb-ed modifiers.
In a separate post on gmatclub by e-gmat it said two things:
1. verb-ed modifies preceding noun
2. if the subject of the sentence is the doer of the action it is not a verb-ed modifier

if i apply those two rules to this problem I get earned is not a modifier since JC the pilot earned them and she is the subject.
Also, even if we considered earned a modifier it is modifying the records.
So as far as my understanding goes if i were to pick the options basis of modifiers -ing vs -ed i would have taken earning instead of earned, and that as the answer key suggests would have been incorrect. What am I missing here??

Tagging the experts I know:sayantanc2k, mikemcgarry, egmat, carcass

Responding to a PM......
"Now my question is I used the following rules to identify whether the -ed form is a verb or a verb-ed modifier:
1. The subject should not be the doer of the verb-ed action (I read it from a separate post by e-gmat).

Kindly advise if this rule is the correct one to go by? If not what should I use as a rule to understand if the verb-ed form is a modifier or not."

The rule is correct as long as it is meant that the verb-ed modifier does not refer to the subject. A verb-ed structure can STILL be a modifier if the subject is the doer of the action, but in this case the verb-ed modifier would refer to not the subject, but some other noun in the sentence.

I would say, the folowing method is intuitive for some (for me as well) to identify whether verb-ed construction is a verb or a past participle:

1. Verb-ed structure has only two uses: Verb (simple past), Past participle.
2. FIRST task is to identify the main verb of the sentence. (in general, this is an excellent practice to solve SC questions, not just to identify the verb-ed modifier)
3. If it is not found, then the verb-ed could be the main verb.
4. If it is found, then too the verb-ed could be a second main verb , if it is added with a conjunction "and" / "but".
5. If a main verb is found and the verb-ed construction is NOT added by a conjunction, then it could be a participle.

The above is not as complicated as it may appear - the process is intuitive and naturally occurs while analysing - let us take option E in the question:

What is the main verb? "held"
Can "earned" be a second main verb? No, since there is no conjunction. Thus "earned" is a past participle.

Nonetheless as per the rule above, "earned " would not refer to the subject (JC), but to something else in the sentence (records).

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Re: By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen officia [#permalink]

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04 Aug 2012, 22:38
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Without the comma it will directly refer to the noun before. But even without comma, logically the past participle can only refer to the records, as it can not refer to any other meaningful noun. Also considering that GMAT isn’t fastidious about comma usage, E is acceptable, IMO
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Re: By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen [#permalink]

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19 Nov 2013, 02:49
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macjas wrote:
By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen official national and international speed records, and she earned them at a time when aviation was still so new for many of the planes she flew to be of dangerously experimental design.

A and she earned them at a time when avation was still so new for many of the planes she flew to be
B earning them at a time that aviation was still so new for many of the planes she flew were
C earning these at a time where aviation was still so new that many of the planes she flew were
D earned at a time in which aviation was still so new such that many of the planes she flew were
E earned at a time when aviation was still so new that many of the planes she flew were

Though i could figure out the best answer,E, i am not satisfied with the explanation OG13 has given for eleminating option B and C.
It says, " the word earning takes the pilot herself, not the records, as its subject. However, earning is close to the records, not toJacqueline Cochran, making this sentence hard to process."

But how can verb-ing modivier placed after clause preceded with comma, can modify noun/subject for the modified clause. As far as eGmat tmaterials on Verbing modifiers are concerned, the construction ---clause + , + verbing---smodifies the whole clause.

Can anyone validate the conflicting ideas? OG or Egmat... I expect Shraddha, Rajat, to pitch in.

Thnx

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Re: By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen [#permalink]

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27 May 2014, 08:50
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sunita123 wrote:
I have already gone through the video.
in video,they say earning modifies pilot . that is my doubt. Earning is placed near to record , that means earning is modifying records not the pilot.

sunita123 wrote:
Hi There,

Option B and C starts with earning . here it looks to me earning is modifying records not pilot .I know B and C are wrong as" at a time " followed by wrong word.

But I do not understand , why all explanation says earning is modifying pilot not the records?

Thank you .

GMATPill wrote:
For those interested in a video walkthrough of this question, we've posted our approach to eliminating A, B, C, and D in the OG13 Tracker here: http://www.gmatpill.com/official-guide- ... ?id=ogsc35

Hi sunita123,

Thank you for the post.

As it is clear from your post, you are facing problems in the concept of verb-ing modifiers. The verb-ing modifiers modify different entities depending on their placement:

If a verb-ing modifier is placed after a clause and it is preceded by a comma, then it modifies the preceding clause. This modifier:

Tom killed the snake, using a stick. (Additional information)

2. Or it presents the result of the preceding clause.

The recession adversely affected the company’s business, reducing its profits by 50%. (Outcome)

If a verb-ing modifier is placed after a clause and it is not preceded by a comma then it modifies the preceding noun.

Ron got into the cab waiting outside his house. (‘waiting’ modifies ‘the cab’)

If you want to learn more about the verb-ing modifiers, please go through the following two articles. Once you have finished the articles, try to attempt the question above. In case, you still have doubt, look at the explanation below.

usage-of-verb-ing-modifiers-135220.html
verb-ing-modifiers-part-2-in-our-first-article-on-verb-ing-135567.html

Let’s take option B of this sentence to understand the usage of the modifier ‘earning’ in this sentence:

• By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen official national and international speed records, earning them at a time that aviation was still so new for many of the planes she flew were of dangerously experimental design.

In this sentence the modifier ‘earning’ modifies the preceding clause. It provides us additional information about the clause. Also, this modifier makes sense with the subject of the clause since Jacqueline Cochran was the one who earned these records. So, this modifier is correctly used in the context of this sentence.

Hope this helps!
Deepak
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Re: By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen [#permalink]

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25 Jun 2016, 12:18
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sayantanc2k wrote:
jjindal wrote:
Hi, Just wanted to understand the usage of Verb-ing modifier here. Had the choice 'C' been correct if the relative modifier for time was 'when'? Also you mentioned that earning here modifies the subject, doesn't Verb-ing modifier correct the entire clause when used with a comma?

The present participle modifier may refer to either the whole clause or the subject of the preceding clause.

Moreover a present participle modifier in such cases is used to convey either of the following meanings:

1. The preceding clause has been possible by doing something. e.g. Federer won Wimbledon, defeating Nadal. (refers to the subject of preceding clause)
2. The preceding clause results in something. e.g. Federer won Wimbledon, spreading a wave of joy among his fans. (refers to the whole clause)

Neither of the above two usages fit to justify the use of present participle "earning" in option C:
1. JC held 17 records by earning them. ...Wrong.
2. JC held 17 records, causing her to earn them... Wrong.

Do you mean that use of "earning" is wrong in choice C and B. (I am ignoring the other errors in the sentence). till now i understood what e-gmat's explanation mentioned above. here is that piece:

"In this sentence the modifier ‘earning’ modifies the preceding clause. It provides us additional information about the clause. Also, this modifier makes sense with the subject of the clause since Jacqueline Cochran was the one who earned these records. So, this modifier is correctly used in the context of this sentence. "

#1. e-gmat says "earning" provides additional information and this usage is correct.
#2. You are saying if verb-ing modifier is not aligned with the two usage you mentioned then it's wrong (hope i understood correctly).

Now i am confused. . both are expert's opinions and till now i believed #2 is correct. Please clear the doubt sayantanc2k and egmat.
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Re: By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen [#permalink]

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26 Jul 2013, 21:19
While E here is the correct answer because other answers are obviously wrong for the reasons well explained here, I still feel the correct modifier that should be used is Present participle( Verb-ing). Use of Past participle with comma here illogically makes the entities a list and the sentence ambiguous.

Although E is the best among the given choices, I still feel it is not that good.

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Re: By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen [#permalink]

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14 Sep 2013, 02:10
Though i figured out that the OA is E, i was wondering if the grammatical error in option A is rectified, and the new answer choices are :

A- and she earned them at a time when aviation was still so new that many of the planes she flew were
E - earned at a time when aviation was still so new that many of the planes she flew were

Will we still eliminate Option A ? (may be just because it is wordy).

Need help!!
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Re: By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen [#permalink]

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02 Oct 2013, 03:06
suyash23n wrote:
Though i figured out that the OA is E, i was wondering if the grammatical error in option A is rectified, and the new answer choices are :

A- and she earned them at a time when aviation was still so new that many of the planes she flew were
E - earned at a time when aviation was still so new that many of the planes she flew were

Will we still eliminate Option A ? (may be just because it is wordy).

Need help!!

I am no expert but I feel A is fine now . So here both A & C are fine .
I don't think A is wordy .
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Re: By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen [#permalink]

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27 Nov 2013, 04:25
macjas wrote:
By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen official national and international speed records, and she earned them at a time when aviation was still so new for many of the planes she flew to be of dangerously experimental design.

A and she earned them at a time when avation was still so new for many of the planes she flew to be
B earning them at a time that aviation was still so new for many of the planes she flew were
C earning these at a time where aviation was still so new that many of the planes she flew were
D earned at a time in which aviation was still so new such that many of the planes she flew were
E earned at a time when aviation was still so new that many of the planes she flew were

A
like "to do", "for sb/st to do" is used to show the purpose of main clause.
I earn money for you to learn english
in this choice we need to show an effect not a purpose. it is not logic to show purpose in this choice
B
so new for st WERE
is wrong idiom
C
"where" can not refer to "time"
D
"so...such that" is not idiomatic
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Re: By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen [#permalink]

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07 Jan 2014, 01:43
macjas wrote:
By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen official national and international speed records, and she earned them at a time when aviation was still so new for many of the planes she flew to be of dangerously experimental design.

A and she earned them at a time when avation was still so new for many of the planes she flew to be
B earning them at a time that aviation was still so new for many of the planes she flew were
C earning these at a time where aviation was still so new that many of the planes she flew were
D earned at a time in which aviation was still so new such that many of the planes she flew were
E earned at a time when aviation was still so new that many of the planes she flew were

the underline should 1) be in simple past and 2) modify speed records.. So A/B/C gone..

D: "in which" and "such that" are needlessly awkward and quite frankly, erroneous..

E uses the much more concise "when" and "that".. Thus, we go with E

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Re: By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen [#permalink]

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05 Feb 2014, 01:50
By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen official national and international speed records, and she earned them at a time when aviation was still so new for many of the planes she flew to be of dangerously experimental design.

A and she earned them at a time when avation was stillso new for many of the planes she flew to be ==> unidiomatic...after "So" need "THAT".
B earning them at a time that aviation was still so new for many of the planes she flew were ==> same as choice A..
C earning these at a time where aviation was still so new that many of the planes she flew were....Where?? its wrong..shud be when..
D earned at a time in which aviation was still so new such that many of the planes she flew were===> in which is wrong here..
E earned at a time when aviation was still so new that many of the planes she flew were..correct.. so that is idiomatic...and when is coorectly used..
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Re: By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen [#permalink]

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24 Feb 2014, 05:50
pavan2185 wrote:
While E here is the correct answer because other answers are obviously wrong for the reasons well explained here, I still feel the correct modifier that should be used is Present participle( Verb-ing). Use of Past participle with comma here illogically makes the entities a list and the sentence ambiguous.

Although E is the best among the given choices, I still feel it is not that good.

I agree the this idea! I'm confused by the past participle here. If the subject of the sentence is the pilot, so I would use "and she earned" to show a parallel construction, or use "earning them at a time" to show that the pilot is the one who did the thing, so I eliminate "E" at the first glance

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Re: By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen [#permalink]

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25 Feb 2014, 08:59
Cecelia219 wrote:
I'm confused by the past participle here. If the subject of the sentence is the pilot, so I would use "and she earned" to show a parallel construction, or use "earning them at a time" to show that the pilot is the one who did the thing, so I eliminate "E" at the first glance

I believe that the past participle "earned" here is modifying "records" (official national and international speed records), and not "pilot". In fact, if the intent was to use "earned" as a "verb", then there should have been an "and" before "earned" in E. Then "held" and "earned" would have been parallel.

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Re: By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen [#permalink]

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27 Feb 2014, 11:29
For those interested in a video walkthrough of this question, we've posted our approach to eliminating A, B, C, and D in the OG13 Tracker here: http://www.gmatpill.com/official-guide- ... ?id=ogsc35

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Re: OG 13 # 35 [#permalink]

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18 Mar 2014, 12:33
Hi there - Can you please validate my analysis and help with the below questions

Sentence structure analysis -

Clause 1: By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen official national and international speed records
, and

Clause 2: she earned them at a time when

Clause 3: aviation was still so new for many of the planes she flew to be of dangerously experimental design.

Error -

(1) Idiom Error - so ..for is wrong. It needs to be so that. Also the sentence structure is not proper because of missing "that". It is required to introduce the dependent clause "she flew..."
(2) Verb Tense Error - planes .. to be is not right, it needs past tense here. Simple past tense is required as it talks about a fact (design) in past. So "were" is
required.

POE

(a) and she earned them at a time when avation was still so new for many of the planes she flew to be - WRONG because of reasons stated above

(b) earning them at a time that aviation was still so new for many of the planes she flew were - WRONG
(1) Idiom error same as (a)

Question -
(1) I am not clear on the position on "earning" and explanation given in OG? To me it seems that comma + verb-ing is presenting additional information about the main clause. Please provide your insight.
(2) Can "that" refer to time?

(c) earning these at a time where aviation was still so new that many of the planes she flew were - WRONG
(1) "where" referring to time is wrong. When required instead

(d) earned at a time in which aviation was still so new such that many of the planes she flew were - WRONG
(1) Idiom error - so ..such that
Question - Is "in which" wrong here? please explain the usage if "in which". Some forums say it is interchangeable with when

(e) earned at a time when aviation was still so new that many of the planes she flew were - RIGHT
(1) earned refers to closest preceding noun "records" - Right
(2) when refers to time
(3) correct verb tense were

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Re: OG 13 # 35   [#permalink] 18 Mar 2014, 12:33

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