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# By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen official national

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Re: By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen official national  [#permalink]

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13 Apr 2019, 05:59
DivyaKnows wrote:
The line "the pilot....records" within the commas can be removed completely and the sentence should still make sense is that not right?
But that doesnt work here, does it?
That's a "tactic", not a rule. In this case, that portion contains one of the two important subject-verb pairs in the sentence.

The pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen official national and international speed records, and she earned them at a time when aviation was still so new...
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Re: By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen official national  [#permalink]

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14 Apr 2019, 03:40
Even though I chose the correct answer. I couldn't find a solid reason to eliminate option A and eliminated it since it uses the wrong idiom So X....for... Y instead of So X....that... Y.

AjiteshArun GMATNinja could you please elaborate on why option A is wrong further?
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Re: By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen official national  [#permalink]

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14 Apr 2019, 05:22
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guhancr7 wrote:
Even though I chose the correct answer. I couldn't find a solid reason to eliminate option A and eliminated it since it uses the wrong idiom So X....for... Y instead of So X....that... Y.

AjiteshArun GMATNinja could you please elaborate on why option A is wrong further?
You're on the right track here. The so... for is a good reason not to pick option A. A couple of other points:

1. The and she earned them at a time just adds 3 additional words to the sentence. Earned at a time is enough.

2. When we use for this way (with something like too) we mean that the thing the for introduces is not true. For example:

There were too many confounding factors for the analysis to provide any meaningful information.

This means that the analysis did not actually provide any meaningful information. Similarly, in this question:

... she earned them at a time when aviation was still so new for many of the planes she flew to be of dangerously experimental design.

This means that the planes were not "of dangerously experimental design". That is the exact opposite of the intended meaning.
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Re: By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen official national  [#permalink]

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14 Apr 2019, 20:36
Hi

Can anybody please explain the absence of past perfect here: By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen official national and international speed records <...>"

GMATNinja

Thank you guys
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Re: By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen official national  [#permalink]

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14 Apr 2019, 22:14
jawele wrote:
Can anybody please explain the absence of past perfect here: By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen official national and international speed records <...>"

Hi jawele, I do think past perfect would also have been a valid (and perhaps better) usage here.
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Re: By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen official national  [#permalink]

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18 Apr 2019, 11:17
1
earning these and earning them ie usage of these and them confused me generally as in this example both are used interchangeably in the underlined portion.
is there any rule to differentiate them?
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Re: By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen official national  [#permalink]

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18 Apr 2019, 22:42
3
Cheryn wrote:
earning these and earning them ie usage of these and them confused me generally as in this example both are used interchangeably in the underlined portion.
is there any rule to differentiate them?

Cheryn , yes, they are different kinds of words.
On the GMAT, we use these followed by a noun
as a way to point to the noun:
these cookies that you just baked, these horses that we are taking to the vet,
these questions in this forum

These is a demonstrative adjective, not a noun or pronoun.

By contrast, them replaces the noun and stands alone.

• On the GMAT, these, plural of this, is a demonstrative adjective or determiner—it points to specific nouns.

Correct: She earned these gold medals in the museum case because she was a fabulous pilot.
(points to "gold medals" and not the silver medals, for example)
Wrong: She earned them gold medals in the museum case because she was a fabulous pilot.
(them is an object pronoun, not an adjective and determiner)

Incorrect on the GMAT (and in formal writing):
I am impressed by her many medals and surprised that she won all these so quickly.
Correction (use them, the pronoun):
I am impressed by her many medals and surprised that she won all of them so quickly.

Correct: These chocolate truffles without nuts are tasty.
(Points to "chocolate truffles." I don't like the truffles that contain nuts.)
Wrong: These without nuts are tasty.
These WHAT?

Them is a pronoun and the direct object of a verb or a preposition.
Them stands alone, stands in for the noun, and is not followed by the noun
(them does not "point" to the noun).

Correct, direct object of the verb earned, pronoun:
Airplane enthusiasts still marvel at Cochran's many medals because
she earned THEM so quickly.

("them" is the direct object of the verb "earned" and is a pronoun that replaces the noun "medals."
Wrong:
Airplane enthusiasts still marvel at Cochran's many medals
because she earned them medals so quickly.
(OUCH.)

Direct object of a preposition, pronoun:
She was accomplished and gracious; though she won many medals for her flying,

Wrong: She was accomplished and gracious; though she won many flying medals,

Essentially
-- do not leave the word "these" by itself, i.e., without a noun following it,
whereas
-- them stands IN for the noun (so that we don't have to say the noun twice)
Them does stand by itself (is not followed by the noun).

Hope that helps.
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Re: By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen official national  [#permalink]

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13 May 2019, 01:32
1
generis

Thank you very much for explaining .

so this means even "this" should be used in the similar fashion ( PLEASE CLARIFY AS THIS IS MY REGULAR USAGE)

for eg

if i say thank you very much for explaining this ( singular form of these), then it is wrong..

i should say thank you very much for explaining it ( singular from of them)..

REALLY THANK YOU VERY MUCH FOR ENLIGHTENING ME IN THE ABOVE TOPIC ( even here i typed enlightening this and then substituted by enlightening me ......)

so kindly clarify this also.
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Re: By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen official national  [#permalink]

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13 May 2019, 21:29
Cheryn wrote:
generis

Thank you very much for explaining .

so this means even "this" should be used in the similar fashion ( PLEASE CLARIFY AS THIS IS MY REGULAR USAGE)

for eg

if i say thank you very much for explaining this ( singular form of these), then it is wrong..

i should say thank you very much for explaining it ( singular from of them)..

REALLY THANK YOU VERY MUCH FOR ENLIGHTENING ME IN THE ABOVE TOPIC ( even here i typed enlightening this and then substituted by enlightening me ......)

so kindly clarify this also.

Cheryn , on the GMAT, as a general rule, these should be followed by a plural noun and this should be followed by a singular noun.

But if the other four answers are incorrect and one answer is logical and otherwise grammatical but contains THIS or THESE as a pronoun, choose that answer.

I know of exactly one official question in which the correct answer includes the word this used as a pronoun.
That question was published two weeks ago in Official Guide 2020.

Spoiler alert: the correct answer to a very new official question is revealed.

In this OG 2020 question, here the word "this" is a pronoun. Only one of the five answers contains "this" used this way, and that answer is correct.

Similarly, I know of exactly one official question in which the correct answer includes the use of the word THESE as a pronoun.
That GMAT Prep question was available in 2008, I believe. You can find that question here.

Almost all of the time on the GMAT, these and this are demonstrative articles.

I cannot give you a better answer than that. [In the preceding sentence, pronoun that is a copy of answer.]
I sense that you would like me to give you a guarantee or an inviolable rule.

I can't do so. GMAC does not publish an official guide or grammar book.
We know what to expect on the GMAT only from published questions that have been retired.

Some grammarians accept the use of this and these as pronouns.
Other grammarians reject the use of this and these as pronouns.

Quote:
If i say thank you very much for explaining this ( singular form of these), then it is wrong..

On the GMAT, that construction is highly unlikely to be the correct answer.
Quote:
i should say thank you very much for explaining it ( singular from of them)..

Not quite. You should use a specific noun or noun phrase, because so far in your post, none exists.
You could say,
"Thank you for answering my question."
"Thank you for explaining the difference between them and these."
"Thank you for explaining the issue."
(I understand what "the issue" refers to because I wrote the answer.)

On the GMAT the word it needs an antecedent.
What does "it" refer to?

You wrote:
PLEASE CLARIFY AS THIS IS MY REGULAR USAGE,

On the GMAT, the typical way in which you use the word this is very likely to be wrong.

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Re: By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen official national  [#permalink]

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04 Jun 2019, 01:35
Hi egmat

Isnt Earned a verb here? When the do-er of the action is not the subject of the sentence, VERB-ED is a modifier which agrees with the closest noun(records here), but when Do-er of the action is the subject of the sentence, VERB-ED is Verb of the sentence.

I worked hard to get 780 on GMAT, Considered as the most challenging score by EGMAT. Here worked is verb of the sentence as "I" am doing the action of working. Considered is a modifier as someone else is doing the action of Considering, and it is agreeing to 780.

Isnt JC doing the action of earning here?

Since the act of earning is the result of getting records, shouldnt it be better represented using a verb-ing? In my understanding, we can not use parallelism for cause and effect relationship. If B had "when'" rather than "that', would it be a better option?
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Re: By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen official national  [#permalink]

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08 Feb 2020, 07:46

Quote:
By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen official national and international speed records, and she earned them at a time when aviation was still so new for many of the planes she flew to be of dangerously experimental design.

Quote:
earned at a time when aviation was still so new that many of the planes she flew were

Why do we not connect two main verbs: HELD and EARNED using AND in OA?
Sentence structure:

By 1940, (Opening modifier)
the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen official national and international speed records, (although in non-underlined portion, one can use HAD HELD too since we are given specific time marker)
earned at a time when aviation was still so new that many of the planes she flew were of dangerously experimental design.

Quote:
(B) earning them at a time that aviation was still so new for many of the planes she flew to be
(C) earning these at a time where aviation was still so new that many of the planes she flew were

It was definitely a close call to point correct usage of coma+ verb-ing modifer: earning presenting result of preceding clause with subject:Jacqueline Cochran in (B/C) which are incorrect because of incorrect relative pronoun: that and where
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Re: By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen official national  [#permalink]

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08 Feb 2020, 08:42
1
1

Quote:
By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen official national and international speed records, and she earned them at a time when aviation was still so new for many of the planes she flew to be of dangerously experimental design.

Quote:
earned at a time when aviation was still so new that many of the planes she flew were

Why do we not connect two main verbs: HELD and EARNED using AND in OA?
Sentence structure:

By 1940, (Opening modifier)
the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen official national and international speed records, (although in non-underlined portion, one can use HAD HELD too since we are given specific time marker)
earned at a time when aviation was still so new that many of the planes she flew were of dangerously experimental design.

Quote:
(B) earning them at a time that aviation was still so new for many of the planes she flew to be
(C) earning these at a time where aviation was still so new that many of the planes she flew were

It was definitely a close call to point correct usage of coma+ verb-ing modifer: earning presenting result of preceding clause with subject:Jacqueline Cochran in (B/C) which are incorrect because of incorrect relative pronoun: that and where

The simple answer, adkikani, is that earned is not being used as a verb in the correct answer, but as a past participle (at the head of a participial phrase) instead. Your assessment of (B) and (C) is correct, and I like to teach students to look for obvious errors before committing too heavily to a split for just this sort of reason. You were unsure about earning, but you were certain about the other errors. Well done.

Note that you could choose to turn earned into a verb that was parallel with held, but remember, you are stuck with what is on the screen in front of you, and (E) is the winner here.

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Re: By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen official national  [#permalink]

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09 Feb 2020, 22:05
3

Quote:
By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen official national and international speed records, and she earned them at a time when aviation was still so new for many of the planes she flew to be of dangerously experimental design.

Quote:
earned at a time when aviation was still so new that many of the planes she flew were

Why do we not connect two main verbs: HELD and EARNED using AND in OA?
Sentence structure:

By 1940, (Opening modifier)
the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen official national and international speed records, (although in non-underlined portion, one can use HAD HELD too since we are given specific time marker)
earned at a time when aviation was still so new that many of the planes she flew were of dangerously experimental design.

Quote:
(B) earning them at a time that aviation was still so new for many of the planes she flew to be
(C) earning these at a time where aviation was still so new that many of the planes she flew were

It was definitely a close call to point correct usage of coma+ verb-ing modifer: earning presenting result of preceding clause with subject:Jacqueline Cochran in (B/C) which are incorrect because of incorrect relative pronoun: that and where

'held' and 'earned' do not form two independent clauses. "earned at a time..." modifies the 17 speed records. Hence they will not be connected with 'and'.
For more on this, check: https://www.veritasprep.com/blog/2014/1 ... -the-gmat/

Also, you cannot use 'had held' here because she held the 17 records by 1940, not before that. In 1939, she may have held 16 records, in 1938, 15 records etc - we don't know. So we are talking about a single time in past i.e. 1940 when she held 17 records. So past perfect is not appropriate.
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Re: By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen official national  [#permalink]

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05 Mar 2020, 05:42
I don't understant why it is "earned" instead of "earning"?

Many thanks
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Re: By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen official national  [#permalink]

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09 Mar 2020, 18:31
1
fehugo wrote:
I don't understant why it is "earned" instead of "earning"?

Many thanks

As explained in this post by VeritasKarishma, "earned" modifies "speed records", not the entire clause. If that post doesn't clear up your doubts, let us know.
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Re: By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen official national  [#permalink]

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08 Apr 2020, 10:07
I chose (E). But I'm still confused about the "earning" and "earned". If we choose "earning" then its modifying Jacqueline Cochran, who did the act of earning.

But if we choose "earned" it is modifying records.

Which one of the 2 is correct?
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Re: By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen official national  [#permalink]

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12 Apr 2020, 02:33
GMATNinja hazelnut generis egmat @EMPOWERgmat

I have a doubt regarding the verb-tense used in the non - underline part of the sentence

By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen official national and international speed records,

In the non-underlined part, why is the clause after "By 1940" written in simple past? Shouldn't it be past perfect tense?
Event 1: JC held records
Event 2: By 1940

JC held the records by the time it was 1940. In other words, Event 1 happens before Event 2
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Re: By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen official national  [#permalink]

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13 Apr 2020, 13:00
Hoozan wrote:
GMATNinja hazelnut generis egmat @EMPOWERgmat

I have a doubt regarding the verb-tense used in the non - underline part of the sentence

By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen official national and international speed records,

In the non-underlined part, why is the clause after "By 1940" written in simple past? Shouldn't it be past perfect tense?
Event 1: JC held records
Event 2: By 1940

JC held the records by the time it was 1940. In other words, Event 1 happens before Event 2

In this clause, the event you're looking at is not when Cochran EARNED each of the records, it's when she HELD them - which was in 1940. If the verb had been "earned," then you would absolutely have to say she "had earned" them all by 1940 because it would be talking about an event that started prior to 1940 (earning the first record) and ended in 1940 (earning the last record). Since we're only talking about when she HELD all of the records collectively, it's fine to use plain past tense because she didn't hold them all until 1940, which is one singular event.

I hope that helps!

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Re: By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen official national  [#permalink]

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14 Apr 2020, 05:57
1
Hoozan wrote:
GMATNinja hazelnut generis egmat @EMPOWERgmat

I have a doubt regarding the verb-tense used in the non - underline part of the sentence

By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen official national and international speed records,

In the non-underlined part, why is the clause after "By 1940" written in simple past? Shouldn't it be past perfect tense?
Event 1: JC held records
Event 2: By 1940

JC held the records by the time it was 1940. In other words, Event 1 happens before Event 2

As suggested in this post by VeritasKarishma, the use of the past perfect (had held) would actually make the intended meaning LESS clear. Did Cochran hold those 17 records for a while and then LOSE some of them before 1940? Maybe she held each record for a week or two but never held all 17 at once?

Remember, grammar "rules" only exist for the sake of clarity and logic -- that's why, sadly, there are so few black and white rules that we can rely on. Can you use the past perfect with a time marker? Of course. Does that mean that you must ALWAYS use the past perfect when a time marker is present? Unfortunately not -- it just depends on the context. In this case, using "held" makes the meaning more clear.

More importantly, since "held" is not in the underlined portion and all five options use it, we don't need to worry about this at all! Your job is to select the BEST answer choice out of the five available options. Looking at a single sentence in a bubble and trying to determine whether it's "correct" or "incorrect" based on grammar "rules" is an entirely different job -- one that you'll never have to do on test day.

I hope this helps!
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Re: By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen official national  [#permalink]

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14 Apr 2020, 20:18
lakshya14 wrote:
I chose (E). But I'm still confused about the "earning" and "earned". If we choose "earning" then its modifying Jacqueline Cochran, who did the act of earning.

But if we choose "earned" it is modifying records.

Which one of the 2 is correct?

For example if answer choice B was : "earning them at a time when aviation was still so new that many of the planes she flew were"

Would this be correct?
Re: By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen official national   [#permalink] 14 Apr 2020, 20:18

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