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By 1950, the results of attempts to relate brain processes to

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By 1950, the results of attempts to relate brain processes to  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 27 Mar 2020, 00:17
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5-1 SECTION A 21-27

By 1950, the results of attempts to relate brain processes to mental experience appeared rather discouraging. Such variations in size, shape, chemistry, conduction speed, excitation threshold, and the like as had been demonstrated in nerve cells remained negligible in significance for any possible correlation with the manifold dimensions of mental experience.

Near the turn of the century, it had been suggested by Hering that different modes of sensation, such as pain, taste, and color, might be correlated with the discharge of specific kinds of nervous energy. However, subsequently developed methods of recording and analyzing nerve potentials failed to reveal any such qualitative diversity. It was possible to demonstrate by other methods refined structural differences among neuron types; however, proof was lacking that the quality of the impulse or its condition was influenced by these differences, which seemed instead to influence the developmental patterning of the neural circuits. Although qualitative variance among nerve energies was never rigidly disproved, the doctrine was generally abandoned in favor of the opposing view, namely, that nerve impulses are essentially homogeneous in quality and are transmitted as “common currency” throughout the nervous system.

According to this theory, it is not the quality of the sensory nerve impulses that determines the diverse conscious sensations they produce, but rather the different areas of the brain into which they discharge, and there is some evidence for this view. In one experiment, when an electric stimulus was applied to a given sensory field of the cerebral cortex of a conscious human subject, it produced a sensation of the appropriate modality for that particular locus, that is, a visual sensation from the visual cortex, an auditory sensation from the auditory cortex, and so on. Other experiments revealed slight variations in the size, number, arrangement, and interconnection of the nerve cells, but as far as psychoneural correlations were concerned, the obvious similarities of these sensory fields to each other seemed much more remarkable than any of the minute differences.

However, cortical locus, in itself, turned out to have little explanatory value. Studies showed that sensations as diverse as those of red, black, green, and white, or touch, cold, warmth, movement, pain, posture, and pressure apparently may arise through activation of the same cortical areas. What seemed to remain was some kind of differential patterning effects in the brain excitation: it is the difference in the central distribution of impulses that counts. In short, brain theory suggested a correlation between mental experience and the activity of relatively homogeneous nerve-cell units conducting essentially homogeneous impulses through homogeneous cerebral tissue. To match the multiple dimensions of mental experience psychologists could only point to a limitless variation in the spatiotemporal patterning of nerve impulses.

1. The author suggests that, by 1950, attempts to correlate mental experience with brain processes would probably have been viewed with

(A) indignation
(B) impatience
(C) pessimism
(D) indifference
(E) defiance


2. The author mentions “common currency” (Highlighted) primarily in order to emphasize the

(A) lack of differentiation among nerve impulses in human beings
(B) similarity of the sensations that all human beings experience
(C) similarities in the views of scientists who have studied the human nervous system
(D) continuous passage of nerve impulses through the nervous system
(E) recurrent questioning by scientists of an accepted explanation about the nervous system


3. The description of an experiment in which electric stimuli (Highlighted) were applied to different sensory fields of the cerebral cortex tends to support the theory that

(A) the simple presence of different cortical areas cannot account for the diversity of mental experience
(B) variation in spatiotemporal patterning of nerve impulses correlates with variation in subjective experience
(C) nerve impulses are essentially homogeneous and are relatively unaffected as they travel through the nervous system
(D) the mental experiences produced by sensory nerve impulses are determined by the cortical area activated
(E) variation in neuron types affects the quality of nerve impulses


4. According to the passage, some evidence exists that the area of the cortex activated by a sensory stimulus determines which of the following?

I. The nature of the nerve impulse
II. The modality of the sensory experience
III. Qualitative differences within a modality

(A) II only
(B) III only
(C) I and II only
(D) II and III only
(E) I, II and III


5. The passage can most accurately be described as a discussion concerning historical views of the

(A) anatomy of the brain
(B) manner in which nerve impulses are conducted
(C) significance of different cortical areas in mental experience
(D) mechanics of sense perception
(E) physiological correlates of mental experience


6. Which of the following best summarizes the author’s opinion of the suggestion that different areas of the brain determine perceptions produced by sensory nerve impulses?

(A) It is a plausible explanation, but it has not been completely proved.
(B) It is the best explanation of brain processes currently available.
(C) It is disproved by the fact that the various areas of the brain are physiologically very similar.
(D) There is some evidence to support it, but it fails to explain the diversity of mental experience.
(E) There is experimental evidence that confirms its correctness.


7. It can be inferred from the passage that which of the following exhibit the LEAST qualitative variation?

(A) Nerve cells
(B) Nerve impulses
(C) Cortical areas
(D) Spatial patterns of nerve impulses
(E) Temporal patterns of nerve impulses


Originally posted by pathy on 21 Jan 2020, 05:44.
Last edited by SajjadAhmad on 27 Mar 2020, 00:17, edited 3 times in total.
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Re: By 1950, the results of attempts to relate brain processes to  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Mar 2020, 00:14
Hi everyone,
Got 6/7 correct in a little less than 16 minutes.

Currently OAs are incorrect. I found these ones:
1C
2A
3D
4A
5E
6D
7B

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P1

The author starts with a claim according to which attempts to connect brain processes and mental experiences were discouraging. Then nerve cells are taken as an example of such failure.

Purpose: to claim that by 1950 attempts to link brain processes and mental experience had been discouraging.



P2

In this paragraph we are given some theories that tried to correlate brain processes and mental experience. Later on all these studies were discarded.

Purpose: to present theories that were subsequently discarded



P3

In this paragraph the author describes the lat theory presented in the previous paragraph and offer some evidence in support of it. The theory claims that different emotions are triggered by different areas of the brain.

Purpose: to explain a theory and offer evidence in support of it



P4

In this paragraph the author partially discards the previous theory because such theory cannot account for the different types of mental experiences related to the same area of the brain.
The the author suggests that such differences could be explained by the different patterns of nerve impulses




Main point

The purpose of this passage is to evaluate the research done so far about correlation between brain processes and mental experience



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1. The author suggests that, by 1950, attempts to correlate mental experience with brain processes would probably have been viewed with

Pre-thinking

Inference question

From P1: By 1950, the results of attempts to relate brain processes to mental experience appeared rather discouraging.


(A) indignation
(B) impatience
(C) pessimism
(D) indifference
(E) defiance



------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


2. The author mentions “common currency” in line 26 primarily in order to emphasize the

Pre-thinking

Function question

[b]pathy
Could you please highlight the term in the passage? Since we don't have the lines it is time consuming to search for it.

From P2: Although qualitative variance among nerve energies was never rigidly disproved, the doctrine was generally abandoned in favor of the opposing view, namely, that nerve impulses are essentially homogeneous in quality and are transmitted as “common currency” throughout the nervous system.

The purpose is to stress the homogeneity of the transmission of impulses
[/b]

(A) lack of differentiation among nerve impulses in human beings
In line with pre-thinking

(B) similarity of the sensations that all human beings experience
out of scope

(C) similarities in the views of scientists who have studied the human nervous system
out of scope

(D) continuous passage of nerve impulses through the nervous system
out of scope. continuity is not discussed here

(E) recurrent questioning by scientists of an accepted explanation about the nervous system
out of scope


------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


3. The description in lines 32-38 of an experiment in which electric stimuli were applied to different sensory fields of the cerebral cortex tends to support the theory that

Pre-thinking

Function question

[b]pathy
Could you please highlight the lines in the passage?

From P3: In one experiment, when an electric stimulus was applied to a given sensory field of the cerebral cortex of a conscious human subject, it produced a sensation of the appropriate modality for that particular locus, that is, a visual sensation from the visual cortex, an auditory sensation from the auditory cortex, and so on.

The purpose is to strengthen the claim according to which different emotions are triggered in different brain's areas
[/b]

(A) the simple presence of different cortical areas cannot account for the diversity of mental experience
Opposite

(B) variation in spatiotemporal patterning of nerve impulses correlates with variation in subjective experience
out of context

(C) nerve impulses are essentially homogeneous and are relatively unaffected as they travel through the nervous system
Out of scope

(D) the mental experiences produced by sensory nerve impulses are determined by the cortical area activated
In line with pre.thinking

(E) variation in neuron types affects the quality of nerve impulses
out of context


------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


4. According to the passage, some evidence exists that the area of the cortex activated by a sensory stimulus determines which of the following?

Pre-thinking

Detail question




I. The nature of the nerve impulse
Mentioned: According to this theory, it is not the quality of the sensory nerve impulses that determines the diverse conscious sensations they produce, but rather the different areas of the brain into which they discharge, and there is some evidence for this view.

II. The modality of the sensory experience
This option is wrong because modality refers to another context: it produced a sensation of the appropriate modality for that particular locus,

III. Qualitative differences within a modality
not mentioned

(A) II only
(B) III only
(C) I and II only
(D) II and III only
(E) I, II and III




------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------



5.The passage can most accurately be described as a discussion concerning historical views of the

Pre-thinking

Inference question

We need to evaluate the options


(A) anatomy of the brain
Anatomy is out of scope her

(B) manner in which nerve impulses are conducted
The how aspect is not the main point here

(C) significance of different cortical areas in mental experience
too partial scope

(D) mechanics of sense perception
mechanincs are not the main point here

(E) physiological correlates of mental experience
Broad enough. Correct


------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


6. Which of the following best summarizes the author’s opinion of the suggestion that different areas of the brain determine perceptions produced by sensory nerve impulses?

Pre-thinking

Inference question

However, cortical locus, in itself, turned out to have little explanatory value.However, cortical locus, in itself, turned out to have little explanatory value.

The author thinks that it's not a great explanation


(A) It is a plausible explanation, but it has not been completely proved.
The author never ays it is plausible

(B) It is the best explanation of brain processes currently available.
the best is too extreme. Out

(C) It is disproved by the fact that the various areas of the brain are physiologically very similar.
Incorrect

(D) There is some evidence to support it, but it fails to explain the diversity of mental experience.
In line with prethinking

(E) There is experimental evidence that confirms its correctness.
Not in line with pre-thinking. The passage says that there is some evidence for this view but newer it is written that the evidence confirms correctness



------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


7.It can be inferred from the passage that which of the following exhibit the LEAST qualitative variation?

Pre-thinking

Inference question

From P2: Although qualitative variance among nerve energies was never rigidly disproved, the doctrine was generally abandoned in favor of the opposing view, namely, that nerve impulses are essentially homogeneous in quality and are transmitted as “common currency” throughout the nervous system.


(A) Nerve cells
(B) Nerve impulses
(C) Cortical areas
(D) Spatial patterns of nerve impulses
(E) Temporal patterns of nerve impulses



------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


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Re: By 1950, the results of attempts to relate brain processes to   [#permalink] 26 Mar 2020, 00:14

By 1950, the results of attempts to relate brain processes to

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