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By a vote of 9 to 0, the Supreme Court awarded the Central Intelligenc

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By a vote of 9 to 0, the Supreme Court awarded the Central Intelligenc  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 30 Jul 2019, 23:42
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By a vote of 9 to 0, the Supreme Court awarded the Central Intelligence Agency broad discretionary powers enabling it to withhold from the public the identities of its sources of intelligence information.

(A) enabling it to withhold from the public

(B) for it to withhold from the public

(C) for withholding disclosure to the public of

(D) that enable them to withhold from public disclosure

(E) that they can withhold public disclosure of


The Official Guide for GMAT Review, 11th Edition, 2005

Practice Question
Question No.: SC 93
Page: 652


https://www.nytimes.com/1985/04/17/us/justices-grant-cia-wide-discretion-on-secrecy.html

The Supreme Court today gave the Central Intelligence Agency broad discretion to withhold the identities of its sources of intelligence information from public disclosure.

Originally posted by WinWinMBA on 03 Jun 2005, 16:33.
Last edited by Bunuel on 30 Jul 2019, 23:42, edited 6 times in total.
Edited the question.
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Re: By a vote of 9 to 0, the Supreme Court awarded the Central Intelligenc  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Apr 2011, 01:16
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When there is a pronoun ambiguity in GMAT, one of the best ways of solving the muddle is to apply logic rather than mere structure.

In the given context, there are two eligible contenders for the pronoun’ it’ i.e., Supreme Court and the CIA, but the question is why will Supreme Court award the CIA something in order to enable itself? Isn’t logic missing then? That is the reason to conclude without further doubt that the pronoun refers to the CIA.

The answer is certainly A
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Re: By a vote of 9 to 0, the Supreme Court awarded the Central Intelligenc  [#permalink]

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New post 14 May 2011, 16:00
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deepaksharma1986 wrote:
Even i don't get why "B" is incorrect. Could anyone explain ?


Take this sentence
I love my girlfriend laughing at the chimps.
Here the bolded part is sufficient to frame the sentence. But adding a modifier [highlight]laughing at the chimps[/highlight] helps in adding information. Something similar has happened in this question:
The correct usage is “A award B X(enabling …)” where (enabling ...) is acting as modifier.

Here enabling is modifying powers, where [highlight]A award B X[/highlight] is fully complete even in absence of modifier
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Re: By a vote of 9 to 0, the Supreme Court awarded the Central Intelligenc  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Feb 2017, 05:06
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WinWinMBA wrote:
By a vote of 9 to 0, the Supreme Court awarded the Central Intelligence Agency broad discretionary powers enabling it to withhold from the public the identities of its sources of intelligence information.

(A) enabling it to withhold from the public
(B) for it to withhold from the public
(C) for withholding disclosure to the public of
(D) that enable them to withhold from public disclosure
(E) that they can withhold public disclosure of


Quote:
I am unable to choose between A and B what is the difference here enabling vs for here

https://gmatclub.com/forum/by-a-vote-of ... 16906.html


Is 'for' more concerned with intent ? the what about 'to' infinintve . Whats the diffirence between for vs to


By a vote of 9 to 0, the Supreme Court awarded the Central Intelligence Agency broad discretionary powers for it to withhold from the public the identities of its sources of intelligence information.

The meaning of this sentence is different. We know that broad powers would have made it possible for CIA to withhold the IDs of sources. But this sentence (option B) implies that the broad discretionary powers were given to withhold the IDs. That it made it compulsory for them to withhold the IDs. That is not true. It is given that the powers were discretionary.
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Re: By a vote of 9 to 0, the Supreme Court awarded the Central Intelligenc  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Jan 2015, 03:37
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IMO - A

By a vote of 9 to 0, the Supreme Court awarded the Central Intelligence Agency broad discretionary powers enabling it to withhold from the public the identities of its sources of intelligence information.

Let's re-write this sentence for more clarity : The Central Intelligence Agency broad was awarded discretionary powers by the Supreme Court, enabling it to withhold from the public the identities of its sources of intelligence information.. Here 'it' refers back to 'The Central Intelligence Agency', not to anyone else.

(A) enabling it to withhold from the public >> this is a cause & effect scenario: V-ing (enabling) is correctly producing the effect of the cause (awarded the Central Intelligence Agency broad discretionary powers). And 'it' is referring back to the CIA (closest noun indeed)

(B) for it to withhold from the public >> this is changing the meaning. Now, it is sounding as if SC awarded the DP to CIAB just to enable it to withhold.....so, nonsensical

(C) for withholding disclosure to the public of >> As per VAN rule (Verb>Adj>Noun), using 'withhold' (verb) is preferred over 'withholding' (noun). Also, this is changing the meaning as explained in B.

(D) that enable them to withhold from public disclosure >> them is incorrect pronoun. Referring to whom??

(E) that they can withhold public disclosure of >> they is incorrect pronoun. Referring to whom??
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Re: By a vote of 9 to 0, the Supreme Court awarded the Central Intelligenc  [#permalink]

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New post 30 Jan 2018, 15:50
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Hi WinWinMBA,

Thank you for your question.

Let's start by looking at the first major difference I saw when looking over the question quickly: it vs. they/them. Since the pronoun is referring back to the Central Intelligence Agency, which is a singular noun, the pronoun should match - so let's keep answers A, B, and C because they use the singular "it" or no pronoun at all. Therefore, we can eliminate answers D & E because they use the plural "they" or "them," which is wrong.

Answer C should also go because it doesn't clearly state WHO gets to do the withholding, and it sounds awkward. This leaves us with answers A & B. Let's look at what is different about each one:

A: enabling it to withhold from the public
B: for it to withhold from the public

In answer B, using the word "for" changes the meaning of the sentence and the intentions of the Supreme Court. By saying they are awarding the CIA powers "for" a purpose, they are saying that the Supreme Court awarded the CIA more power knowing they would use it for that purpose and ONLY that purpose. This isn't true - they just gave the CIA more power, but it's not clear WHY they did so.

The word "enabling" is a much stronger choice to show that the Supreme Court is giving the CIA power, and that power allows them to withhold information. Using "enabling" shows that the court decision is a cause, and withholding information is an effect, which is the intended meaning. The court didn't give them the power to withhold information directly - they did that indirectly by awarding them more power. Therefore, this is the right answer.
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By a vote of 9 to 0, the Supreme Court awarded the Central Intelligenc  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Sep 2019, 10:15
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By a vote of 9 to 0, the Supreme Court awarded the Central Intelligence Agency broad discretionary powers enabling it to withhold from the public the identities of its sources of intelligence information.

payalkhndlwl wrote:
Enabling is modifying "powers" --> enabling should modify CIA. Is my understanding incorrect?


payalkhndlwl , no, your understanding is not correct, but I can see why you would think that enabling should modify CIA.
What or who was authorized (enabled) to withhold identities? The Agency (CIA). This focus is problematic because it ignores the discretionary powers awarded to the CIA. The ability to withhold identities is an essential part of the discretionary powers awarded TO the CIA, not an essential part of the CIA itself.

So we can also ask : "The CIA was awarded discretionary powers to do what?" In that case, enabling makes sense.

discretionary powers enabling it to withhold . . . is a shortened form* of
discretionary powers that enable it to withhold . . .

Both that enable and enabling are essential modifiers of powers—they mean exactly the same thing and they are both essential modifiers of powers. See the footnote.

Discretionary powers to do what? To withhold the identities of its sources.
Enabling answers an essential question about powers and heads up the adjective phrase that follows and correctly modifies powers.

Being enabled to withholding identities of sources is not a defining characteristic of the CIA itself.
Being enabled to withhold identities IS a defining characteristic of the powers granted to the CIA by the Supreme Court.
Enabling should modify powers.

I hope that helps.


*The word enabling comes from a reduced relative clause, namely, [powers] that enable it.

Reduced relative clauses are very common in good writing and on the GMAT.
Reduced means shortened. The "relative" refers to a relative pronoun such as that, who, or which.
In order to shorten the relative clause [powers] that enable it and change it into the adjective enabling:
1) remove the relative pronoun (that);
2) change the verb into the present participle (verbING) (enable→enabling); and
3) place the present participle after the noun

Original: The Court awarded the CIA broad discretionary powers that enable it to withhold ... the identities of its sources ...

Reduced clause: The Court awarded the CIA broad discretionary powers enabling it to withhold ... the identities of its sources ...

That enable is an essential modifier of powers [that were granted to the CIA].
Because enabling is simply a shortened (reduced) form of that enable, enabling is also an essential modifier of powers. You can read a short overview about reduced relative clauses HERE.

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Re: By a vote of 9 to 0, the Supreme Court awarded the Central Intelligenc  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Jun 2005, 14:04
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WinWinMBA wrote:
186. By a vote of 9 to 0, the Supreme Court awarded the Central Intelligence Agency broad discretionary powers enabling it to withhold from the public the identities of its sources of intelligence information.

(A) enabling it to withhold from the public
(B) for it to withhold from the public
(C) for withholding disclosure to the public of
(D) that enable them to withhold from public disclosure
(E) that they can withhold public disclosure of


would pick A

D and E use the word 'they' which is incorrect for CIA which is singular
the reason i eliminated B and C is because 'powers for' doesn't sound correct to me..but i could be wrong here as i dont know the correct idiom officially
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Re: By a vote of 9 to 0, the Supreme Court awarded the Central Intelligenc  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Jul 2010, 19:43
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vageesh wrote:
I also want to know that why "it" is not ambiguous here.



Supreme Court awarded the Central Intelligence Agency - Supreme Court is active and CIA is passive, so SC gives CIA discretionary powers , which enable it (CIA) to withhold from the public.
"it" is not ambigous here at all ;)
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Re: By a vote of 9 to 0, the Supreme Court awarded the Central Intelligenc  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Dec 2011, 22:52
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PTK wrote:
vageesh wrote:
I also want to know that why "it" is not ambiguous here.



Supreme Court awarded the Central Intelligence Agency - Supreme Court is active and CIA is passive, so SC gives CIA discretionary powers , which enable it (CIA) to withhold from the public.
"it" is not ambigous here at all ;)


In my opinion, A is correct NOT because of active/passive usage. If the author wanted to refer to SC, then the sentence should have 'reflexive' pronouns rather than ' simple pronoun'. As that is not the case, the 'it' here refers to CIA only but not SC.

Eg: He solved the problem HIMSELF; they caused the trouble THEMSELVES.

Hope this is clear.
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Re: By a vote of 9 to 0, the Supreme Court awarded the Central Intelligenc  [#permalink]

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New post 21 May 2018, 17:11
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(A) enabling it to withhold from the public -- correctly modifying.

(B) for it to withhold from the public --- use of for,

(C) for withholding disclosure to the public of -- use of for, withholding disclosure - wordy

(D) that enable them to withhold from public disclosure --- pronoun error

(E) that they can withhold public disclosure of -- pronoun error
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Re: By a vote of 9 to 0, the Supreme Court awarded the Central Intelligenc  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Sep 2019, 06:10
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Enabling is modifying "powers" --> enabling should modify CIA. Is my understanding incorrect?
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Re: By a vote of 9 to 0, the Supreme Court awarded the Central Intelligenc  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Sep 2019, 08:38
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payalkhndlwl wrote:
Enabling is modifying "powers" --> enabling should modify CIA. Is my understanding incorrect?

Hi Payal, basically:

i) CIA was awarded powers
ii) Those powers enable CIA <to do something>.

So, enabling correctly modifies powers in the original sentence.
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Re: By a vote of 9 to 0, the Supreme Court awarded the Central Intelligenc  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Jul 2010, 12:53
I also want to know that why "it" is not ambiguous here.
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Re: By a vote of 9 to 0, the Supreme Court awarded the Central Intelligenc  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Mar 2011, 12:16
Even i don't get why "B" is incorrect. Could anyone explain ?
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Re: By a vote of 9 to 0, the Supreme Court awarded the Central Intelligenc  [#permalink]

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New post 21 May 2018, 18:10
By a vote of 9 to 0, the Supreme Court awarded the Central Intelligence Agency broad discretionary powers enabling it to withhold from the public the identities of its sources of intelligence information.

(A) enabling it to withhold from the public - Correct
(B) for it to withhold from the public - 'for' is incorrect usage
(C) for withholding disclosure to the public of - 'for withholding' is incorrect usage
(D) that enable them to withhold from public disclosure - 'enable them' is incorrect usage
(E) that they can withhold public disclosure of - "powers that they can withhold" , we are not withholding powers here - Incorrect

Ans: A
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Re: By a vote of 9 to 0, the Supreme Court awarded the Central Intelligenc  [#permalink]

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New post 12 Mar 2019, 03:24
this is a weird one. Does gmat really test you with these kinda questions?

Clearly the usage if *it* in option A is ambiguous!
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Re: By a vote of 9 to 0, the Supreme Court awarded the Central Intelligenc  [#permalink]

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New post 12 Mar 2019, 08:07
Hi VeritasKarishma aragonn

"from the public the identities" sounds awkward but is that correct? I am feeling like some connecting word is missing.
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By a vote of 9 to 0, the Supreme Court awarded the Central Intelligenc  [#permalink]

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New post 31 Jul 2019, 00:24
It is important to note that pronoun error is not a deterministic error in GMAT, especially in cases in which you can logically determine what noun that pronoun refers to. The error arises when you're confused with what exactly the pronoun stands for.

Eg; A bird can eat a mango even though it is not very large in size.
Now the ambiguity arises - is it used for bird or the mango?

By a vote of 9 to 0, the Supreme Court awarded the Central Intelligence Agency broad discretionary powers enabling it to withhold from the public the identities of its sources of intelligence information.

(A) enabling it to withhold from the public - it's quite evident that SC will not grant powers to itself to withhold from the public the identities. Therefore, we will keep this answer choice and look for a better one. But we will not eliminate it.

(B) for it to withhold from the public - the usage of for here implies that SC granted this power so that the CIA could withhold from the public.... The intention of the original sentence is certainly not so. The original sentence intends to describe the powers.

(C) for withholding disclosure to the public of - same as B

(D) that enable them to withhold from public disclosure - SV Agreement error. Them is incorrect here. CIA is clearly a single noun entity.

(E) that they can withhold public disclosure of - SV Agreement error.

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Re: By a vote of 9 to 0, the Supreme Court awarded the Central Intelligenc  [#permalink]

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New post 31 Jul 2019, 16:23
(A) enabling it to withhold from the public -- correctly modifying.

(B) for it to withhold from the public --- use of for,

(C) for withholding disclosure to the public of -- use of for, withholding disclosure - wordy

(D) that enable them to withhold from public disclosure --- pronoun error

(E) that they can withhold public disclosure of -- pronoun error
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Re: By a vote of 9 to 0, the Supreme Court awarded the Central Intelligenc   [#permalink] 31 Jul 2019, 16:23

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