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By a vote of 98 to 1, the United States Senate enacted the USA Patriot

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By a vote of 98 to 1, the United States Senate enacted the USA Patriot  [#permalink]

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New post 30 Aug 2019, 23:14
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Question Stats:

49% (01:13) correct 51% (01:13) wrong based on 444 sessions

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Project SC Butler: Day 158: Sentence Correction (SC1)


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By a vote of 98 to 1, the United States Senate enacted the USA Patriot Act, which grants law enforcement officials greater authority in investigating suspected terrorists.

A) which grants law enforcement officials greater authority in investigating suspected terrorists

B) that grants law enforcement officials greater authority to investigate suspected terrorists

C) granting law enforcement officials greater authority with investigating suspected terrorists

D) which will grant law enforcement officials greater authority for suspected terrorist investigations

E) having granted law enforcement officials greater authority for investigating suspected terrorists

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By a vote of 98 to 1, the United States Senate enacted the USA Patriot  [#permalink]

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New post 30 Aug 2019, 23:15
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OFFICIAL EXPLANATION

generis wrote:

Project SC Butler: Day 158: Sentence Correction (SC1)



• HIGHLIGHTS

The bad news? "Authority IN investigating" in option A is idiomatic.

The good news? We don't need to resort to idiom to solve this question.

This question is a very good example of the basic rule: look for four incorrect answers. Never look for one best answer.

I researched "authority in investigating." I did not believe it was idiomatic. I was incorrect. The phrase is idiomatic.

Emphasis? Focus? Do we care about the vote count? Maybe. After we read the second part of the sentence, do we care about the vote count?
No.
The underlined portion says nothing about that rather astonishing vote.
In every option, the underlined portion talks about the content of the Patriot Act.
We should look for words that highlight the latter.

THE PROMPT

By a vote of 98 to 1, the United States Senate enacted the USA Patriot Act, which grants law enforcement officials greater authority in investigating suspected terrorists.
THE OPTIONS

Quote:
A) By a vote of 98 to 1, the United States Senate enacted the USA Patriot Act, which grants law enforcement officials greater authority in investigating suspected terrorists.

authority in investigation is idiomatic
This sentence is in at least three of my wheelhouses, but I had never heard of "in investigating."
I looked it up in four very credible sources. Yes, it's considered an idiom. There's a good takeaway from this option, mentioned below.
• the rest of the sentence is fine
• If you are not certain about an idiom, keep the answer.
KEEP

Quote:
B) By a vote of 98 to 1, the United States Senate enacted the USA Patriot Act,that grants law enforcement officials greater authority to investigate suspected terrorists.

• a comma should not precede a that-clause because a that-clause defines the noun and a comma suggests that a modifier is not essential
ELIMINATE

Quote:
C) granting law enforcement officials greater authority with investigating suspected terrorists
with investigating is nonsense. Try a similar but simpler example.
The CEO gave me greater authority with investigating the mistake.
I have more authority together with investigating the mistake? :x
I have greater authority accompanied by investigating the mistake? :x
• "with investigating" is not idiomatic.
granting is not great. ___ING words are very useful, but they are not as strong as regular verbs in this context (regular verbs such as granted in option A).
• wrong focus. In this case "granting" describes the whole preceding clause. We care about the content of the Act.
ELIMINATE

Quote:
D) By a vote of 98 to 1, the United States Senate enacted the USA Patriot Act, which will grant law enforcement officials greater authority for suspected terrorist investigations.

• no reason exists to use future tense: the law was already enacted
• authority for suspected terrorist investigations?
-- authority for is not correct in this case. Check one possible meaning:
-- meaning: are there terrorist investigations that are themselves suspected? The phrasing is horrible.
ELIMINATE

E) By a vote of 98 to 1, the United States Senate enacted the USA Patriot Act, having granted law enforcement officials greater authority for investigating suspected terrorists.
• "for investigating" is not idiomatic
• no reason exists to use having granted. Having + past participle implies that something is to some. (Having studied hard, he passed the exam.)
Eliminate.

By POE, the answer is A.

• ISSUES and takeaways

J2S2019 , I shared your doubts when I first read the question.
You will not like this answer much . . . but whether we need infinitive or an ___ing word turns on idiom.
Find other issues. We can do so here

• One clue. . . often, when the verbING word is needed to correct a mistake created by the use of the infinitive, that participle will have a preposition before it.

That situation is true in this question: "IN" investigating.
(Yes, the other __ING phrases are accompanied by the prepositions with and for. We can figure out that "with" is ridiculous. The two options that use "for __ING" contain fatal verb errors.)

Finally, this question is a good poster child for:
1) not panicking - do not panic if you cannot figure out the idiom. GMAC almost always puts in another decision point.
2) POE -- get through the options. See what is left. Forget about a "good" sentence.
Choose the sentence that is the "least bad,"

I like your answers.
This is the place to get the wrinkles out. Kudos to all (even with a wrong answer) who explained.

Enjoy the rest of your weekend. Happy kudos.
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Re: By a vote of 98 to 1, the United States Senate enacted the USA Patriot  [#permalink]

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New post 30 Aug 2019, 23:18
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generis can you please underline the art in question, it would make it easier to read.

Posted from my mobile device
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Re: By a vote of 98 to 1, the United States Senate enacted the USA Patriot  [#permalink]

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New post 31 Aug 2019, 00:25
itoyj wrote:
generis can you please underline the art in question, it would make it easier to read.

Posted from my mobile device

Edited. Thank you. :) :)
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By a vote of 98 to 1, the United States Senate enacted the USA Patriot  [#permalink]

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New post 31 Aug 2019, 08:49
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Though I was torn between A and C, i'll give the explanation a shot...



A) which grants law enforcement officials greater authority in investigating suspected terrorists

CORRECT: "Which" correctly modifies "USA Patriot Act". "In investigating" is the right idiom.

B) that grants law enforcement officials greater authority to investigate suspected terrorists

INCORRECT: The use of "that" after a comma is incorrect.

C) granting law enforcement officials greater authority with investigating suspected terrorists

INCORRECT: "with investigating" is not the right idiom. Further, a gerund in this case is unwarranted because this has already happened (?)

D) which will grant law enforcement officials greater authority for suspected terrorist investigations

INCORRECT: "authorty for" uses an incorrect idiom.

E) having granted law enforcement officials greater authority for investigating suspected terrorists

INCORRECT: Same as D. Usage of gerund incorrect for same reasons as C.

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Re: By a vote of 98 to 1, the United States Senate enacted the USA Patriot  [#permalink]

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New post 31 Aug 2019, 09:10
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IMO the correct answer is A though i am not confident about it.
I came to this answer by POE


By a vote of 98 to 1, the United States Senate enacted the USA Patriot Act, which grants law enforcement officials greater authority in investigating suspected terrorists.

A) which grants law enforcement officials greater authority in investigating suspected terrorists - "..,which" a non-restrictive noun modifier is correctly modifying the just before noun "the USA Patriot Act" - Correct in terms of meaning - "grants" as a verb is correct in accordance with singular noun "the USA Patriot Act" - Correct;
but "in investigating" is what making me not happy here; "to investigate" should have been s better choice in my point of view; - Keep this option (Correct)
generis it will be very helpful if you kindly elaborate more regarding the difference of infinitive usage & the usage of " in investigating" in this option -

B) that grants law enforcement officials greater authority to investigate suspected terrorists - "that...." a restrictive clause is used with "," which is incorrect, also in terms of meaning it is not conveying the correct view; there is no more than one "the USA Patriot Act" & "that" can only refer to a subset of occurance - so incorrect.

C) granting law enforcement officials greater authority with investigating suspected terrorists - now VerbING modifier is modifying the entire preceding cluase; here "granting" seems modifying the result of the preceding clause, but it is not sharing the same subject, the "law" is what enabling the offcials by meaning of the sentence not the actual subject of the preceding clause, i.e "the United States Senate " . Participial verbING modifier usage is not correct; also "with investigating" is probably not the correct idiomatic usage (though i am not sure :dazed ) - Incorrect

D) which will grant law enforcement officials greater authority for suspected terrorist investigations - Verb tense error, unnecessary usage of Future tense; "for suspected terrorist investigations " is awkward - Incorrect

E) having granted law enforcement officials greater authority for investigating suspected terrorists - Same error as C - Incorrect
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By a vote of 98 to 1, the United States Senate enacted the USA Patriot  [#permalink]

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New post 31 Aug 2019, 11:09
J2S2019 wrote:
generis it will be very helpful if you kindly elaborate more regarding the difference of infinitive usage & the usage of " in investigating" in this option -

J2S2019 , sure. :)

Do you mean now or when I write the OE?
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Re: By a vote of 98 to 1, the United States Senate enacted the USA Patriot  [#permalink]

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New post 31 Aug 2019, 11:28
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[quote="generis"]

Project SC Butler: Day 158: Sentence Correction (SC1)


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By a vote of 98 to 1, the United States Senate enacted the USA Patriot Act, which grants law enforcement officials greater authority in investigating suspected terrorists.


The question basically wants you to choose between the USA Patriot ACT VS this complete action - the United States Senate enacted the USA Patriot Act.
The best way to convey is to talk about what this ACT does . So use of WHICH to modify/refer ACT is appropriate here . The whole purpose to tell this sentence is to talk about this ACT .

A) which grants law enforcement officials greater authority in investigating suspected terrorists KEEP

B) that grants law enforcement officials greater authority to investigate suspected terrorists - this is very close call , but if you look closely that comma before THAT is not underlined so you can easily take the chance of selecting option A over B .

C) granting law enforcement officials greater authority with investigating suspected terrorists- Now this is working as another modifier which is modifying the ACT . This would be the least choice as GMAT doesnt like ambiguity .Also WITH is not proper here.

D) which will grant law enforcement officials greater authority for suspected terrorist investigations - When all the non underlined portion is in past then you should avoid the future tense .

E) having granted law enforcement officials greater authority for investigating suspected terrorists - We use -ing mostly in the begining of the sentence . this sentence is not describing the intended meaning of the sentence .SO REJECT

Final winner is A . yipeee
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Re: By a vote of 98 to 1, the United States Senate enacted the USA Patriot  [#permalink]

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New post 31 Aug 2019, 11:34
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Quote:
By a vote of 98 to 1, the United States Senate enacted the USA Patriot Act, which grants law enforcement officials greater authority in investigating suspected terrorists.

A) which grants law enforcement officials greater authority in investigating suspected terrorists

B) that grants law enforcement officials greater authority to investigate suspected terrorists

C) granting law enforcement officials greater authority with investigating suspected terrorists

D) which will grant law enforcement officials greater authority for suspected terrorist investigations

E) having granted law enforcement officials greater authority for investigating suspected terrorists


Let's tackle this one.
Just a little rephrasing to make oneself clear: the United States Senate, By a vote of 98 to 1, enacted the USA Patriot Act, which grants law enforcement officials greater authority in investigating suspected terrorists.

One the first read nothing seems obviously wrong. The which should jump out but it is as close as it can be to the Act. So I guess we should be fine.
You should realise comma is not underlined (You should not ignore it is what I am saying)

B) that grants law enforcement officials greater authority to investigate suspected terrorists See I told you don't ignore the comma. The "that" cannot be used if we have a comma. You can say Act that... but you cannot say Act, that. You are not emphasising anymore.

C) granting law enforcement officials greater authority with investigating suspected terrorists It is the Act that is granting not the whole fact that US Senate blah blah..

D) which will grant law enforcement officials greater authority for suspected terrorist investigations Well, two things. The authority for is not the right usage. Second (and I guess easier to spot because even I am not sure of idiom) is the fact that authority is for investigation and not for suspected terrorist. So the former phrase should be closer to the word authority.

E) having granted law enforcement officials greater authority for investigating suspected terrorists For reasons comibined in C and D.

IMO A is what best we can do.

Thank you!
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Re: By a vote of 98 to 1, the United States Senate enacted the USA Patriot  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Sep 2019, 00:30
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By a vote of 98 to 1, the United States Senate enacted the USA Patriot Act, which grants law enforcement officials greater authority in investigating suspected terrorists.

Prethinking. The underlined part is after a complete clause, giving two possible constructions for the modifier. 1) which/that 2) Verb-ing

Which/that would indicate additional information about the nearest noun, whereas verbing will indicate result of the "main clause". Here which is more appropriate.

A) which grants law enforcement officials greater authority in investigating suspected terrorists- Which is correct. AUthority in investigating is correct.

B) that grants law enforcement officials greater authority to investigate suspected terrorists- Comma that is not a valid construction. Elliminate

C) granting law enforcement officials greater authority with investigating suspected terrorists-AS discussed, Verbing indicates the result of enacting the law. However the modifier is just describing what the law is. Hence incorrect. Besides, Authority in is preffered over authority with.

D) which will grant law enforcement officials greater authority for suspected terrorist investigations-Will grant is not acceptable. Would would have been acceptable as the sentence is in past tense. Authority for suspected terrorist is poor construction. IT should be authority for investigating suspected terrorist.

E) having granted law enforcement officials greater authority for investigating suspected terrorists - Having+past participle indicates an action that is already done before the main action, and hence changes the meaning.
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Re: By a vote of 98 to 1, the United States Senate enacted the USA Patriot  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Sep 2019, 01:22
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I would have gone with A too except for the "authority in" vs "authority to". I thought "authority in" is incorrect.
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Re: By a vote of 98 to 1, the United States Senate enacted the USA Patriot  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Sep 2019, 01:26
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pzgupta wrote:
I would have gone with A too except for the "authority in" vs "authority to". I thought "authority in" is incorrect.


Remember, Idioms arent everything. Use them as the last option. IF you begin with them, you just have to be hell lot of lucky.
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Re: By a vote of 98 to 1, the United States Senate enacted the USA Patriot  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Sep 2019, 01:35
pzgupta wrote:
I would have gone with A too except for the "authority in" vs "authority to". I thought "authority in" is incorrect.

Wait. I'm confused.

You thought that authority IN was idiomatic and you would have gone for A?
Option A does use authority IN investigating.

I am confused.
It doesn't matter. We do not have to resort to the idiom anyway.
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Re: By a vote of 98 to 1, the United States Senate enacted the USA Patriot  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Sep 2019, 01:37
I have posted the official explanation HERE
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Re: By a vote of 98 to 1, the United States Senate enacted the USA Patriot  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Sep 2019, 02:35
generis wrote:
pzgupta wrote:
I would have gone with A too except for the "authority in" vs "authority to". I thought "authority in" is incorrect.

Wait. I'm confused.

You thought that authority IN was idiomatic and you would have gone for A?
Option A does use authority IN investigating.

I am confused.
It doesn't matter. We do not have to resort to the idiom anyway.


Sorry. I meant I would have chosen A if not for the use of "authority in". I chose B.
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Re: By a vote of 98 to 1, the United States Senate enacted the USA Patriot  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Sep 2019, 07:01
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generis wrote:
OFFICIAL EXPLANATION

generis wrote:

Project SC Butler: Day 158: Sentence Correction (SC1)



• HIGHLIGHTS

The bad news? "Authority IN investigating" is idiomatic.

The good news? We don't need to resort to idiom to solve this question.

This question is a very good example of the basic rule: look for four incorrect answers. Never look for one best answer.

I have researched "authority in investigating." I did not believe it was idiomatic. I was incorrect. The phrase is idiomatic.

Emphasis? Focus? Do we care about the vote count?
No.
The underlined portion says nothing about that rather astonishing vote.
In every option, the underlined portion talks about the content of the Patriot Act.
We should look for words that highlight the latter.

THE PROMPT

By a vote of 98 to 1, the United States Senate enacted the USA Patriot Act, which grants law enforcement officials greater authority in investigating suspected terrorists.
THE OPTIONS

Quote:
A) By a vote of 98 to 1, the United States Senate enacted the USA Patriot Act, which grants law enforcement officials greater authority in investigating suspected terrorists.

authority in investigation is idiomatic
This sentence is in at least three of my wheelhouses, but I had never heard of "in investigating."
I looked it up in four very credible sources. Yes, it's considered an idiom. There's a good takeaway from this option, mentioned below.
• the rest of the sentence is fine
KEEP

Quote:
B) By a vote of 98 to 1, the United States Senate enacted the USA Patriot Act,that grants law enforcement officials greater authority to investigate suspected terrorists.

• a comma should not precede a that-clause because a that-clause defines the noun and a comma suggests that a modifier is not essential
ELIMINATE

Quote:
C) granting law enforcement officials greater authority with investigating suspected terrorists
• with investigating is not idiomatic and all we have to do is think about "with" for a moment to realize that the word is wrong.
granting is not great. ___ING words are very useful, but they are not as strong as regular verbs.
ELIMINATE

Quote:
D) By a vote of 98 to 1, the United States Senate enacted the USA Patriot Act, which will grant law enforcement officials greater authority for suspected terrorist investigations.

• no reason exists to use future tense: the law was already enacted
• authority for suspected terrorist investigations?
-- authority for is not correct
-- meaning: are there terrorist investigations that are themselves suspected? The phrasing is horrible.
ELIMINATE

E) By a vote of 98 to 1, the United States Senate enacted the USA Patriot Act, having granted law enforcement officials greater authority for investigating suspected terrorists.
• for investigating is not idiomatic
• no reason exists to use having granted. Having + past participle implies that something is to some. (Having studied hard, he passed the exam.)
Eliminate.

By POE, the answer is A.

• ISSUES and takeaways

J2S2019 , I shared your doubts when I first read the question.
You will not like this answer much . . . but whether an idiom or an ___ing word is needed turns on idiom.
Find other issues. We can do so here

• One clue. . . often, when the verbING word is needed to correct a mistake created by the use of the infinitive, that participle will have a preposition before it.

That situation is true in this question. IN investigating.

Finally, this question is a good poster child for:
1) not panicking - do not panic if you cannot figure out the idiom. GMAC almost always puts in another decision point.
2) POE -- get through the options. See what is left. Forget about a "good" sentence.
Choose the sentence that is the "least bad,"

I like your answers.
This is the place to get the wrinkles out. Kudos to all (even with a wrong answer) who explained.

Enjoy the rest of your weekend. Happy kudos.


Thats so kind of you generis
Thanks a ton for the explanation.
Happy to be a part of SC Butler :)
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Re: By a vote of 98 to 1, the United States Senate enacted the USA Patriot  [#permalink]

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New post 11 Sep 2019, 17:25
By a vote of 98 to 1, the United States Senate enacted the USA Patriot Act, which grants law enforcement officials greater authority in investigating suspected terrorists.

A) which grants law enforcement officials greater authority in investigating suspected terrorists - correct

B) that grants law enforcement officials greater authority to investigate suspected terrorists - comma before "that" is incorrect

C) granting law enforcement officials greater authority with investigating suspected terrorists - it's the Act that grants authority ~ the use of "granting" implies that it's the Senate

D) which will grant law enforcement officials greater authority for suspected terrorist investigations - "will" wrong tense

E) having granted law enforcement officials greater authority for investigating suspected terrorists - wrong tense
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Re: which vs. that  [#permalink]

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New post 29 Nov 2019, 02:02
Hello from the GMAT Club VerbalBot!

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Re: which vs. that   [#permalink] 29 Nov 2019, 02:02
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