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By devising an instrument made from a rod, wire, and lead balls, and e

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21 Jun 2016, 15:10
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By devising an instrument made from a rod, wire, and lead balls, and employing uncommonly precise measurements, in 1797–1798 Henry Cavendish’s apparatus enabled him to arrive at an astonishingly accurate figure for the weight of the earth.

A. By devising an instrument made from a rod, wire, and lead balls, and employing uncommonly precise measurements, in 1797–1798 Henry Cavendish’s apparatus enabled him
B. In 1797–1798, by devising an instrument made from a rod, wire, and lead balls, and employing uncommonly precise measurements, Henry Cavendish’s apparatus enabled him
C. Henry Cavendish devised an instrument made from a rod, wire, and lead balls, and employed uncommonly precise measurements, and in 1797–1798 was able
D. Having devised an instrument from a rod, wire, and lead balls, and employment of uncommonly precise measurements, Henry Cavendish in 1797–1798 was able
E. By devising an instrument made from a rod, wire, and lead balls, and employing uncommonly precise measurements, Henry Cavendish was able in 1797–1798

OG Verbal 2017 New Question(Book Question: 281)
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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21 Jun 2016, 16:34
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AbdurRakib wrote:
By devising an instrument made from a rod, wire, and lead balls, and employing uncommonly precise measurements, in 1797–1798 Henry Cavendish’s apparatus enabled him to arrive at an astonishingly accurate figure for the weight of the earth.

A. By devising an instrument made from a rod, wire, and lead balls, and employing uncommonly precise measurements, in 1797–1798 Henry Cavendish’s apparatus enabled him
B. In 1797–1798, by devising an instrument made from a rod, wire, and lead balls, and employing uncommonly precise measurements, Henry Cavendish’s apparatus enabled him
C. Henry Cavendish devised an instrument made from a rod, wire, and lead balls, and employed uncommonly precise measurements, and in 1797–1798 was able
D. Having devised an instrument from a rod, wire, and lead balls, and employment of uncommonly precise measurements, Henry Cavendish in 1797–1798 was able
E. By devising an instrument made from a rod, wire, and lead balls, and employing uncommonly precise measurements, Henry Cavendish was able in 1797–1798

OG Verbal 2017 New Question(Book Question: 281)

Dear AbdurRakib,
I'm happy to respond.

Choice (A) & (B) have a classic modifier mistake.
By devising . . . and employing . . . Henry Cavendish’s apparatus . . .
The apparatus was not doing the devising and planning. The man Henry Cavendish was the actor here, but because this actor is in the possessive, the modifier cannot target him. Both (A) and (B) make this mistake.

Choice is false parallelism: grammatically, the parallelism is perfect, but parallelism is not primarily a grammatical structure: it is primarily a logical structure. Choice (C) puts three things mechanically in parallel so that we lose any sense of the logical relation of the events, what things allowed what other things to happen. All that meaning is lost, so (C) is wrong.

Choice (D) has a glaring parallelism error: "Having devised . . . employment . . ." A perfect participle in parallel with a noun: a complete trainwreck in terms of the grammar of parallelism.

That leaves (E). Fortunately, (E) is a masterpiece: perfect parallelism (By devising . . . and employing . . . ) , and these correctly modify the man himself, Henry Cavendish. The phrasing demonstrates the logical connection of the events by the using the "by" prepositional phrases. It is grammatically correct and rhetorically successful---a sentence almost as elegant as Cavendish's measurements!

Does all this make sense?
Mike
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21 Jun 2016, 21:24
the modifier which is in A should modify Henry.

i don't see any option doing that leaving E.

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30 Jun 2016, 20:46
mikemcgarry wrote:
AbdurRakib wrote:
By devising an instrument made from a rod, wire, and lead balls, and employing uncommonly precise measurements, in 1797–1798 Henry Cavendish’s apparatus enabled him to arrive at an astonishingly accurate figure for the weight of the earth.

A. By devising an instrument made from a rod, wire, and lead balls, and employing uncommonly precise measurements, in 1797–1798 Henry Cavendish’s apparatus enabled him
B. In 1797–1798, by devising an instrument made from a rod, wire, and lead balls, and employing uncommonly precise measurements, Henry Cavendish’s apparatus enabled him
C. Henry Cavendish devised an instrument made from a rod, wire, and lead balls, and employed uncommonly precise measurements, and in 1797–1798 was able
D. Having devised an instrument from a rod, wire, and lead balls, and employment of uncommonly precise measurements, Henry Cavendish in 1797–1798 was able
E. By devising an instrument made from a rod, wire, and lead balls, and employing uncommonly precise measurements, Henry Cavendish was able in 1797–1798

OG Verbal 2017 New Question(Book Question: 281)

Dear AbdurRakib,
I'm happy to respond.

Choice (A) & (B) have a classic modifier mistake.
By devising . . . and employing . . . Henry Cavendish’s apparatus . . .
The apparatus was not doing the devising and planning. The man Henry Cavendish was the actor here, but because this actor is in the possessive, the modifier cannot target him. Both (A) and (B) make this mistake.

Choice is false parallelism: grammatically, the parallelism is perfect, but parallelism is not primarily a grammatical structure: it is primarily a logical structure. Choice (C) puts three things mechanically in parallel so that we lose any sense of the logical relation of the events, what things allowed what other things to happen. All that meaning is lost, so (C) is wrong.

Choice (D) has a glaring parallelism error: "Having devised . . . employment . . ." A perfect participle in parallel with a noun: a complete trainwreck in terms of the grammar of parallelism.

That leaves (E). Fortunately, (E) is a masterpiece: perfect parallelism (By devising . . . and employing . . . ) , and these correctly modify the man himself, Henry Cavendish. The phrasing demonstrates the logical connection of the events by the using the "by" prepositional phrases. It is grammatically correct and rhetorically successful---a sentence almost as elegant as Cavendish's measurements!

Does all this make sense?
Mike

Dear Mike, I selected E using POE but my question is.....is it okay to have a split in able + to?

For e.g.:
Ver#1: After trying for several years, Sam was able to pass the GMAT in 2016

Ver#2: After trying for several years, Sam was able in 2016 to pass the GMAT.

Is is valid? "Sam was able in 2016 to pass the GMAT" ?

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30 Jun 2016, 22:44
A modifier error

B modifier error

C Changes the sense of the sentence by keeping ... devised and was able in same level....

D parallelism error

having devised...... and employment

E correct

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01 Jul 2016, 15:37
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royrijit1 wrote:
Dear Mike, I selected E using POE but my question is.....is it okay to have a split in able + to?

For e.g.:
Ver#1: After trying for several years, Sam was able to pass the GMAT in 2016

Ver#2: After trying for several years, Sam was able in 2016 to pass the GMAT.

Is is valid? "Sam was able in 2016 to pass the GMAT" ?

Dear royrijit1,
I'm happy to respond.

My friend, not only is it allowable to split the idiom able . . . to do X---in fact, splitting it is one of the GMAT's favorite tricks.

In your examples, both versions are idiomatically correct, but Version #2 sounds awkward. It sounds much more natural to communicate this particular information using version one. Splitting the idiom is perfectly fine: this just isn't a very good example. It sounds much more natural in the phrasing of (E) here. Here's another example, in GMAT-like sentence.

The structure of the fugue, which came completely naturally to J.S. Bach, utterly eluded Beethoven early in his career, but Beethoven was able, after years of determined efforts, to produce virtuoso fugues in each of his final five piano sonatas.

Does all this make sense?
Mike
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29 Jul 2016, 12:57
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mikemcgarry wrote:
AbdurRakib wrote:
By devising an instrument made from a rod, wire, and lead balls, and employing uncommonly precise measurements, in 1797–1798 Henry Cavendish’s apparatus enabled him to arrive at an astonishingly accurate figure for the weight of the earth.

A. By devising an instrument made from a rod, wire, and lead balls, and employing uncommonly precise measurements, in 1797–1798 Henry Cavendish’s apparatus enabled him
B. In 1797–1798, by devising an instrument made from a rod, wire, and lead balls, and employing uncommonly precise measurements, Henry Cavendish’s apparatus enabled him
C. Henry Cavendish devised an instrument made from a rod, wire, and lead balls, and employed uncommonly precise measurements, and in 1797–1798 was able
D. Having devised an instrument from a rod, wire, and lead balls, and employment of uncommonly precise measurements, Henry Cavendish in 1797–1798 was able
E. By devising an instrument made from a rod, wire, and lead balls, and employing uncommonly precise measurements, Henry Cavendish was able in 1797–1798

OG Verbal 2017 New Question(Book Question: 281)

M
Dear AbdurRakib,
I'm happy to respond.

Choice (A) & (B) have a classic modifier mistake.
By devising . . . and employing . . . Henry Cavendish’s apparatus . . .
The apparatus was not doing the devising and planning. The man Henry Cavendish was the actor here, but because this actor is in the possessive, the modifier cannot target him. Both (A) and (B) make this mistake.

Choice is false parallelism: grammatically, the parallelism is perfect, but parallelism is not primarily a grammatical structure: it is primarily a logical structure. Choice (C) puts three things mechanically in parallel so that we lose any sense of the logical relation of the events, what things allowed what other things to happen. All that meaning is lost, so (C) is wrong.

Choice (D) has a glaring parallelism error: "Having devised . . . employment . . ." A perfect participle in parallel with a noun: a complete trainwreck in terms of the grammar of parallelism.

That leaves (E). Fortunately, (E) is a masterpiece: perfect parallelism (By devising . . . and employing . . . ) , and these correctly modify the man himself, Henry Cavendish. The phrasing demonstrates the logical connection of the events by the using the "by" prepositional phrases. It is grammatically correct and rhetorically successful---a sentence almost as elegant as Cavendish's measurements!

Does all this make sense?
Mike

Mr. Garry Please check if my analysis is correct -

A. By devising an instrument made from a rod, wire, and lead balls, and employing uncommonly precise measurements, in 1797–1798 Henry Cavendish’s apparatus enabled him

B. In 1797–1798, by devising an instrument made from a rod, wire, and lead balls, and employing uncommonly precise measurements, Henry Cavendish’s apparatus enabled him

C. Henry Cavendish devised an instrument made from a rod, wire, and lead balls, and employed uncommonly precise measurements, and in 1797–1798 was able to arrive at an astonishingly accurate figure for the weight of the earth.

C. Henry Cavendish [A], and in 1797–1798 [B]

A = devised an instrument made from a rod, wire, and lead balls, and employed uncommonly precise measurements
B = was able to arrive at an astonishingly accurate figure for the weight of the earth.

The subject/Noun = Henry Cavendish is present in elliptical form before [B] also.
C. Henry Cavendish [A], and in 1797–1798 [B] - This is 100% a || structure.

[Clause], and [Clause]

Mechanically this is parallel. Right? But meaning Issue -
C. Henry Cavendish devised an instrument made from a rod, wire, and lead balls, and employed uncommonly precise measurements, and in 1797–1798 [Henry Cavendish] was able to arrive at an astonishingly accurate figure for the weight of the earth.

[Clause], and [Clause]

The two clauses here have lost the cause and effect flow of the events. This is what is basically wrong in this option.
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15 Nov 2016, 20:52
Should " in 1797–1798" be set off by commas to make it non-essential modifier? Otherwise, it sounds awkward. Doesn't it? Could someone please clarify? Thanks!

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16 Nov 2016, 15:22
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manhasnoname wrote:
Should " in 1797–1798" be set off by commas to make it non-essential modifier? Otherwise, it sounds awkward. Doesn't it? Could someone please clarify? Thanks!

Dear manhasnoname,

I'm happy to respond.

My friend, the entire issue of "essential" vs. "non-essential" modifiers applies only to noun modifiers. The Touch Rule also applies only to noun modifiers.

Verb modifiers are a completely different world. It doesn't make sense to talk about an "essential" or "non-essential" verb modifier, and placement of verb modifiers is considerably freer than that of noun modifiers.

The preposition "in 1797-1798" is a verb modifier. It is an adverbial phrase, playing the role of an adverb. It is fine in (E), not set off by commas. As a verb modifier, it is neither "essential" nor "non-essential." There is absolutely no problem with its placement or use in (E), the OA.

Does all this make sense?
Mike
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06 Dec 2016, 10:06
A. By devising an instrument made from a rod, wire, and lead balls, and employing uncommonly precise measurements, in 1797–1798 Henry Cavendish’s apparatus enabled him
B. In 1797–1798, by devising an instrument made from a rod, wire, and lead balls, and employing uncommonly precise measurements, Henry Cavendish’s apparatus enabled him
C. Henry Cavendish devised an instrument made from a rod, wire, and lead balls, and employed uncommonly precise measurements, and in 1797–1798 was able
D. Having devised an instrument from a rod, wire, and lead balls, and employment of uncommonly precise measurements, Henry Cavendish in 1797–1798 was able
E. By devising an instrument made from a rod, wire, and lead balls, and employing uncommonly precise measurements, Henry Cavendish was able in 1797–1798

E is Parallel

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06 Dec 2016, 12:05
RichaChampion wrote:
mikemcgarry wrote:
AbdurRakib wrote:
By devising an instrument made from a rod, wire, and lead balls, and employing uncommonly precise measurements, in 1797–1798 Henry Cavendish’s apparatus enabled him to arrive at an astonishingly accurate figure for the weight of the earth.

A. By devising an instrument made from a rod, wire, and lead balls, and employing uncommonly precise measurements, in 1797–1798 Henry Cavendish’s apparatus enabled him
B. In 1797–1798, by devising an instrument made from a rod, wire, and lead balls, and employing uncommonly precise measurements, Henry Cavendish’s apparatus enabled him
C. Henry Cavendish devised an instrument made from a rod, wire, and lead balls, and employed uncommonly precise measurements, and in 1797–1798 was able
D. Having devised an instrument from a rod, wire, and lead balls, and employment of uncommonly precise measurements, Henry Cavendish in 1797–1798 was able
E. By devising an instrument made from a rod, wire, and lead balls, and employing uncommonly precise measurements, Henry Cavendish was able in 1797–1798

OG Verbal 2017 New Question(Book Question: 281)

M
Dear AbdurRakib,
I'm happy to respond.

Choice (A) & (B) have a classic modifier mistake.
By devising . . . and employing . . . Henry Cavendish’s apparatus . . .
The apparatus was not doing the devising and planning. The man Henry Cavendish was the actor here, but because this actor is in the possessive, the modifier cannot target him. Both (A) and (B) make this mistake.

Choice is false parallelism: grammatically, the parallelism is perfect, but parallelism is not primarily a grammatical structure: it is primarily a logical structure. Choice (C) puts three things mechanically in parallel so that we lose any sense of the logical relation of the events, what things allowed what other things to happen. All that meaning is lost, so (C) is wrong.

Choice (D) has a glaring parallelism error: "Having devised . . . employment . . ." A perfect participle in parallel with a noun: a complete trainwreck in terms of the grammar of parallelism.

That leaves (E). Fortunately, (E) is a masterpiece: perfect parallelism (By devising . . . and employing . . . ) , and these correctly modify the man himself, Henry Cavendish. The phrasing demonstrates the logical connection of the events by the using the "by" prepositional phrases. It is grammatically correct and rhetorically successful---a sentence almost as elegant as Cavendish's measurements!

Does all this make sense?
Mike

Mr. Garry Please check if my analysis is correct -

A. By devising an instrument made from a rod, wire, and lead balls, and employing uncommonly precise measurements, in 1797–1798 Henry Cavendish’s apparatus enabled him

B. In 1797–1798, by devising an instrument made from a rod, wire, and lead balls, and employing uncommonly precise measurements, Henry Cavendish’s apparatus enabled him

C. Henry Cavendish devised an instrument made from a rod, wire, and lead balls, and employed uncommonly precise measurements, and in 1797–1798 was able to arrive at an astonishingly accurate figure for the weight of the earth.

C. Henry Cavendish [A], and in 1797–1798 [B]

A = devised an instrument made from a rod, wire, and lead balls, and employed uncommonly precise measurements
B = was able to arrive at an astonishingly accurate figure for the weight of the earth.

The subject/Noun = Henry Cavendish is present in elliptical form before [B] also.
C. Henry Cavendish [A], and in 1797–1798 [B] - This is 100% a || structure.

[Clause], and [Clause]

Mechanically this is parallel. Right? But meaning Issue -
C. Henry Cavendish devised an instrument made from a rod, wire, and lead balls, and employed uncommonly precise measurements, and in 1797–1798 [Henry Cavendish] was able to arrive at an astonishingly accurate figure for the weight of the earth.

[Clause], and [Clause]

The two clauses here have lost the cause and effect flow of the events. This is what is basically wrong in this option.

I am also confused between C and E.
what exactly is wrong with C?
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07 Dec 2016, 19:08
hotshot02 wrote:
RichaChampion wrote:
mikemcgarry wrote:

M
Dear AbdurRakib,
I'm happy to respond.

Choice (A) & (B) have a classic modifier mistake.
By devising . . . and employing . . . Henry Cavendish’s apparatus . . .
The apparatus was not doing the devising and planning. The man Henry Cavendish was the actor here, but because this actor is in the possessive, the modifier cannot target him. Both (A) and (B) make this mistake.

Choice is false parallelism: grammatically, the parallelism is perfect, but parallelism is not primarily a grammatical structure: it is primarily a logical structure. Choice (C) puts three things mechanically in parallel so that we lose any sense of the logical relation of the events, what things allowed what other things to happen. All that meaning is lost, so (C) is wrong.

Choice (D) has a glaring parallelism error: "Having devised . . . employment . . ." A perfect participle in parallel with a noun: a complete trainwreck in terms of the grammar of parallelism.

That leaves (E). Fortunately, (E) is a masterpiece: perfect parallelism (By devising . . . and employing . . . ) , and these correctly modify the man himself, Henry Cavendish. The phrasing demonstrates the logical connection of the events by the using the "by" prepositional phrases. It is grammatically correct and rhetorically successful---a sentence almost as elegant as Cavendish's measurements!

Does all this make sense?
Mike

Mr. Garry Please check if my analysis is correct -

A. By devising an instrument made from a rod, wire, and lead balls, and employing uncommonly precise measurements, in 1797–1798 Henry Cavendish’s apparatus enabled him

B. In 1797–1798, by devising an instrument made from a rod, wire, and lead balls, and employing uncommonly precise measurements, Henry Cavendish’s apparatus enabled him

C. Henry Cavendish devised an instrument made from a rod, wire, and lead balls, and employed uncommonly precise measurements, and in 1797–1798 was able to arrive at an astonishingly accurate figure for the weight of the earth.

C. Henry Cavendish [A], and in 1797–1798 [B]

A = devised an instrument made from a rod, wire, and lead balls, and employed uncommonly precise measurements
B = was able to arrive at an astonishingly accurate figure for the weight of the earth.

The subject/Noun = Henry Cavendish is present in elliptical form before [B] also.
C. Henry Cavendish [A], and in 1797–1798 [B] - This is 100% a || structure.

[Clause], and [Clause]

Mechanically this is parallel. Right? But meaning Issue -
C. Henry Cavendish devised an instrument made from a rod, wire, and lead balls, and employed uncommonly precise measurements, and in 1797–1798 [Henry Cavendish] was able to arrive at an astonishingly accurate figure for the weight of the earth.

[Clause], and [Clause]

The two clauses here have lost the cause and effect flow of the events. This is what is basically wrong in this option.

I am also confused between C and E.
what exactly is wrong with C?

mikemcgarry has already explained in detail, you could check in this link:
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07 Mar 2017, 13:05
A wrong is because of his and Cavendish's
B wrong same
C wrong awkward
D wrong having devised
E is fine

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11 Mar 2017, 18:08
By devising an instrument made from a rod, wire, and lead balls, and employing uncommonly precise measurements, in 1797–1798 Henry Cavendish’s apparatus enabled him to arrive at an astonishingly accurate figure for the weight of the earth.

A. By devising an instrument made from a rod, wire, and lead balls, and employing uncommonly precise measurements, in 1797–1798 Henry Cavendish’s apparatus enabled him
B. In 1797–1798, by devising an instrument made from a rod, wire, and lead balls, and employing uncommonly precise measurements, Henry Cavendish’s apparatus enabled him
C. Henry Cavendish devised an instrument made from a rod, wire, and lead balls, and employed uncommonly precise measurements, and in 1797–1798 was able
D. Having devised an instrument from a rod, wire, and lead balls, and employment of uncommonly precise measurements, Henry Cavendish in 1797–1798 was able
E. By devising an instrument made from a rod, wire, and lead balls, and employing uncommonly precise measurements, Henry Cavendish was able in 1797–1798

The sentence is pronoun question where the sentence structure is incorrect.

A:By devising should match with henery Cavendish not his apparatus.
B:same as A
C:change in meaning,as it suggest that he already had the instrument but in 1797 was able to ....
D:wrong verb tense

E correct grammer and intended meaning.

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27 Mar 2017, 09:29
By devising an instrument made from a rod, wire, and lead balls, and employing uncommonly precise measurements, in 1797–1798 Henry Cavendish’s apparatus enabled him to arrive at an astonishingly accurate figure for the weight of the earth.

A. By devising an instrument made from a rod, wire, and lead balls, and employing uncommonly precise measurements, in 1797–1798 Henry Cavendish’s apparatus enabled him
B. In 1797–1798, by devising an instrument made from a rod, wire, and lead balls, and employing uncommonly precise measurements, Henry Cavendish’s apparatus enabled him
C. Henry Cavendish devised an instrument made from a rod, wire, and lead balls, and employed uncommonly precise measurements, and in 1797–1798 was able
D. Having devised an instrument from a rod, wire, and lead balls, and employment of uncommonly precise measurements, Henry Cavendish in 1797–1798 was able
Wrong
E. By devising an instrument made from a rod, wire, and lead balls, and employing uncommonly precise measurements, Henry Cavendish was able in 1797–1798

Correct.
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19 Apr 2017, 08:34
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By devising an instrument made from a rod, wire, and lead balls, and employing uncommonly precise measurements, in 1797–1798 Henry Cavendish’s apparatus enabled him to arrive at an astonishingly accurate figure for the weight of the earth.

Issues: Parallelism | Modifier | Construction

Analysis:
1. The sentence talks about how Henry Cavendish was able to at a figure. Hence, the actions "devising" and "employing" should point to correct noun i.e. Henry Cavendish and not "Henry Cavendish's apparatus" because "apparatus" can not perform those actions. Also, "Henry Cavendish" should immidiately follow the modifier "By devising...,"
2. In the clause "By devising..." there are two sub-clauses for the two actions i.e. "By devising.. and employing...". The correct chioce should have those actions in parallel.

A. By devising an instrument made from a rod, wire, and lead balls, and employing uncommonly precise measurements, in 1797–1798 Henry Cavendish’s apparatus enabled him
- "Henry Cavendish’s apparatus" creates meaning issue with modifier that precedes it
- "him" does not have an antecedent.

B. In 1797–1798, by devising an instrument made from a rod, wire, and lead balls, and employing uncommonly precise measurements, Henry Cavendish’s apparatus enabled him\
- "In 1797–1798" is mis-placed
- "Henry Cavendish’s apparatus" creates meaning issue with modifier that precedes it

C. Henry Cavendish devised an instrument made from a rod, wire, and lead balls, and employed uncommonly precise measurements, and in 1797–1798 was able
- Meaning issue with the option. (Looses the causality between the two parts of the sentence)

D. Having devised an instrument from a rod, wire, and lead balls, and employment of uncommonly precise measurements, Henry Cavendish in 1797–1798 was able
- "Having devised... and employment..." has parallelism issue

E. By devising an instrument made from a rod, wire, and lead balls, and employing uncommonly precise measurements, Henry Cavendish was able in 1797–1798

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06 May 2017, 03:36
By devising an instrument made from a rod, wire, and lead balls, and employing uncommonly precise measurements, in 1797–1798 Henry Cavendish’s apparatus enabled him to arrive at an astonishingly accurate figure for the weight of the earth.

A. By devising an instrument made from a rod, wire, and lead balls, and employing uncommonly precise measurements, in 1797–1798 Henry Cavendish’s apparatus enabled him

B. In 1797–1798, by devising an instrument made from a rod, wire, and lead balls, and employing uncommonly precise measurements, Henry Cavendish’s apparatus enabled him

C. Henry Cavendish devised an instrument made from a rod, wire, and lead balls, and employed uncommonly precise measurements, and in 1797–1798 was able

D. Having devised an instrument from a rod, wire, and lead balls, and employment of uncommonly precise measurements, Henry Cavendish in 1797–1798 was able

E. By devising an instrument made from a rod, wire, and lead balls, and employing uncommonly precise measurements, Henry Cavendish was able in 1797–1798
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13 Aug 2017, 05:51
mikemcgarry wrote:
AbdurRakib wrote:
By devising an instrument made from a rod, wire, and lead balls, and employing uncommonly precise measurements, in 1797–1798 Henry Cavendish’s apparatus enabled him to arrive at an astonishingly accurate figure for the weight of the earth.

A. By devising an instrument made from a rod, wire, and lead balls, and employing uncommonly precise measurements, in 1797–1798 Henry Cavendish’s apparatus enabled him
B. In 1797–1798, by devising an instrument made from a rod, wire, and lead balls, and employing uncommonly precise measurements, Henry Cavendish’s apparatus enabled him
C. Henry Cavendish devised an instrument made from a rod, wire, and lead balls, and employed uncommonly precise measurements, and in 1797–1798 was able
D. Having devised an instrument from a rod, wire, and lead balls, and employment of uncommonly precise measurements, Henry Cavendish in 1797–1798 was able
E. By devising an instrument made from a rod, wire, and lead balls, and employing uncommonly precise measurements, Henry Cavendish was able in 1797–1798

OG Verbal 2017 New Question(Book Question: 281)

Dear AbdurRakib,
I'm happy to respond.

Choice (A) & (B) have a classic modifier mistake.
By devising . . . and employing . . . Henry Cavendish’s apparatus . . .
The apparatus was not doing the devising and planning. The man Henry Cavendish was the actor here, but because this actor is in the possessive, the modifier cannot target him. Both (A) and (B) make this mistake.

Choice is false parallelism: grammatically, the parallelism is perfect, but parallelism is not primarily a grammatical structure: it is primarily a logical structure. Choice (C) puts three things mechanically in parallel so that we lose any sense of the logical relation of the events, what things allowed what other things to happen. All that meaning is lost, so (C) is wrong.

Choice (D) has a glaring parallelism error: "Having devised . . . employment . . ." A perfect participle in parallel with a noun: a complete trainwreck in terms of the grammar of parallelism.

That leaves (E). Fortunately, (E) is a masterpiece: perfect parallelism (By devising . . . and employing . . . ) , and these correctly modify the man himself, Henry Cavendish. The phrasing demonstrates the logical connection of the events by the using the "by" prepositional phrases. It is grammatically correct and rhetorically successful---a sentence almost as elegant as Cavendish's measurements!

Does all this make sense?
Mike

sir I am generally confused with usage of having and consider the same as wrong but in option D if both parallelism had a structure of: having devised and having employed would it have been correct

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14 Aug 2017, 05:42
2
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E.
Devising and employing is parallel.
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14 Aug 2017, 08:57
mikemcgarry wrote:
AbdurRakib wrote:
By devising an instrument made from a rod, wire, and lead balls, and employing uncommonly precise measurements, in 1797–1798 Henry Cavendish’s apparatus enabled him to arrive at an astonishingly accurate figure for the weight of the earth.

A. By devising an instrument made from a rod, wire, and lead balls, and employing uncommonly precise measurements, in 1797–1798 Henry Cavendish’s apparatus enabled him
B. In 1797–1798, by devising an instrument made from a rod, wire, and lead balls, and employing uncommonly precise measurements, Henry Cavendish’s apparatus enabled him
C. Henry Cavendish devised an instrument made from a rod, wire, and lead balls, and employed uncommonly precise measurements, and in 1797–1798 was able
D. Having devised an instrument from a rod, wire, and lead balls, and employment of uncommonly precise measurements, Henry Cavendish in 1797–1798 was able
E. By devising an instrument made from a rod, wire, and lead balls, and employing uncommonly precise measurements, Henry Cavendish was able in 1797–1798

OG Verbal 2017 New Question(Book Question: 281)

Dear AbdurRakib,
I'm happy to respond.

Choice (A) & (B) have a classic modifier mistake.
By devising . . . and employing . . . Henry Cavendish’s apparatus . . .
The apparatus was not doing the devising and planning. The man Henry Cavendish was the actor here, but because this actor is in the possessive, the modifier cannot target him. Both (A) and (B) make this mistake.

Choice is false parallelism: grammatically, the parallelism is perfect, but parallelism is not primarily a grammatical structure: it is primarily a logical structure. Choice (C) puts three things mechanically in parallel so that we lose any sense of the logical relation of the events, what things allowed what other things to happen. All that meaning is lost, so (C) is wrong.

Choice (D) has a glaring parallelism error: "Having devised . . . employment . . ." A perfect participle in parallel with a noun: a complete trainwreck in terms of the grammar of parallelism.

That leaves (E). Fortunately, (E) is a masterpiece: perfect parallelism (By devising . . . and employing . . . ) , and these correctly modify the man himself, Henry Cavendish. The phrasing demonstrates the logical connection of the events by the using the "by" prepositional phrases. It is grammatically correct and rhetorically successful---a sentence almost as elegant as Cavendish's measurements!

Does all this make sense?
Mike

===================================

Very well Explain Buddy.. But I have a doubt and because of this, I have directly eliminated option E.
" Henry Cavendish was able in 1797–1798 " is this the correct wording??? "Was able in this to this " It seems its not concise and that's why i Chose C.

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Re: By devising an instrument made from a rod, wire, and lead balls, and e   [#permalink] 14 Aug 2017, 08:57

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