GMAT Question of the Day - Daily to your Mailbox; hard ones only

It is currently 15 Sep 2019, 21:33

Close

GMAT Club Daily Prep

Thank you for using the timer - this advanced tool can estimate your performance and suggest more practice questions. We have subscribed you to Daily Prep Questions via email.

Customized
for You

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

Track
Your Progress

every week, we’ll send you an estimated GMAT score based on your performance

Practice
Pays

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

Not interested in getting valuable practice questions and articles delivered to your email? No problem, unsubscribe here.

Close

Request Expert Reply

Confirm Cancel

By the mid-fourteenth century, professional associations of canon lawy

  new topic post reply Question banks Downloads My Bookmarks Reviews Important topics  
Author Message
TAGS:

Hide Tags

Find Similar Topics 
Manager
Manager
avatar
Joined: 04 Feb 2007
Posts: 71
By the mid-fourteenth century, professional associations of canon lawy  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post Updated on: 07 Aug 2019, 08:30
6
5
Question 1
00:00
A
B
C
D
E

based on 118 sessions

77% (03:07) correct 23% (02:54) wrong

HideShow timer Statistics

Question 2
00:00
A
B
C
D
E

based on 141 sessions

49% (01:41) correct 51% (01:54) wrong

HideShow timer Statistics

Question 3
00:00
A
B
C
D
E

based on 136 sessions

88% (00:59) correct 12% (01:09) wrong

HideShow timer Statistics

Question 4
00:00
A
B
C
D
E

based on 134 sessions

66% (01:28) correct 34% (01:33) wrong

HideShow timer Statistics

Question 5
00:00
A
B
C
D
E

based on 120 sessions

44% (01:07) correct 56% (01:27) wrong

HideShow timer Statistics

Question 6
00:00
A
B
C
D
E

based on 115 sessions

42% (01:28) correct 58% (01:19) wrong

HideShow timer Statistics

Question 7
00:00
A
B
C
D
E

based on 112 sessions

38% (01:10) correct 62% (01:20) wrong

HideShow timer Statistics

Question 8
00:00
A
B
C
D
E

based on 105 sessions

48% (01:21) correct 52% (01:39) wrong

HideShow timer Statistics

New Project RC Butler 2019 - Practice 2 RC Passages Everyday
Passage # 254, Date : 07-Aug-2019
This post is a part of New Project RC Butler 2019. Click here for Details


By the mid-fourteenth century, professional associations of canon lawyers (legal advocates in Christian ecclesiastical courts, which dealt with cases involving marriage, inheritance, and other issues) had appeared in most of Western Europe, and a body of professional standards had been defined for them. One might expect that the professional associations would play a prominent role in enforcing these standards of conduct, as other guilds often did, and as modern professional associations do, but that seems not to have happened. Advocates’ professional organizations showed little fervor for disciplining their erring members. Some even attempted to hobble efforts at enforcement. The Florentine guild of lawyers, for example, forbade its members to play any role in disciplinary proceedings against other guild members. In the few recorded episodes of disciplinary enforcement, the initiative for disciplinary action apparently came from a dissatisfied client, not from fellow lawyers.

At first glance, there seem to be two possible explanations for the rarity of disciplinary proceedings. Medieval canon lawyers may have generally observed the standards of professional conduct scrupulously. Alternatively, it is possible that deviations from the established standards of behavior were not uncommon, but that canonical disciplinary mechanisms were so inefficient that most delinquents escaped detection and punishment.

Two considerations make it clear that the second of these explanations is more plausible. First, the English civil law courts, whose ethical standards were similar to those of ecclesiastical courts, show many more examples of disciplinary actions against legal practitioners than do the records of church courts. This discrepancy could well indicate that the disciplinary mechanisms of the civil courts functioned more efficiently than those of the church courts. The alternative inference, namely, that ecclesiastical advocates were less prone to ethical lapses than their counterparts in the civil courts, seems inherently weak, especially since there was some overlap of personnel between the civil bar and the ecclesiastical bar.

Second, church authorities themselves complained about the failure of advocates to measure up to ethical standards and deplored the shortcomings of the disciplinary system. Thus the Council of Basel declared that canon lawyers failed to adhere to the ethical prescriptions laid down in numerous papal constitutions and directed Cardinal Cesarian to address the problem. In England, where medieval church records are extraordinarily rich, similar complaints about the failure of the disciplinary system to reform unethical practices were very common.

Such criticisms seem to have had a paradoxical result, for they apparently reinforced the professional solidarity of lawyers at the expense of the enforcement of ethical standards. Thus the profession’s critics may actually have induced advocates to organize professional associations for self-defense. The critics’ attacks may also have persuaded lawyers to assign a higher priority to defending themselves against attacks by nonprofessionals than to disciplining wayward members within their own ranks.


1. Which one of the following best states the main conclusion of the passage?

(A) Professional organizations of medieval canon lawyers probably only enforced ethical standards among their own members when provoked to do so by outside criticisms.
(B) Professional organizations of medieval civil lawyers seem to have maintained stricter ethical standards for their own members than did professional organizations of medieval canon lawyers.
(C) Professional organizations of medieval canon lawyers apparently served to defend their members against critics’ attacks rather than to enforce ethical standards.
(D) The ethical standards maintained by professional associations of medieval canon lawyers were chiefly laid down in papal constitutions.
(E) Ethical standards for medieval canon lawyers were not laid down until professional organizations for these lawyers had been formed.



2. According to the passage, which one of the following statements about law courts in medieval England is true?

(A) Some English lawyers who practiced in civil courts also practiced in church courts, but others served exclusively in one court or the other.
(B) English canon lawyers were more likely to initiate disciplinary proceedings against their colleagues than were English civil lawyers.
(C) English civil lawyers maintained more stringent ethical standards than did civil lawyers in the rest of Europe.
(D) English ecclesiastical courts had originally been modeled upon English civil courts.
(E) English ecclesiastical courts kept richer and more thorough records than did English civil courts.



3. The author refers to the Florentine guild of lawyers in the first paragraph most probably in order to

(A) introduce a theory about to be promoted
(B) illustrate the type of action referred to in the previous sentence
(C) underline the universality of a method discussed throughout the paragraph
(D) point out a flaw in an argument presented earlier in the paragraph
(E) rebut an anticipated objection to a thesis just proposed



4. The author refers to the Council of Basel (Highlighted) primarily in order to

(A) provide an example of the type of action needed to establish professional standards for canon lawyers
(B) contrast the reactions of English church authorities with the reactions of other bodies to violations of professional standards by canon lawyers
(C) bolster the argument that violations of professional standards by canon lawyers did take place
(D) explain how rules of conduct for canon lawyers were established
(E) describe the development of a disciplinary system to enforce professional standards among canon lawyers



5. According to the information in the passage, for which one of the following ethical violations would documentation of disciplinary action against a canon lawyer be most likely to exist?

(A) betraying a client’s secrets to the opposing party
(B) bribing the judge to rule in favor of a client
(C) misrepresenting credentials in order to gain admission to the lawyers’ guild
(D) spreading rumors in order to discredit an opposing lawyer
(E) knowingly helping a client to misrepresent the truth



6. Which one of the following is most analogous to the “professional solidarity” (Highlighted)?

(A) Members of a teachers’ union go on strike when they believe one of their colleagues to be falsely accused of using an inappropriate textbook.
(B) In order to protect the reputation of the press in the face of a largely hostile public, a journalist conceals distortions in a colleague’s news article.
(C) Several dozen recording artists agree to participate in a concert to benefit an endangered environmental habitat.
(D) In order to expedite governmental approval of a drug, a government official is persuaded to look the other way when a pharmaceutical manufacturer conceals evidence that the drug may have minor side effects.
(E) A popular politician agrees to campaign for another, less popular politician belonging to the same political party.



7. The passage suggests that which one of the following is most likely to have been true of medieval guilds?

(A) Few guilds of any importance existed before the mid-fourteenth century.
(B) Many medieval guilds exercised influence over the actions of their members.
(C) Most medieval guilds maintained more exacting ethical standards than did the associations of canon lawyers.
(D) Medieval guilds found it difficult to enforce discipline among their members.
(E) The ethical standards of medieval guilds varied from one city to another.



8. The author would be most likely to agree with which one of the following regarding the hypothesis that medieval canon lawyers observed standards of professional conduct scrupulously?

(A) It is untrue because it is contradicted by documents obtained from the ecclesiastical courts.
(B) It is unlikely because it describes behavior markedly different from behavior observed in the same situation in modern society.
(C) It is unlikely because it describes behavior markedly different from behavior observed in a similar area of medieval society.
(D) It is impossible to assess intelligently because of the dearth of civil and ecclesiastical documents.
(E) It is directly supported by documents obtained from civil and ecclesiastical courts.



  • Source: LSAT Official PrepTest 20 (October 1996)
  • Difficulty Level: 700

_________________
If you like my post, a kudos is always appreciated ;)

Originally posted by firasath on 18 Jan 2010, 18:24.
Last edited by SajjadAhmad on 07 Aug 2019, 08:30, edited 4 times in total.
Updated.
Verbal Forum Moderator
User avatar
V
Status: Greatness begins beyond your comfort zone
Joined: 08 Dec 2013
Posts: 2385
Location: India
Concentration: General Management, Strategy
Schools: Kelley '20, ISB '19
GPA: 3.2
WE: Information Technology (Consulting)
GMAT ToolKit User Reviews Badge CAT Tests
Re: By the mid-fourteenth century, professional associations of canon lawy  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 10 Aug 2019, 00:00
1
All correct in 16 mins, including 6 mins to read.

Para 1- professional associations of canon lawyers did not enforce standards of conduct, Some even attempted to hobble efforts at enforcement.
Para 2- two possible explanations for the rarity of disciplinary proceedings
Para 3- Two considerations make it clear that the second of these explanations is more plausible. First
Para 4- Second of the two considerations
Para 5- paradoxical result, for they apparently reinforced the professional solidarity of lawyers at the expense of the enforcement of ethical standards.

1. Which one of the following best states the main conclusion of the passage?
(C) Professional organizations of medieval canon lawyers apparently served to defend their members against critics’ attacks rather than to enforce ethical standards.
Thus the profession’s critics may actually have induced advocates to organize professional associations for self-defense. The critics’ attacks may also have persuaded lawyers to assign a higher priority to defending themselves against attacks by nonprofessionals than to disciplining wayward members within their own ranks.

2. According to the passage, which one of the following statements about law courts in medieval England is true?

(A) Some English lawyers who practiced in civil courts also practiced in church courts, but others served exclusively in one court or the other.
since there was some overlap of personnel between the civil bar and the ecclesiastical bar.

3. The author refers to the Florentine guild of lawyers in the first paragraph most probably in order to
(B) illustrate the type of action referred to in the previous sentence
Some even attempted to hobble efforts at enforcement. The Florentine guild of lawyers, for example, forbade its members to play any role in disciplinary proceedings against other guild members

4. The author refers to the Council of Basel (Highlighted) primarily in order to
(C) bolster the argument that violations of professional standards by canon lawyers did take place.
the Council of Basel declared that canon lawyers failed to adhere to the ethical prescriptions laid down in numerous papal constitutions and directed Cardinal Cesarian to address the problem.

5. According to the information in the passage, for which one of the following ethical violations would documentation of disciplinary action against a canon lawyer be most likely to exist?

(A) betraying a client’s secrets to the opposing party
In the few recorded episodes of disciplinary enforcement, the initiative for disciplinary action apparently came from a dissatisfied client, not from fellow lawyers.

6. Which one of the following is most analogous to the “professional solidarity” (Highlighted)?

(A) Members of a teachers’ union go on strike when they believe one of their colleagues to be falsely accused of using an inappropriate textbook.- incorrect, one of their colleagues is falsely accused makes this incorrect
(B) In order to protect the reputation of the press in the face of a largely hostile public, a journalist conceals distortions in a colleague’s news article.- Correct, the journalist conceals the distortions to protect the reputation of the press
(C) Several dozen recording artists agree to participate in a concert to benefit an endangered environmental habitat.- irrelevant
(D) In order to expedite governmental approval of a drug, a government official is persuaded to look the other way when a pharmaceutical manufacturer conceals evidence that the drug may have minor side effects.- incorrect
(E) A popular politician agrees to campaign for another, less popular politician belonging to the same political party.- incorrect

7. The passage suggests that which one of the following is most likely to have been true of medieval guilds?

(B) Many medieval guilds exercised influence over the actions of their members.
The Florentine guild of lawyers, for example, forbade its members to play any role in disciplinary proceedings against other guild members.

8. The author would be most likely to agree with which one of the following regarding the hypothesis that medieval canon lawyers observed standards of professional conduct scrupulously?

(C) It is unlikely because it describes behavior markedly different from behavior observed in a similar area of medieval society.- Correct, in para 2, the author lists 2 possible explanations
In para 3, he states that the second one is more plausible and gives two reasons
_________________
When everything seems to be going against you, remember that the airplane takes off against the wind, not with it. - Henry Ford
The Moment You Think About Giving Up, Think Of The Reason Why You Held On So Long
Senior RC Moderator
User avatar
V
Joined: 02 Nov 2016
Posts: 3726
GPA: 3.39
Re: By the mid-fourteenth century, professional associations of canon lawy  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 07 Aug 2019, 08:31
+1 Kudos to posts containing answer explanation of all questions
_________________
For new project RC Butler 2019: Click here
New! Need for an RC strategy and practice? Click here
Patterns among those who have scored 750+(2019 Edition) Click here
For all GMAT Flashcards => Click here
Manager
Manager
avatar
B
Joined: 29 Nov 2016
Posts: 148
GMAT 1: 680 Q49 V32
Re: By the mid-fourteenth century, professional associations of canon lawy  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 10 Aug 2019, 23:07
Can someone please explain OA for Q4.
Senior RC Moderator
User avatar
V
Joined: 02 Nov 2016
Posts: 3726
GPA: 3.39
Re: By the mid-fourteenth century, professional associations of canon lawy  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 11 Aug 2019, 02:50
Explanation


4. The author refers to the Council of Basel (Highlighted) primarily in order to

Difficulty Level: 650

Explanation

In lines 36-38, the author cites the medieval church as an organization that supports his argument that religious lawyers failed to deal with unethical behavior in their ranks. The example of the Council of Basel (lines 38-41) simply provides concrete evidence to show that the stance of the medieval church does indeed support his view.

(A) The Council of Basel, according to lines 38-41, instructed Cardinal Cesarini to find a way to get religious lawyers to adhere to ethical standards already in existence; this council had no role in establishing such standards.

(B) is outside the scope of the passage. The text never explicitly compares the reaction of the English church to that of other bodies regarding unethical behavior by medieval religious lawyers.

(D) is outside the scope of the passage, too. Lines 49-50 simply mention that ethical standards were set down by the Pope; they never explain how these rules of conduct were actually established.

(E) is also outside the scope of the passage. The text never describes the development of a disciplinary system to enforce ethical behavior. It just discusses why the system didn’t work.

• Always read the answer choices fully and carefully. It’s easy to fall for wrong choices—like those here—that have a superficial plausibility (because they invoke the language of passage details).

Answer: C


Hope it helps

Mudit27021988 wrote:
Can someone please explain OA for Q4.

_________________
For new project RC Butler 2019: Click here
New! Need for an RC strategy and practice? Click here
Patterns among those who have scored 750+(2019 Edition) Click here
For all GMAT Flashcards => Click here
GMAT Club Bot
Re: By the mid-fourteenth century, professional associations of canon lawy   [#permalink] 11 Aug 2019, 02:50
Display posts from previous: Sort by

By the mid-fourteenth century, professional associations of canon lawy

  new topic post reply Question banks Downloads My Bookmarks Reviews Important topics  





Powered by phpBB © phpBB Group | Emoji artwork provided by EmojiOne