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Cajuns speak a dialect brought to southern Louisiana by the

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Cajuns speak a dialect brought to southern Louisiana by the [#permalink]

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04 Sep 2008, 12:09
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Cajuns speak a dialect brought to southern Louisiana by the 4,000 Acadians who migrated there in 1755; their language is basically seventeenth-century French to which has been added English, Spanish, and Italian words.

(A) to which has been added English, Spanish, and Italian words
(B) added to which is English, Spanish, and Italian words
(C) to which English, Spanish, and Italian words have been added
(D) with English, Spanish, and Italian words having been added to it
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

Last edited by Nevernevergiveup on 12 Nov 2016, 10:31, edited 3 times in total.

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Re: Cajuns speak a dialect brought to southern Louisiana by the [#permalink]

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04 Sep 2008, 12:51
I chose C over E.

E has a a continuous tense and we are describing a one time action here. I do not see a need for have been, If C was not there, E would have been a better answer.

Why did you think C was wrong?

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Re: Cajuns speak a dialect brought to southern Louisiana by the [#permalink]

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04 Sep 2008, 14:09

The OG explanation for why choice (B) is wrong: Verb must be plural; since the action began in the past, the present perfect form 'have been added' is required.

My concern was: why only present perfect form? That's why I wanted to check if there is anything wrong with the simple past form. Hence the tweaking...

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Re: Cajuns speak a dialect brought to southern Louisiana by the [#permalink]

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04 Sep 2008, 14:49
eyunni wrote:

The OG explanation for why choice (B) is wrong: Verb must be plural; since the action began in the past, the present perfect form 'have been added' is required.

My concern was: why only present perfect form? That's why I wanted to check if there is anything wrong with the simple past form. Hence the tweaking...

I absolutely would pick simple past if there is one in the answer. The first part of the sentence (before is clearly NOT in continuous tense. A continuous tense will mean that words are still being added to the language. I don't think thats the intent when you have an answer choice in past tense.

I guess the OG explanation is based on the answer choices that are there. If C were as what it is in the original Q, E is the best answer.

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Re: Cajuns speak a dialect brought to southern Louisiana by the [#permalink]

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11 Dec 2011, 12:02
For me 'E' is the right choice, it removes all the problems.

(A)to which has been added English, Spanish and Italian words ... 'has' is wrong , it should be have. Also this construction is Passive.
(B) added to which is English, Spanish, and Italian words ... 'is' --- is wrong.. it should be are as it refers to 'words'
(C) to which English, Spanish, and Italian words were added
(D) and, in addition, English, Spanish, and Italian words are added --- awkward...
(E) to which English, Spanish, and Italian words have been added ... this language still exists , there have been added is the right verb...
'E' is the right choice.

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Re: Cajuns speak a dialect brought to southern Louisiana by the [#permalink]

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12 Dec 2011, 22:08
This sentence has little change in comparison with the official source. I found it in OG10.

Cajuns speak a dialect brought to southern Louisiana by the four thousand Acadians who migrated there in
1755; their language is basically seventeenth-century French to which has been added English. Spanish.
and Italian words.

(A) to which has been added English, Spanish, and Italian words
(B) added to which is English, Spanish, and Italian words
(C) to which English, Spanish, and Italian words have been added
(D) with English, Spanish, and Italian words having been added to it

OA is C (which is E in the thread maker's sentence)
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Re: Cajuns speak a dialect brought to southern Louisiana by the [#permalink]

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18 Dec 2011, 23:51
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the sentence doesn't demand a present perfect tense because we are not showing the continuity of the activity of adding(that the addition of words is still on)...so i prefer C over E...however in the absence of C(d answer choice with the modification) i will choose present perfect tense....i.e have been....simply because this option is the best out of the rest...
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Re: Cajuns speak a dialect brought to southern Louisiana by [#permalink]

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25 Sep 2012, 11:27
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Concept tested: Parallelism, Pronouns, SV agreement.
Difficulty level: High
Illustration:The main subjects in the underlined portion are the three language words which need
a plural verb.
This instantly eliminates A and B which contain singular verb.
D uses the “having been construction” which is not applicable here (see tip below)
E uses redundant construction by using “added” after the phrase “in addition”.

Tip: The “having been” or “having verb-ed” construction is used to indicate
implications. This can be illustrated with examples.

Having failed in his final exam, John did not get promoted.
Having been ill for a couple of weeks, James could not go attend his music classes.

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Re: Cajuns speak a dialect brought to southern Louisiana by [#permalink]

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26 Sep 2012, 00:30
souvik101990 wrote:
Cajuns speak a dialect brought to southern Louisiana by the four thousand Acadians who migrated there in 1755; their language is basically seventeenth-century French to which has been added English, Spanish and Italian words.

(A) to which has been added English, Spanish and Italian words
(B) added to which is English, Spanish, and Italian words
(C) to which English, Spanish, and Italian words have been added
(D) with English, Spanish, and Italian words having been added to it

(A) to which has been added English, Spanish and Italian words - This expresses passive voice, eliminate it.
(B) added to which is English, Spanish, and Italian words - very awkward , doesn't really make sense.
(C) to which English, Spanish, and Italian words have been added - this surely makes sense and is better than B ; English, Spanish and Italian words have been added to French language.
(D) with English, Spanish, and Italian words having been added to it - having been added is incorrect.
(E) and, in addition, English, Spanish, and Italian words are added - This seems to show that the words are added, and are independent of the French language.
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Re: Cajuns speak a dialect brought to southern Louisiana by the [#permalink]

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14 Oct 2012, 04:10
Concept tested: Parallelism, Pronouns, SV agreement.
Difficulty level: High
Illustration:The main subjects in the underlined portion are the three language words which need
a plural verb.
This instantly eliminates A and B which contain singular verb.
D uses the “having been construction” which is not applicable here (see tip below)
E uses redundant construction by using “added” after the phrase “in addition”.

Tip: The “having been” or “having verb-ed” construction is used to indicate
implications. This can be illustrated with examples.

Having failed in his final exam, John did not get promoted.
Having been ill for a couple of weeks, James could not go attend his music classes.

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Re: Cajuns speak a dialect brought to southern Louisiana by the [#permalink]

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21 Oct 2012, 11:47
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Rahul - Subject in a sentence is person, place or thing that is doing something while object is the one on which the action is being taken.
The easiest way to identify the subject is to first identify the verb and then see who or what is working on the verb and you will get your answer.

I hope this answers your question. Let me know if you are still not clear.

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Re: Cajuns speak a dialect brought to southern Louisiana by the [#permalink]

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21 Oct 2012, 21:24
IndianExpress wrote:
Rahul - Subject in a sentence is person, place or thing that is doing something while object is the one on which the action is being taken.
The easiest way to identify the subject is to first identify the verb and then see who or what is working on the verb and you will get your answer.

I hope this answers your question. Let me know if you are still not clear.

Thanks for the reply. Please find my way of thinking below and why I thought that the subject is singular and should be followed by "has". Please let me know where I went wrong.

Blue = Subject and Red = Verb below
Cajuns speak a dialect brought to southern Louisiana by the four thousand Acadians
who migrated there in 1755;
their language is basically seventeenth-century French to which has been added English, Spanish and Italian words.

So from above language is singular above and should be followed by has isnt it?

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Re: Cajuns speak a dialect brought to southern Louisiana by the [#permalink]

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21 Oct 2012, 21:33
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rahulsn84 wrote:
IndianExpress wrote:
Rahul - Subject in a sentence is person, place or thing that is doing something while object is the one on which the action is being taken.
The easiest way to identify the subject is to first identify the verb and then see who or what is working on the verb and you will get your answer.

I hope this answers your question. Let me know if you are still not clear.

Thanks for the reply. Please find my way of thinking below and why I thought that the subject is singular and should be followed by "has". Please let me know where I went wrong.

Blue = Subject and Red = Verb below
Cajuns speak a dialect brought to southern Louisiana by the four thousand Acadians
who migrated there in 1755;
their language is basically seventeenth-century French to which has been added English, Spanish and Italian words.

So from above language is singular above and should be followed by has isnt it?

We have an additional SV pair in the last clause (as per ur break down analysis). U need to break that and correct it.
their language is basically seventeenth-century French to which has been added English, Spanish and Italian words.

So in the last clause Subject is plural and verb should be have.
Hope it helps
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Re: Cajuns speak a dialect brought to southern Louisiana by the [#permalink]

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13 Dec 2012, 20:49
(A) to which has been added English, Spanish and Italian words
(B) added to which is English, Spanish, and Italian words
(C) to which English, Spanish, and Italian words have been added

Is the use of which correct in all the above options? If yes then what is which referring to?

Hi there,

The relative pronoun "which" correctly refers to "seventeenth-century" French as this is the closest noun to this relative pronoun modifier. It is French to which many words from different languages have been added. Hence, there is no ambiguity in the reference of "which".

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
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Cajuns speak a dialect brought to southern Louisiana by the [#permalink]

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27 Apr 2013, 00:22
Cajuns speak a dialect brought to southern Louisiana by the four thousand Acadians who migrated there in 1755; their language is basically seventeenth-century French to which has been added English, Spanish and Italian words.

(A) to which has been added English, Spanish and Italian words
(B) added to which is English, Spanish, and Italian words
(C) to which English, Spanish, and Italian words have been added
(D) to which English, Spanish, and Italian words having been added to it

Hi Experts,

I would like to understand the following doubts:

1- What kind of construction is this? to which has been added English, Spanish and Italian words.
2- In choice D, what is the error. Also, having been added to it is Noun Modifier, Is it modifying Italian words or English,Spanish and Italian words combined.

Regards,
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P.S
Since I couldn't find satisfactory explanation of this question, I thought of posting it as a new post. Moreover, the question posted earlier has some tweaks involved and that wasn't serving purpose.
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Re: Cajuns speak a dialect brought to southern Louisiana [#permalink]

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27 Apr 2013, 01:47
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I would like to understand the following doubts:
1- What kind of construction is this? to which has been added English, Spanish and Italian words.

Hi imhimanshu. I'm not an expert, but just want to share my understanding.

There are two types of "which" modifier.
(1) Noun + which + Verb;
(2) Noun + Preposition (on/in/by) + which + Clause.

Examples:
Type (1): The table which is near the door is broken. ==> After Which is Verb
Type (2): The table on which the cat lies ==> After Which is Noun

In your question, "their language is basically seventeenth-century French to which has been added English, Spanish and Italian words". You can see the grammar is wrong because "To + Which + Verb" is incorrect grammar.
The correct one should be:
"their language is basically seventeenth-century French to which English, Spanish and Italian words have been added."
OR
"their language is basically seventeenth-century French which has been added English, Spanish and Italian words to."

Quote:
2- In choice D, what is the error. Also, having been added to it is Noun Modifier, Is it modifying Italian words or English,Spanish and Italian words combined.

D is wrong because:
- "have been added" is wrong modifier because English, Spanish and Italian words cannot add to French by themselves, they must be added ==> The use of "V+ing" modifier is wrong.
- The use of "it" at the end is redundant. It should be eliminated.

Hope my post helps.
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Re: Cajuns speak a dialect brought to southern Louisiana [#permalink]

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27 Apr 2013, 02:23
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I am no great expert either, but still may I join the party?
First thing, which or to which, in essence means the same thing and has no impact on what follows. Coming to the structure part of this sentence, this just a reversed form of writing wherein the verb appears before the simple subject or the compound subject as in this case. All compound subjects are as a matter of rule are plural nouns.
Now we can see each choice in terms of subject-verb agreement and redundancy.

(A) to which has been added English, Spanish and Italian words --- to which English, Spanish and Italian words has been added; has been doesn’t tally with the plural and compound subject - English, Spanish and Italian words

(B) added to which is English, Spanish, and Italian words ---- English, Spanish, and Italian words is added to which ( which refers to French ) S-V error

(C) to which English, Spanish, and Italian words have been added --- English, Spanish, and Italian words have been added to which --( which refers to French )- the right one

(D) to which English, Spanish, and Italian words having been added to it----- English, Spanish, and Italian words having been added to it, to which; In addition having been added is no complete verb -- the expression, ‘to which and to it’ muddles the structure by redundancy

(E) and, in addition, English, Spanish, and Italian words are added ----- and, in addition, English, Spanish, and Italian words are added ‘In addition are added is sheer redundancy The second doubt is whether those words are still being added. There is no idea about the same in the choice

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Re: Cajuns speak a dialect brought to southern Louisiana by the [#permalink]

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12 Sep 2013, 09:02
nmohindru wrote:
eyunni wrote:
Cajuns speak a dialect brought to southern Louisiana by the four thousand Acadians who migrated there in 1755; their language is basically seventeenth-century French to which has been added English, Spanish and Italian words.
(A) to which has been added English, Spanish and Italian words
(B) added to which is English, Spanish, and Italian words
(C) to which English, Spanish, and Italian words were added
(E) to which English, Spanish, and Italian words have been added

One choice is slightly tweaked to make life difficult. Please explain your choice.

IMO C).

E) uses present perfect which means action is still happening. However this dialect was "brought" in 1755.

Yes they were "brought" but does that also mean that the language is not spoken anymore or dosent have any effect??

Narrowed down to C and E.

Edit-- This is not a correct answer in Offcial guide 12 Question-129 the answer is E..... "have been added" usage is correct.
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Re: Cajuns speak a dialect brought to southern Louisiana by the [#permalink]

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13 Sep 2013, 11:31
Dhairya275 wrote:
The answer is incorrect. Its QG 12 Ques 129.

The QA is E.

Please correct the QA so that others aren't missed guided.

Yes, I'd like to confirm OA is E for this question.

Other version of this question is:

Cajuns speak a dialect brought to southern Louisiana by the four thousand Acadians who migrated there in 1755; their language is basically seventeenth-century French to which has been added English, Spanish and Italian words.

(A) to which has been added English, Spanish and Italian words
(B) added to which is English, Spanish, and Italian words
(C) to which English, Spanish, and Italian words have been added ==> CORRECT.
(D) with English, Spanish, and Italian words having been added to it

OA is C.

But in the question we're discussing, the order of the OA is switched.

Hope it's clear now.
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Re: Cajuns speak a dialect brought to southern Louisiana by the [#permalink]

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13 Sep 2013, 12:35
suyash23n wrote:
pqhai wrote:
Dhairya275 wrote:
The answer is incorrect. Its QG 12 Ques 129.

The QA is E.

Please correct the QA so that others aren't missed guided.

Yes, I'd like to confirm OA is E for this question.

Other version of this question is:

Cajuns speak a dialect brought to southern Louisiana by the four thousand Acadians who migrated there in 1755; their language is basically seventeenth-century French to which has been added English, Spanish and Italian words.

(A) to which has been added English, Spanish and Italian words
(B) added to which is English, Spanish, and Italian words
(C) to which English, Spanish, and Italian words have been added ==> CORRECT.
(D) with English, Spanish, and Italian words having been added to it

OA is C.

But in the question we're discussing, the order of the OA is switched.

Hope it's clear now.

For the question posted, i would go for C. I can't understand why present perfect is used. However, i see in the OG, we do not have same options as they are in the original post ( already mentioned by the author), and hence want to know, if we use "were" instead of "are", would you still prefer option E.
It would be great if you can explain.

Hi suyash23n

If we replace "were" by "are, the sentence is still incorrect. We use "are" on if we want to mention an action at present (present tense). However, the fact that other languages added into seventeenth-century French happened in the PAST. The action "adding" is still continuous to present. ==> ONLY Present perfect tense is correct. Both simple past and simple present are incorrect.

Hope it helps.
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Re: Cajuns speak a dialect brought to southern Louisiana by the   [#permalink] 13 Sep 2013, 12:35

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