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# Candidate: The government spends \$500 more each year

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Director
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Candidate: The government spends \$500 more each year  [#permalink]

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15 Jan 2010, 00:01
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Difficulty:

95% (hard)

Question Stats:

29% (02:39) correct 71% (02:47) wrong based on 691 sessions

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Candidate: The government spends \$500 more each year promoting highway safety than it spends combating cigarette smoking. But each year many more people die from smoking smoking-related diseases than die highway accidents. So the government would save lives by shifting funds from highway safety programs to antismoking programs.

The flawed reasoning in which one of the following arguments most closely parallels the flawed reasoning in the candidate's argument?

A. The government enforces the speed limit on freeways much more closely than on tollways. But many more people die each year in auto accidents on freeways than die on auto accidents on tollways. So the government would save lives by shifting funds from enforcement of speed limits on freeways to enforcement of speed limits on tollways.

B. A certain professional musician spends several times as many hours practicing guitar as she spends practicing saxophone. But she is hired much more often to play saxophone than to play guitar, so she would increase her number of playing engagements by spending less time practicing guitar and more time practicing saxophone.

C. Automobiles burn more gas per minute on highways than on residential streets. But they get fewer miles per gallon on residential streets. Therefore, gas would be saved by driving less on residential streets Therefore, gas would be saved by driving less on residential streets and more on highways.

D. The local swim team spends many more hours practicing the backstroke than it spends practicing the breaststroke. But the team's lap time for the breaststroke are much better than its times for the backstroke, so the team would win more swim meets if it spent less time practicing the backstroke and more time practicing the breaststroke.

E. Banks have higher profit margin on loans that have a higher interest rate than on loans that have a low interest rate. But borrowers are willing to borrow larger sums at low rates than at high rates. Therefore, bankds would be more profitable if they gave more loans at low rates and fewer loans at high rates.
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Candidate: The government spends \$500 more each year  [#permalink]

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13 Jan 2011, 07:17
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Candidate: The government spends \$500 more each year promoting highway safety than it spends combating cigarette smoking. But each year many more people die from smoking smoking-related diseases than die highway accidents. So the government would save lives by shifting funds from highway safety programs to antismoking programs.

The flawed reasoning in which one of the following arguments most closely parallels the flawed reasoning in the candidate's argument?

A. The government enforces the speed limit on freeways much more closely than on tollways. But many more people die each year in auto accidents on freeways than die on auto accidents on tollways. So the government would save lives by shifting funds from enforcement of speed limits on freeways to enforcement of speed limits on tollways.

B. A certain professional musician spends several times as many hours practicing guitar as she spends practicing saxophone. But she is hired much more often to play saxophone than to play guitar, so she would increase her number of playing engagements by spending less time practicing guitar and more time practicing saxophone.

C. Automobiles burn more gas per minute on highways than on residential streets. But they get fewer miles per gallon on residential streets. Therefore, gas would be saved by driving less on residential streets Therefore, gas would be saved by driving less on residential streets and more on highways.

D. The local swim team spends many more hours practicing the backstroke than it spends practicing the breaststroke. But the team's lap time for the breaststroke are much better than its times for the backstroke, so the team would win more swim meets if it spent less time practicing the backstroke and more time practicing the breaststroke.

E. Banks have higher profit margin on loans that have a higher interest rate than on loans that have a low interest rate. But borrowers are willing to borrow larger sums at low rates than at high rates. Therefore, bankds would be more profitable if they gave more loans at low rates and fewer loans at high rates.
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Re: The government spends \$500 million more each year  [#permalink]

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15 Jan 2010, 12:15
Guys I am extremely weak in this kind of questions... can somebody explain how to approach this kind of questions?
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Re: The government spends \$500 million more each year  [#permalink]

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16 Jan 2010, 11:20
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joemama142000 wrote:
Candidate: The government spends \$500 more each year promoting highway safety than it spends combating cigarette smoking. But each year many more people die from smoking smoking-related diseases than die highway accidents. So the government would save lives by shifting funds from highway safety programs to antismoking programs.

The flawed reasoning in which one of the following arguments most closely parallels the flawed reasoning in the candidate's argument?

A. The government enforces the speed limit on freeways much more closely than on tollways. But many more people die each year in auto accidents on freeways than die on auto accidents on tollways. So the government would save lives by shifting funds from enforcement of speed limits on freeways to enforcement of speed limits on tollways.

B. A certain professional musician spends several times as many hours practicing guitar as she spends practicing saxophone. But she is hired much more often to play saxophone than to play guitar, so she would increase her number of playing engagements by spending less time practicing guitar and more time practicing saxophone.

C. Automobiles burn more gas per minute on highways than on residential streets. But they get fewer miles per gallon on residential streets. Therefore, gas would be saved by driving less on residential streets Therefore, gas would be saved by driving less on residential streets and more on highways.

D. The local swim team spends many more hours practicing the backstroke than it spends practicing the breaststroke. But the team's lap time for the breaststroke are much better than its times for the backstroke, so the team would win more swim meets if it spent less time practicing the backstroke and more time practicing the breaststroke.

E. Banks have higher profit margin on loans that have a higher interest rate than on loans that have a low interest rate. But borrowers are willing to borrow larger sums at low rates than at high rates. Therefore, bankds would be more profitable if they gave more loans at low rates and fewer loans at high rates.

IMO B....

Approach:
You need to parallel the reasoning given in the stem with the reasoning given in the answers. The error in the reason available in the answers should also be the same as error in the reason of the stem. These questions are based on the organisation of the arguement and not the content.

Stem understanding:
P1 = Govt spends more on Highway safety than Combating Smoking
P2 = People die more because of Smoking than on Highway accident
CN = Hence Govt should shift funds from Highway Safety to Combating Smoking

(A)
P1 = Govt enforces speed limit more closely on Freeways than on Tollways
P2 = But people still die more on Freeways than on Tollways
CN = Govt should shift funds from Freeways to Tollways.
Logically this structure is not the same as the ques stem because the answer is asking you to shift the funds even if the accidents are more on Freeway. This is not analogous to the reasoning in Stem.
Hence INCORRECT

(B)
P1 = Musiciain spends more hours practising guitar than saxaphone
P2 = But she is hired to play more of Saxaphone than guitar
CN = Hence she should practise less of guitar and more of Saxaphone
Same structure as stem. Hence CORRECT

(C)
P1 = Automobiles burn more gas on highway than on residential streets
P2 = But on residential streets you get few miles per gallon than Highways
CN = Hence gas would saved by driving less on residential streets and more on Highways
Logically this structure is not the same as the ques stem because the answer is comparing gas usage and miles per gallon (2 factors) to reach the conclusion. This is not analogous to the reasoning in Stem.
Hence INCORRECT

(D)
P1 = Swim teams prac more of backstrokes than breast stroke
P2 = Swim team has better timing in breast stroke than back stroke
CN = Hence team would win more swim meets if they prac more on backstroke.
Logically this structure is not the same as the ques stem because the answer is asking the team to practise more of backstroke since the team already has a good timing in breast stroke. This is not analogous to the reasoning in Stem.
Hence INCORRECT

(E)
P1 = Banks have more profit margin on loans with higher rates than loans with lower rates
P2 = But loans with high amount and with lower rates are preferred by borrowers
CN = Hence Banks would be more profitable if they give more loans with lower rates and few loans with higher rates
Logically this structure is not the same as the ques stem. This is not analogous to the reasoning in Stem.
Hence INCORRECT
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Re: The government spends \$500 million more each year  [#permalink]

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16 Jan 2010, 11:22
SudiptoGmat wrote:
Guys I am extremely weak in this kind of questions... can somebody explain how to approach this kind of questions?

Try using Powerscore - CR Bible! It is a perfect book to learn all types of CR questions! Link: http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0972129634?ie=UTF8&tag=gmatclub-20&linkCode=as2&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=0972129634
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13 Jan 2011, 07:22
First I tried to identify the Flaw in the reasoning and then tried to find an option which had an identical flaw
The government spends \$500 more each year promoting highway safety than it spends combating cigarette smoking. But each year many more people die from smoking smoking-related diseases than die highway accidents. So the government would save lives by shifting funds from highway safety programs to antismoking programs.
The argument overlooks the possiblity that less fatalities on the Highways could have been a result of the extra funds that the govt spends on the Highways
But i didnt find any option which had an identical Flaw so at the end with D .
Can Someone help me understand this pt.
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13 Jan 2011, 22:24
My answer is A..I think its very clear.
But the OA is given as B.
Can anyone explain the reasoning behind this.??
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17 Jan 2011, 17:45
Fact1: Govt spends \$500mill more on HS than CS.
Fact2: CS claims more lives than HS
Conc: Govt would save lives [less claimed lives] by spending less on HS and more on CS.
Goal: Claim less lives - Does our conc. meet this goal with support of facts? Yes.

(B) Fact1: Musician spends more hours on G than S.
Fact2: Gets more jobs for S than G
Conc: Get more jobs by spending less hours on G and more on S
Goal: Get more jobs - Does our conc. meet this goal with support of facts? Yes.

(D) Fact1: Swim team spends more hours on backstroke than breaststroke
Fact2: Breaststroke times are better than backstroke times
Conc: Win more meets by spending less time on backstroke & more time on breaststroke.
Goal: Win more meets - Does our conc. meet this goal with support of facts? No.

(D) clearly misses the point in connecting Conc. with with Fact2.
Conc deals with winning races, Fact2 deals with better times.
There is no stated fact that better times lead to more winned races.
In Stimulus and (B) the conclusion, while flawed, is based off stated facts..
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19 Jan 2011, 05:08
Thanks for the explanation onedayill. I went with D as well.
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13 Apr 2011, 22:48
I was a bit confused too. Good explanation onedayill, thanks.
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25 Apr 2011, 08:23
i still dont perform well on these flawed reasoning questions , this kind of questions irritate me.@onedayill , i think your reasoning and method makes sense. thanks for explaining the method
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25 May 2011, 07:58
between B and D I always end up picking up D.
Guess swimming is better than playing a guitar.
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Re: Candidate: The government spends \$500 more each year  [#permalink]

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10 Jul 2012, 09:02
Diagramming is also an effective way of elucidating parallel reasoning problems.

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Re: Candidate: The government spends \$500 more each year  [#permalink]

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04 Jul 2016, 20:19
Quite Tricky. Got the answer B but took me 4.15 mins.
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Re: Candidate: The government spends \$500 more each year  [#permalink]

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23 Dec 2016, 00:03
jeeteshsingh wrote:
joemama142000 wrote:
Candidate: The government spends \$500 more each year promoting highway safety than it spends combating cigarette smoking. But each year many more people die from smoking smoking-related diseases than die highway accidents. So the government would save lives by shifting funds from highway safety programs to antismoking programs.

The flawed reasoning in which one of the following arguments most closely parallels the flawed reasoning in the candidate's argument?

A. The government enforces the speed limit on freeways much more closely than on tollways. But many more people die each year in auto accidents on freeways than die on auto accidents on tollways. So the government would save lives by shifting funds from enforcement of speed limits on freeways to enforcement of speed limits on tollways.

B. A certain professional musician spends several times as many hours practicing guitar as she spends practicing saxophone. But she is hired much more often to play saxophone than to play guitar, so she would increase her number of playing engagements by spending less time practicing guitar and more time practicing saxophone.

C. Automobiles burn more gas per minute on highways than on residential streets. But they get fewer miles per gallon on residential streets. Therefore, gas would be saved by driving less on residential streets Therefore, gas would be saved by driving less on residential streets and more on highways.

D. The local swim team spends many more hours practicing the backstroke than it spends practicing the breaststroke. But the team's lap time for the breaststroke are much better than its times for the backstroke, so the team would win more swim meets if it spent less time practicing the backstroke and more time practicing the breaststroke.

E. Banks have higher profit margin on loans that have a higher interest rate than on loans that have a low interest rate. But borrowers are willing to borrow larger sums at low rates than at high rates. Therefore, bankds would be more profitable if they gave more loans at low rates and fewer loans at high rates.

IMO B....

Approach:
You need to parallel the reasoning given in the stem with the reasoning given in the answers. The error in the reason available in the answers should also be the same as error in the reason of the stem. These questions are based on the organisation of the arguement and not the content.

Stem understanding:
P1 = Govt spends more on Highway safety than Combating Smoking
P2 = People die more because of Smoking than on Highway accident
CN = Hence Govt should shift funds from Highway Safety to Combating Smoking

(A)
P1 = Govt enforces speed limit more closely on Freeways than on Tollways
P2 = But people still die more on Freeways than on Tollways
CN = Govt should shift funds from Freeways to Tollways.
Logically this structure is not the same as the ques stem because the answer is asking you to shift the funds even if the accidents are more on Freeway. This is not analogous to the reasoning in Stem.
Hence INCORRECT

(B)
P1 = Musiciain spends more hours practising guitar than saxaphone
P2 = But she is hired to play more of Saxaphone than guitar
CN = Hence she should practise less of guitar and more of Saxaphone
Same structure as stem. Hence CORRECT

(C)
P1 = Automobiles burn more gas on highway than on residential streets
P2 = But on residential streets you get few miles per gallon than Highways
CN = Hence gas would saved by driving less on residential streets and more on Highways
Logically this structure is not the same as the ques stem because the answer is comparing gas usage and miles per gallon (2 factors) to reach the conclusion. This is not analogous to the reasoning in Stem.
Hence INCORRECT

(D)
P1 = Swim teams prac more of backstrokes than breast stroke
P2 = Swim team has better timing in breast stroke than back stroke
CN = Hence team would win more swim meets if they prac more on backstroke.
Logically this structure is not the same as the ques stem because the answer is asking the team to practise more of backstroke since the team already has a good timing in breast stroke. This is not analogous to the reasoning in Stem.
Hence INCORRECT

(E)
P1 = Banks have more profit margin on loans with higher rates than loans with lower rates
P2 = But loans with high amount and with lower rates are preferred by borrowers
CN = Hence Banks would be more profitable if they give more loans with lower rates and few loans with higher rates
Logically this structure is not the same as the ques stem. This is not analogous to the reasoning in Stem.
Hence INCORRECT

great explaination! helps a lot!
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Re: Candidate: The government spends \$500 more each year  [#permalink]

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09 Feb 2017, 00:56
I am confused between B and C. Why is C incorrect?
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Candidate: The government spends \$500 more each year  [#permalink]

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12 Feb 2017, 03:28
2
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Shreyaa21 wrote:
I am confused between B and C. Why is C incorrect?

The passage is about a choice between two options - it suggests that the choice should be made on the basis of the return that would be possible by investing in that option. But the flaw in this argument could be a wrong estimation of the return. It is possible that the anti-smoking investment would not be able influence people as effectively as a high-way safety campaign does so the reduction in number of deaths as expected would not be achieved.

Option B shows a similar flaw - the investment (time of practicing) in saxophone may not bring in the return (more engagements) one estimates. It is possible that the people who come to listen to saxophone programs is already nearly at its peak level. Further betterment of the saxophone skill may not draw more listeners as expected.

Thus B is similar to the passage.

However you would not be able to find such a flaw in option C. If you drive on highways you would definitely save more fuel. There is no flaw in this.

Another way of looking at the problem:
The passage and option B are about making a choice. But option C is not about making a choice - if a person needs to travel to a different city, he would require to take a highway and if he wants to go to the market, he has to take residential streets. There is no choice involved in option C - if someone wants to go to market, he cannot take a highway and if one wants to go to a different city, he cannot take residential streets.
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Re: Candidate: The government spends \$500 more each year  [#permalink]

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12 Feb 2017, 05:36
sayantanc2k wrote:
Shreyaa21 wrote:
I am confused between B and C. Why is C incorrect?

The passage is about a choice between two options - it suggests that the choice should be made on the basis of the return that would be possible by investing in that option. But the flaw in this argument could be a wrong estimation of the return. It is possible that the anti-smoking investment would not be able influence people as effectively as a high-way safety campaign does so the reduction in number of deaths as expected would not be achieved.

Option B shows a similar flaw - the investment (time of practicing) in saxophone may not bring in the return (more engagements) one estimates. It is possible that the people who come to listen to saxophone programs is already nearly at its peak level. Further betterment of the saxophone skill may not draw more listeners as expected.

Thus B is similar to the passage.

However you would not be able to find such a flaw in option C. If you drive on highways you would definitely save more fuel. There is no flaw in this.

Another way of looking at the problem:
The passage and option B are about making a choice. But option C is not about making a choice - if a person needs to travel to a different city, he would require to take a highway and if he wants to go to the market, he has to take residential streets. There is no choice involved in option C - if someone wants to go to market, he cannot take a highway and if one wants to go to a different city, he cannot take residential streets.

Also, abstraction is the key here, problem D has the same abstraction as the passage, but there is no flaw in the choice D,
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Re: Candidate: The government spends \$500 more each year  [#permalink]

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14 Jun 2017, 04:40
jullysabat wrote:
My answer is A..I think its very clear.
But the OA is given as B.
Can anyone explain the reasoning behind this.??

option A is clear opposite. read it carefully
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Candidate: The government spends \$500 more each year  [#permalink]

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04 Sep 2017, 15:22
1
Did anyone realize that the mistake of D lies within the swap of breaststrokes and backsteokes?
It would be correct if it stated that the time of backstrokes were better than the time of breaststrokes, however, it states the situation the other way aroung. I guess this is the true reason why D is false.

Please correct me if I am wrong

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Candidate: The government spends \$500 more each year   [#permalink] 04 Sep 2017, 15:22

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