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Candidate: The government spends $500 more each year

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Candidate: The government spends $500 more each year [#permalink]

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New post 13 Jan 2011, 08:17
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Candidate: The government spends $500 more each year promoting highway safety than it spends combating cigarette smoking. But each year many more people die from smoking smoking-related diseases than die highway accidents. So the government would save lives by shifting funds from highway safety programs to antismoking programs.

The flawed reasoning in which one of the following arguments most closely parallels the flawed reasoning in the candidate's argument?

A. The government enforces the speed limit on freeways much more closely than on tollways. But many more people die each year in auto accidents on freeways than die on auto accidents on tollways. So the government would save lives by shifting funds from enforcement of speed limits on freeways to enforcement of speed limits on tollways.

B. A certain professional musician spends several times as many hours practicing guitar as she spends practicing saxophone. But she is hired much more often to play saxophone than to play guitar, so she would increase her number of playing engagements by spending less time practicing guitar and more time practicing saxophone.

C. Automobiles burn more gas per minute on highways than on residential streets. But they get fewer miles per gallon on residential streets. Therefore, gas would be saved by driving less on residential streets Therefore, gas would be saved by driving less on residential streets and more on highways.

D. The local swim team spends many more hours practicing the backstroke than it spends practicing the breaststroke. But the team's lap time for the breaststroke are much better than its times for the backstroke, so the team would win more swim meets if it spent less time practicing the backstroke and more time practicing the breaststroke.

E. Banks have higher profit margin on loans that have a higher interest rate than on loans that have a low interest rate. But borrowers are willing to borrow larger sums at low rates than at high rates. Therefore, bankds would be more profitable if they gave more loans at low rates and fewer loans at high rates.
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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Re: Parallel Reasoning [#permalink]

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New post 13 Jan 2011, 08:22
First I tried to identify the Flaw in the reasoning and then tried to find an option which had an identical flaw
The government spends $500 more each year promoting highway safety than it spends combating cigarette smoking. But each year many more people die from smoking smoking-related diseases than die highway accidents. So the government would save lives by shifting funds from highway safety programs to antismoking programs.
The argument overlooks the possiblity that less fatalities on the Highways could have been a result of the extra funds that the govt spends on the Highways
But i didnt find any option which had an identical Flaw so at the end with D .
Can Someone help me understand this pt.
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Re: Parallel Reasoning [#permalink]

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New post 13 Jan 2011, 23:24
My answer is A..I think its very clear.
But the OA is given as B.
Can anyone explain the reasoning behind this.??

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Re: Parallel Reasoning [#permalink]

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New post 17 Jan 2011, 18:45
Fact1: Govt spends $500mill more on HS than CS.
Fact2: CS claims more lives than HS
Conc: Govt would save lives [less claimed lives] by spending less on HS and more on CS.
Goal: Claim less lives - Does our conc. meet this goal with support of facts? Yes.


(B) Fact1: Musician spends more hours on G than S.
Fact2: Gets more jobs for S than G
Conc: Get more jobs by spending less hours on G and more on S
Goal: Get more jobs - Does our conc. meet this goal with support of facts? Yes.

(D) Fact1: Swim team spends more hours on backstroke than breaststroke
Fact2: Breaststroke times are better than backstroke times
Conc: Win more meets by spending less time on backstroke & more time on breaststroke.
Goal: Win more meets - Does our conc. meet this goal with support of facts? No.

(D) clearly misses the point in connecting Conc. with with Fact2.
Conc deals with winning races, Fact2 deals with better times.
There is no stated fact that better times lead to more winned races.
In Stimulus and (B) the conclusion, while flawed, is based off stated facts..
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Re: Parallel Reasoning [#permalink]

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New post 19 Jan 2011, 06:08
Thanks for the explanation onedayill. I went with D as well.

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Re: Parallel Reasoning [#permalink]

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New post 13 Apr 2011, 22:22
The answer is B.
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Re: Parallel Reasoning [#permalink]

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New post 13 Apr 2011, 23:48
I was a bit confused too. Good explanation onedayill, thanks.
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Re: Parallel Reasoning [#permalink]

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New post 25 Apr 2011, 09:23
i still dont perform well on these flawed reasoning questions , this kind of questions irritate me.@onedayill , i think your reasoning and method makes sense. thanks for explaining the method
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Re: Parallel Reasoning [#permalink]

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New post 25 May 2011, 08:58
between B and D I always end up picking up D.
Guess swimming is better than playing a guitar. :)
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Re: Candidate: The government spends $500 more each year [#permalink]

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Re: Candidate: The government spends $500 more each year [#permalink]

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New post 04 Jul 2016, 21:19
Quite Tricky. Got the answer B but took me 4.15 mins.

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Re: Candidate: The government spends $500 more each year [#permalink]

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New post 09 Feb 2017, 01:56
I am confused between B and C. Why is C incorrect?

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Candidate: The government spends $500 more each year [#permalink]

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Shreyaa21 wrote:
I am confused between B and C. Why is C incorrect?



The passage is about a choice between two options - it suggests that the choice should be made on the basis of the return that would be possible by investing in that option. But the flaw in this argument could be a wrong estimation of the return. It is possible that the anti-smoking investment would not be able influence people as effectively as a high-way safety campaign does so the reduction in number of deaths as expected would not be achieved.

Option B shows a similar flaw - the investment (time of practicing) in saxophone may not bring in the return (more engagements) one estimates. It is possible that the people who come to listen to saxophone programs is already nearly at its peak level. Further betterment of the saxophone skill may not draw more listeners as expected.

Thus B is similar to the passage.

However you would not be able to find such a flaw in option C. If you drive on highways you would definitely save more fuel. There is no flaw in this.

Another way of looking at the problem:
The passage and option B are about making a choice. But option C is not about making a choice - if a person needs to travel to a different city, he would require to take a highway and if he wants to go to the market, he has to take residential streets. There is no choice involved in option C - if someone wants to go to market, he cannot take a highway and if one wants to go to a different city, he cannot take residential streets.

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Re: Candidate: The government spends $500 more each year [#permalink]

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sayantanc2k wrote:
Shreyaa21 wrote:
I am confused between B and C. Why is C incorrect?



The passage is about a choice between two options - it suggests that the choice should be made on the basis of the return that would be possible by investing in that option. But the flaw in this argument could be a wrong estimation of the return. It is possible that the anti-smoking investment would not be able influence people as effectively as a high-way safety campaign does so the reduction in number of deaths as expected would not be achieved.

Option B shows a similar flaw - the investment (time of practicing) in saxophone may not bring in the return (more engagements) one estimates. It is possible that the people who come to listen to saxophone programs is already nearly at its peak level. Further betterment of the saxophone skill may not draw more listeners as expected.

Thus B is similar to the passage.

However you would not be able to find such a flaw in option C. If you drive on highways you would definitely save more fuel. There is no flaw in this.

Another way of looking at the problem:
The passage and option B are about making a choice. But option C is not about making a choice - if a person needs to travel to a different city, he would require to take a highway and if he wants to go to the market, he has to take residential streets. There is no choice involved in option C - if someone wants to go to market, he cannot take a highway and if one wants to go to a different city, he cannot take residential streets.



Also, abstraction is the key here, problem D has the same abstraction as the passage, but there is no flaw in the choice D,

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Re: Candidate: The government spends $500 more each year [#permalink]

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New post 14 Jun 2017, 05:40
jullysabat wrote:
My answer is A..I think its very clear.
But the OA is given as B.
Can anyone explain the reasoning behind this.??


option A is clear opposite. read it carefully

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Candidate: The government spends $500 more each year [#permalink]

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New post 04 Sep 2017, 16:22
Did anyone realize that the mistake of D lies within the swap of breaststrokes and backsteokes?
It would be correct if it stated that the time of backstrokes were better than the time of breaststrokes, however, it states the situation the other way aroung. I guess this is the true reason why D is false.

Please correct me if I am wrong :)

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Candidate: The government spends $500 more each year   [#permalink] 04 Sep 2017, 16:22
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