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Choi : all other factors being equal, children whose parents [#permalink]

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09 Nov 2008, 02:48

00:00

A

B

C

D

E

Difficulty:

(N/A)

Question Stats:

100% (00:00) correct
0% (00:00) wrong based on 0 sessions

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Choi: all other factors being equal, children whose parents earned doctorates are more likely to earn a doctorate than children whose parents did not earn doctorates.

hart: But consider this: over 70% of all doctorate holders do not have a parent that also holds a doctorate.

Which of the following is the most accurate evaluation of Hart's reply?

(A) It establishes that Choi's claim is an exaggeration. (B) If true, it effectively demonstrates that Choi's Claim cannot be accurate. (C) It is consistent with Choi's Claim. (D) It provides alternative reasons for accepting Choi's Claim. (E) It mistakes what is necessary for an event with what is sufficient to determine that the event will occur.

If 70% cases is true for all those doctorate who don't have any doctorate parents, rest 30% follows the rule that is stated by choi. So provides alternate support to choi's claim.
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If You're Not Living On The Edge, You're Taking Up Too Much Space

This one does smell somewhat LSAT-like, but the percent-of-an-unknown-base aspect is a typical GMAT technique.

The answer is C. Because we know nothing about how many parents have and do not have doctorates, we cannot conclude anything about what proportion of students with doctorates have either type of parent. Suppose that 10% of students whose parents do NOT have doctorates earn doctorates, while 20% of students whose parents do have doctorates earn doctorates. This is consistent with Choi's claim. Now suppose that there are 710 parents who do NOT have doctorates, and 150 parents who do have doctorates. This also is consistent with Choi's claim, because he/she says nothing about how many there are in each group.

In this situation, 71 students whose parents don't have doctorates earn doctorates, and 30 students whose parents do have doctorates earn doctorates. This is what Hart is saying. Thus, Hart's statement is consistent with Choi's claim.

It is critical to realize that "consistent with" means "does not contradict". It does NOT mean "proves" or "is proven by". "Consistent with" means that a statement CAN be true at the same time as the other statement, but does not HAVE to be. You are definitely more likely to see "consistent with" on the LSAT than on the GMAT.

The other answer choices: E is incorrect because neither person says that anything is a necessary condition. Choi certainly doesn't say that you MUST have a parent with a doctorate in order to get one. D is incorrect because the only possible reason for accepting Choi's claim would be information that tells us the two ratios: the percent of children of PhDs who get PhDs, and the percent of children of nonPhDs who get PhDs. D does not tell us this. In fact, because "over 70%" can mean "100%", it allows the possibility of Choi's claim being false.
_________________

This one does smell somewhat LSAT-like, but the percent-of-an-unknown-base aspect is a typical GMAT technique.

The answer is C. Because we know nothing about how many parents have and do not have doctorates, we cannot conclude anything about what proportion of students with doctorates have either type of parent. Suppose that 10% of students whose parents do NOT have doctorates earn doctorates, while 20% of students whose parents do have doctorates earn doctorates. This is consistent with Choi's claim. Now suppose that there are 710 parents who do NOT have doctorates, and 150 parents who do have doctorates. This also is consistent with Choi's claim, because he/she says nothing about how many there are in each group.

In this situation, 71 students whose parents don't have doctorates earn doctorates, and 30 students whose parents do have doctorates earn doctorates. This is what Hart is saying. Thus, Hart's statement is consistent with Choi's claim.

It is critical to realize that "consistent with" means "does not contradict". It does NOT mean "proves" or "is proven by". "Consistent with" means that a statement CAN be true at the same time as the other statement, but does not HAVE to be. You are definitely more likely to see "consistent with" on the LSAT than on the GMAT.

The other answer choices: E is incorrect because neither person says that anything is a necessary condition. Choi certainly doesn't say that you MUST have a parent with a doctorate in order to get one. D is incorrect because the only possible reason for accepting Choi's claim would be information that tells us the two ratios: the percent of children of PhDs who get PhDs, and the percent of children of nonPhDs who get PhDs. D does not tell us this. In fact, because "over 70%" can mean "100%", it allows the possibility of Choi's claim being false.

This one does smell somewhat LSAT-like, but the percent-of-an-unknown-base aspect is a typical GMAT technique.

The answer is C. Because we know nothing about how many parents have and do not have doctorates, we cannot conclude anything about what proportion of students with doctorates have either type of parent. Suppose that 10% of students whose parents do NOT have doctorates earn doctorates, while 20% of students whose parents do have doctorates earn doctorates. This is consistent with Choi's claim. Now suppose that there are 710 parents who do NOT have doctorates, and 150 parents who do have doctorates. This also is consistent with Choi's claim, because he/she says nothing about how many there are in each group.

In this situation, 71 students whose parents don't have doctorates earn doctorates, and 30 students whose parents do have doctorates earn doctorates. This is what Hart is saying. Thus, Hart's statement is consistent with Choi's claim.

It is critical to realize that "consistent with" means "does not contradict". It does NOT mean "proves" or "is proven by". "Consistent with" means that a statement CAN be true at the same time as the other statement, but does not HAVE to be. You are definitely more likely to see "consistent with" on the LSAT than on the GMAT.

The other answer choices: E is incorrect because neither person says that anything is a necessary condition. Choi certainly doesn't say that you MUST have a parent with a doctorate in order to get one. D is incorrect because the only possible reason for accepting Choi's claim would be information that tells us the two ratios: the percent of children of PhDs who get PhDs, and the percent of children of nonPhDs who get PhDs. D does not tell us this. In fact, because "over 70%" can mean "100%", it allows the possibility of Choi's claim being false.

This one was definitely beyond my imagination. I still did not understand the explanation. what confused me more was the total number of students came to 101 as opposed to 100 when we deal with percentages. Any different explanation?

Excellent explanation by grumpy. I chose C, but, by the time, I read E, I forgot C and zeroed down on E. However, this explanation has helped understand the context of "necessary/sufficient".

Sorry about the numbers in my explanation; I should have made them add to 100. Use 710 parents without PhDs, and 145 parents with PhDs. This results in 71 children of non-PhD parents earning doctorates, and 29 children of PhD parents. The reasoning and the selected answer remain the same.
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