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Citing the frequency with which gum disease and heart

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Citing the frequency with which gum disease and heart [#permalink]

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Citing the frequency with which gum disease and heart disease occur in the same patients, many dentists believe that periodontal disease is a cause of a variety of cardiovascular problems, including Coronary Artery Disease.

Which of the following, if true, would most weaken the claim that periodontal disease is a cause of Coronary Artery disease?

A) Bacteria present in infected gums can become mobile and enter the bloodstream, causing arterial plaque to accumulate.

B) People who brush and floss their teeth regularly are also more likely to exercise and eat a healthy diet.

C) Infected gums are more prone to bleeding, which allows bacteria to escape the mouth and irritate arteries.

D) People who experience loss of teeth due to periodontal disease usually cut back on many foods that are harder to chew, such as lean meats and vegetables, and increase their consumption of processed foods like pudding and ice cream.

E) Patients with no history of heart disease are much less likely to have periodontal disease than patients who have had a cardiac transplant.

This ques seems very simple... But i doubt OA

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Re: Citing the frequency with which gum disease and heart diseas [#permalink]

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New post 28 Nov 2012, 04:42
shanmugamgsn wrote:
Citing the frequency with which gum disease and heart disease occur in the same patients, many dentists believe that periodontal disease is a cause of a variety of cardiovascular problems, including Coronary Artery Disease.

Which of the following, if true, would most weaken the claim that periodontal disease is a cause of Coronary Artery disease?

A) Bacteria present in infected gums can become mobile and enter the bloodstream, causing arterial plaque to accumulate.

B) People who brush and floss their teeth regularly are also more likely to exercise and eat a healthy diet.

C) Infected gums are more prone to bleeding, which allows bacteria to escape the mouth and irritate arteries.

D) People who experience loss of teeth due to periodontal disease usually cut back on many foods that are harder to chew, such as lean meats and vegetables, and increase their consumption of processed foods like pudding and ice cream.

E) Patients with no history of heart disease are much less likely to have periodontal disease than patients who have had a cardiac transplant.

This ques seems very simple... But i doubt OA

Source: Grockit

this is classic case of Cause and effect argument.
Cause -> periodontal disease PD
Effect -> gum disease and heart disease GD and HD
By POE we can reach B, E has the wrong comparisons. other 3 choices are just wrong

Cheers

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Re: Citing the frequency with which gum disease and heart diseas [#permalink]

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New post 28 Nov 2012, 19:52
Jp27 wrote:
shanmugamgsn wrote:
Citing the frequency with which gum disease and heart disease occur in the same patients, many dentists believe that periodontal disease is a cause of a variety of cardiovascular problems, including Coronary Artery Disease.

Which of the following, if true, would most weaken the claim that periodontal disease is a cause of Coronary Artery disease?

A) Bacteria present in infected gums can become mobile and enter the bloodstream, causing arterial plaque to accumulate.

B) People who brush and floss their teeth regularly are also more likely to exercise and eat a healthy diet.

C) Infected gums are more prone to bleeding, which allows bacteria to escape the mouth and irritate arteries.

D) People who experience loss of teeth due to periodontal disease usually cut back on many foods that are harder to chew, such as lean meats and vegetables, and increase their consumption of processed foods like pudding and ice cream.

E) Patients with no history of heart disease are much less likely to have periodontal disease than patients who have had a cardiac transplant.

This ques seems very simple... But i doubt OA

Source: Grockit

this is classic case of Cause and effect argument.
Cause -> periodontal disease PD
Effect -> gum disease and heart disease GD and HD
By POE we can reach B, E has the wrong comparisons. other 3 choices are just wrong

Cheers


Thanks JP27

But i'm still confused....
How E is wrong comparison????

E) Patients with no history of heart disease are much less likely to have periodontal disease than patients who have had a cardiac transplant.

No HD ---> No PD

For weaken questions choices with "effect to cause" is correct answer...
This is wat stated in E.

But how come B will be answer its no way related to weaken or strengthen... without our external knowledge we cannot determine B ???? :?
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Citing the frequency with which gum disease and heart disease occur in the same patients, many dentists believe that periodontal disease is a cause of a variety of cardiovascular problems, including Coronary Artery Disease.

Which of the following, if true, would most weaken the claim that periodontal disease is a cause of Coronary Artery disease?
this is a scenario which means if A, B occur simultaneously means A causes B;
to weaken we will tell
i)When A occurs, B does not happen
ii)B happens even whenA is not there
iii)C causes B not A

To strengthen we need to do the following
i) Say C is not the cause
ii)give an example when A occurs B occurs
iii)when Not A -> Not B
iv)possible problems with the data

A) Bacteria present in infected gums can become mobile and enter the bloodstream, causing arterial plaque to accumulate.
strengthens the argument telling missing link
B) People who brush and floss their teeth regularly are also more likely to exercise and eat a healthy diet.
giving a alternative cause execise and healthy habits that can lead to , also here it is not that A causes B , it tells b is likely also..
C) Infected gums are more prone to bleeding, which allows bacteria to escape the mouth and irritate arteries.
strengthens the argument telling missing link
D) People who experience loss of teeth due to periodontal disease usually cut back on many foods that are harder to chew, such as lean meats and vegetables, and increase their consumption of processed foods like pudding and ice cream.
it has no effect , to think this strengthens is out of scope..we don't know hthe effects of processed food
E) Patients with no history of heart disease are much less likely to have periodontal disease than patients who have had a cardiac transplant.
strengthens as it tells ; no periodental low heart disease but cardiac transplant history more chances Periodontal disease not A -> not B

Please correct me if i m wrong somewhere...
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Re: Citing the frequency with which gum disease and heart diseas [#permalink]

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New post 29 Nov 2012, 04:48
sujit2k7 wrote:
iii)when Not A -> Not B


I think the above is inccorect to say. Rather, Not B -> Not A.

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New post 29 Nov 2012, 07:46
stoy4o wrote:
sujit2k7 wrote:
iii)when Not A -> Not B


I think the above is inccorect to say. Rather, Not B -> Not A.


For strengthen question type when cause does not occur the effect does not occur...

if storm causes tornadoes then this can be strengthened by saying no tornado happens when there is no tide.[absence of the cause tide , => absence of the effect tornado]

Plz correct if my understanding is wrong....
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agdimple333 wrote:
Citing the frequency with which gum disease and heart disease occur in the same patients, many dentists believe that periodontal disease is a cause of a variety of cardiovascular problems, including Coronary Artery Disease.

Which of the following, if true, would most weaken the claim that periodontal disease is a cause of Coronary Artery disease?
A. Bacteria present in infected gums can become mobile and enter the bloodstream, causing arterial plaque to accumulate.
B. People who brush and floss their teeth regularly are also more likely to exercise and eat a healthy diet.
C. Infected gums are more prone to bleeding, which allows bacteria to escape the mouth and irritate arteries.
D. People who experience loss of teeth due to periodontal disease usually cut back on many foods that are harder to chew, such as lean meats and vegetables, and increase their consumption of processed foods like pudding and ice cream.
E. Patients with no history of heart disease are much less likely to have periodontal disease than patients who have had a cardiac transplant.


Another strange question... Is it just me or do you guys also think these questions are not true representation of actual GMAT style questions..

fameatop wrote:
I am not able to understand why option B is correct & E is incorrect. Can you kindly throw some light on the same. Waiting eagerly for your detailed explanation.

So far as I can tell, this is a Knewton question, and the OA is (B). First, as to agdimple333's point, while this prompt is perhaps a little on the short side, I would say the logic of the question very much captures the kind of logic you will see on GMAT CR questions. This is, in essence, a very good question --- not least because it has a very clear and well-defined OA, and yet, many folks on this page have fallen for one of the trap answers, most notably, (E).

The big underlying idea of this question is ---- correlation does not imply causality. This blog
http://magoosh.com/gmat/2012/gmat-integ ... tterplots/
is primarily about regression and correlation, but it does touch on this issue.

Let's say
P = periodontal disease
Q = cardiovascular problems
The dentists' argument is, essentially, P & Q are correlated, so P cause Q. The dentists' argument is abysmally bad, a classic flawed argument pattern.

To strengthen such an argument, we would have to demonstrate there was some mechanism of connection ---- e.g. bacteria or viruses in the mouth that become blood-borne and infect the heart, something like that.

One of the best ways to weaken a correlation/causality argument is to show that both terms arise from something else. This is in essence what (B) does. (B) says: there are a category of people --- call them "health all over" people --- and these folks take care of themselves from head to foot --- they brush and floss, which prevents periodontal disease, and separately, they eat healthy and exercise, so they don't get heart disease. That implies there would be other people, the "don't take care of self" people, who don't brush, don't floss, don't eat health, don't exercise, don't laugh, don't sing, don't do much of anything to take care of themselves. These latter people would be prime candidates to get periodontal disease (from not brushing & flossing) as well as heart disease (from poor diet and no exercise), but the periodontal disease and the heart disease do not have relationship of causality with one another --- rather, they are both products of an overall unhealthy lifestyle. This decisively weakens the argument, which is all about the leap from correlation to causality.

By contrast, (E) simply provides more evidence for the correlation. We already know P & Q are correlated. That was the first sentence. That's the evidence in this argument. That's beyond doubt. The crux of the argument is this vast logical leap from correlation to causality. Choice (E) simply gives more evidence that P & Q are correlated. In a strange way, it is a kind of strengthener, insofar as it reinforces evidence. It doesn't address the issue of causality and it doesn't clearly weaken the argument.
Another way to weaken the argument "P causes Q" would be to show that, actually, Q causes P --- something along those lines would be a good weakener, but (E) doesn't clearly support this.

Does all this make sense?

Mike :-)
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Hi Mike,
If the option E states
Patients with no history of heart disease do not suffer from periodontal disease. - Would this weaken the argument. As per me it should weaken.

Original option E
E. Patients with no history of heart disease are much less likely to have periodontal disease than patients who have had a cardiac transplant.

Waiting for reply
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fameatop wrote:
Hi Mike,
If the option E states
Patients with no history of heart disease do not suffer from periodontal disease. - Would this weaken the argument. As per me it should weaken.

Original option E
E. Patients with no history of heart disease are much less likely to have periodontal disease than patients who have had a cardiac transplant.

Both versions, the original (E) and your modified (E), are strengtheners, insofar as they reinforce the evidence. They don't really provide additional support, but they are entirely consistent with a scenario in which the argument is true.

Pretend for a moment, that the dentists are 100% correct. Let's make it even more extreme -- pretend that periodontal disease is the only cause of heart disease. This is a hyper-strengthened version of the argument. In this version, it would most certain be the case that "Patients with no history of heart disease do not suffer from periodontal disease", because as soon as someone got the least little plaque on their teeth, they would go down with a coronary. Periodontal disease and heart disease would go together 100% of the time, so you would never find one without the other. That is what would be true in an over-the-top strengthened version of the argument. Anything consistent with this scenario is most certainly not a weakener.

Does that make sense?

Mike :-)
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I cannot believe option B weakens the conclusion. No dental problems - healthy food - no heart problems. This absolutely reinforces the conclusion and nobody can make me think otherwise

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This is why people should only use official questions.

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agdimple333 wrote:
Citing the frequency with which gum disease and heart disease occur in the same patients, many dentists believe that periodontal disease is a cause of a variety of cardiovascular problems, including Coronary Artery Disease.

Which of the following, if true, would most weaken the claim that periodontal disease is a cause of Coronary Artery disease?

A. Bacteria present in infected gums can become mobile and enter the bloodstream, causing arterial plaque to accumulate.
B. People who brush and floss their teeth regularly are also more likely to exercise and eat a healthy diet.
C. Infected gums are more prone to bleeding, which allows bacteria to escape the mouth and irritate arteries.
D. People who experience loss of teeth due to periodontal disease usually cut back on many foods that are harder to chew, such as lean meats and vegetables, and increase their consumption of processed foods like pudding and ice cream.
E. Patients with no history of heart disease are much less likely to have periodontal disease than patients who have had a cardiac transplant.

Another strange question... Is it just me or do you guys also think these questions are not true representation of actual GMAT style questions..


Responding to a pm:

Two issues, gum problems and heart problems, often appear together - but it doesn't imply a causal relation between them. There could be a common underlying cause which makes them appear together.
Option B gives you that common cause - lifestyle.

People with unhealthy lifestyles tend to suffer from both the problems since they don't brush and they don't exercise and eat healthy.
People who ignored B because 'A implies B' doesn't mean 'Not A implies Not B' - very good. But, there is a catch here. It is not the simple logical relation 'A implies B' in option (B). Option (B) says that 'people who brush are also more likely to exercise' Notice the words 'more likely'. It gives you a comparison. So logically, people who brush are more likely to exercise as compared to people who don't brush. So people who don't brush are less likely to exercise and hence the lifestyle issue we talked about.

Answer (B)

Let me discuss (C), (D) and (E)

C. Infected gums are more prone to bleeding, which allows bacteria to escape the mouth and irritate arteries.
If this is true, gum problems might actually cause heart problems. Infected gums lead to irritated arteries. This is a strengthener.

D. People who experience loss of teeth due to periodontal disease usually cut back on many foods that are harder to chew, such as lean meats and vegetables, and increase their consumption of processed foods like pudding and ice cream.
I am actually in two minds about this option. The way it is worded, it makes you feel that people have a choice - they choose to cut back on harder (but healthier) foods and consume more processed foods. It that is the case, then gum problems do not cause heart problems; instead, it's people's choices (read processed food) that cause that cause heart problems.
This option should have been worded a little differently e.g.
'People who experience loss of teeth due to periodontal disease NEED to cut back on many foods that are harder to chew, such as lean meats and vegetables, and increase their consumption of processed foods, which have a softer texture.'
Basically, something that tells us that it is not a choice they make. They are forced to do it due to gum problems which means gum problems indirectly cause heart problems. Just like in option (A), people cannot help it if bacteria from their gums enter the bloodstream and cause heart problems, similarly, if they are forced to change their eating pattern due to problems, then we can say that gum problems cause heart problems.

E. Patients with no history of heart disease are much less likely to have periodontal disease than patients who have had a cardiac transplant.
What does this option tell you? Basically, it just tells you that gum diseases and heart diseases often appear together. It doesn't say anything about heart disease being the cause of gum disease. Our premises in the argument are from the perspective of a gum disease patient (say, if we studied people with gum diseases). This option is from the perspective of heart disease patients (if instead we surveyed the heart disease patients). The conclusion drawn is the same in both - gum diseases and heart diseases are often found together. So actually, it adds no new info.
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Re: Citing the frequency with which gum disease and heart [#permalink]

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New post 23 Mar 2013, 03:34
agdimple333 wrote:
Citing the frequency with which gum disease and heart disease occur in the same patients, many dentists believe that periodontal disease is a cause of a variety of cardiovascular problems, including Coronary Artery Disease.

Which of the following, if true, would most weaken the claim that periodontal disease is a cause of Coronary Artery disease?

A. Bacteria present in infected gums can become mobile and enter the bloodstream, causing arterial plaque to accumulate.
B. People who brush and floss their teeth regularly are also more likely to exercise and eat a healthy diet.
C. Infected gums are more prone to bleeding, which allows bacteria to escape the mouth and irritate arteries.
D. People who experience loss of teeth due to periodontal disease usually cut back on many foods that are harder to chew, such as lean meats and vegetables, and increase their consumption of processed foods like pudding and ice cream.
E. Patients with no history of heart disease are much less likely to have periodontal disease than patients who have had a cardiac transplant.

Another strange question... Is it just me or do you guys also think these questions are not true representation of actual GMAT style questions..


Premise: Erequency with which gum disease and heart disease occur in the same patients is high

Conclusion: Gum disease is a cause of a variety of cardiovascular problems, including Coronary Artery Disease.

Since this is a weaken question, we need to find the choice that,

(i) weakens the premise or,
(ii) weakens the conclusion

To do (i) the choice needs to show that the frequency of gum disease and heart disease occurring in the same patients is not high. If for some reason a choice shows that this is really the case, then the premise will be weakened.

To do (ii) the choice has to show that gum disease may not be the cause of heart problems. That is how the conclusion is weakened.

Choice B does (ii) because it suggests that those who do not take care of their teeth are those who are likely to have unhealthy food habits and that indeed is the cause of their heart problems .

Other choices do neither (i) nor (ii).

Hence the answer is choice B.
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I think B is completely out of scope ... As it eating a healthy diet or brushing doesn't correlate to the cause and effect relationship ... However I will go with E as it sets some correlation that might be the effect might have lead to the cause instead of vice versa though that is also not properly drawn ..

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I thought E was the answer. My reasoning was that E shows reverse relationship.
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New post 09 Sep 2013, 03:51
mikemcgarry wrote:
agdimple333 wrote:
Citing the frequency with which gum disease and heart disease occur in the same patients, many dentists believe that periodontal disease is a cause of a variety of cardiovascular problems, including Coronary Artery Disease.

Which of the following, if true, would most weaken the claim that periodontal disease is a cause of Coronary Artery disease?
A. Bacteria present in infected gums can become mobile and enter the bloodstream, causing arterial plaque to accumulate.
B. People who brush and floss their teeth regularly are also more likely to exercise and eat a healthy diet.
C. Infected gums are more prone to bleeding, which allows bacteria to escape the mouth and irritate arteries.
D. People who experience loss of teeth due to periodontal disease usually cut back on many foods that are harder to chew, such as lean meats and vegetables, and increase their consumption of processed foods like pudding and ice cream.
E. Patients with no history of heart disease are much less likely to have periodontal disease than patients who have had a cardiac transplant.


Another strange question... Is it just me or do you guys also think these questions are not true representation of actual GMAT style questions..

fameatop wrote:
I am not able to understand why option B is correct & E is incorrect. Can you kindly throw some light on the same. Waiting eagerly for your detailed explanation.

So far as I can tell, this is a Knewton question, and the OA is (B). First, as to agdimple333's point, while this prompt is perhaps a little on the short side, I would say the logic of the question very much captures the kind of logic you will see on GMAT CR questions. This is, in essence, a very good question --- not least because it has a very clear and well-defined OA, and yet, many folks on this page have fallen for one of the trap answers, most notably, (E).

The big underlying idea of this question is ---- correlation does not imply causality. This blog
http://magoosh.com/gmat/2012/gmat-integ ... tterplots/
is primarily about regression and correlation, but it does touch on this issue.

Let's say
P = periodontal disease
Q = cardiovascular problems
The dentists' argument is, essentially, P & Q are correlated, so P cause Q. The dentists' argument is abysmally bad, a classic flawed argument pattern.

To strengthen such an argument, we would have to demonstrate there was some mechanism of connection ---- e.g. bacteria or viruses in the mouth that become blood-borne and infect the heart, something like that.

One of the best ways to weaken a correlation/causality argument is to show that both terms arise from something else. This is in essence what (B) does. (B) says: there are a category of people --- call them "health all over" people --- and these folks take care of themselves from head to foot --- they brush and floss, which prevents periodontal disease, and separately, they eat healthy and exercise, so they don't get heart disease. That implies there would be other people, the "don't take care of self" people, who don't brush, don't floss, don't eat health, don't exercise, don't laugh, don't sing, don't do much of anything to take care of themselves. These latter people would be prime candidates to get periodontal disease (from not brushing & flossing) as well as heart disease (from poor diet and no exercise), but the periodontal disease and the heart disease do not have relationship of causality with one another --- rather, they are both products of an overall unhealthy lifestyle. This decisively weakens the argument, which is all about the leap from correlation to causality.

By contrast, (E) simply provides more evidence for the correlation. We already know P & Q are correlated. That was the first sentence. That's the evidence in this argument. That's beyond doubt. The crux of the argument is this vast logical leap from correlation to causality. Choice (E) simply gives more evidence that P & Q are correlated. In a strange way, it is a kind of strengthener, insofar as it reinforces evidence. It doesn't address the issue of causality and it doesn't clearly weaken the argument.
Another way to weaken the argument "P causes Q" would be to show that, actually, Q causes P --- something along those lines would be a good weakener, but (E) doesn't clearly support this.

Does all this make sense?

Mike :-)



Dear Mike
If option E were to be a weakener then, what would that option be?
As you said, (P causes Q) weakener would be (Q causes P). is this the classic weakener to use on these question types?

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Re: Citing the frequency with which gum disease and heart [#permalink]

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New post 09 Sep 2013, 21:51
akijuneja wrote:
If option E were to be a weakener then, what would that option be?



A note on option (E): It adds no new information.
E. Patients with no history of heart disease are much less likely to have periodontal disease than patients who have had a cardiac transplant.
What does this option tell you? Basically, it just tells you that gum diseases and heart diseases often appear together. It doesn't say anything about heart disease being the cause of gum disease. Our premises in the argument are from the perspective of a gum disease patient (say, if we studied people with gum diseases). This option is from the perspective of heart disease patients (if instead we surveyed the heart disease patients). The conclusion drawn is the same in both - gum diseases and heart diseases are often found together. So actually, it adds no new info.

If it were to be a weakener it would need to say that Heart diseases cause gum problems, not just that they appear together.

akijuneja wrote:
As you said, (P causes Q) weakener would be (Q causes P). is this the classic weakener to use on these question types?


Our conclusion 'P causes Q because they appear together' can be weakened by reasoning in various different ways. e.g.
1. Instead Q causes P
2. P and Q are both caused simultaneously by an element R

Option (B) uses the second line of reasoning to weaken the conclusion.
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Re: Citing the frequency with which gum disease and heart [#permalink]

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New post 26 Dec 2013, 16:03
Right! E is reverse logic trap, therefore it strengths, while we are looking for the answer that weakens!

summer101 wrote:
I thought E was the answer. My reasoning was that E shows reverse relationship.

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New post 27 Dec 2013, 10:48
B for me though E is also confusing....

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New post 28 Dec 2013, 09:07
Hi Semwal,

As others have pointed out E is actually a strengthener.

GMAT loves to do this sort of thing, put in lots of negatives to try and confuse you.

When this happens you need to be super logical, take a little more time and work through the sentence phrase by phrase. This way you work out what is the negative of what, and will give you a clear sense of the meaning.

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Re: Citing the frequency with which gum disease and heart   [#permalink] 28 Dec 2013, 09:07

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