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# Citing the frequency with which gum disease and heart

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Current Student
Joined: 06 Sep 2013
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Re: Citing the frequency with which gum disease and heart diseas [#permalink]

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12 Feb 2014, 08:23
carcass wrote:
This is not a good question at all though Grockit is one of my favourite company.

I can reach the answer by POE but is not really well formulated.

My opinion

Carcass would you please elaborate further on the answer choices? I also found this question difficult to follow

Thanks
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J
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Re: Citing the frequency with which gum disease and heart [#permalink]

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14 Feb 2014, 02:34
can anyone pls explain y B is OA.. it seems to strengthen the argument.
People who brush and floss their teeth regularly are also more likely to exercise and eat a healthy diet.
means NO periodontal disease ----->NO cardiovascular problems

Regards,
msj
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Re: Citing the frequency with which gum disease and heart [#permalink]

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15 Feb 2014, 04:26
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Hey MSJ,

I agree, this is a tricky one. It's deffo a 700+ level question. And at this level they love to play tricks, and a key trick is with messing with lots of negatives.

In this question. You need to flip the logic a couple of times.

B says: Teeth brushers are excersisers. Therefore people who have healthy hearts have healthy teeth

non teeth brushers are not excersisers. This gives a 'nurture' argument for the link in the two diseases. Therefore it weakens the 'nature' argument in the passage.

So B is correct.

Tricky

James
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Re: Citing the frequency with which gum disease and heart [#permalink]

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15 Feb 2014, 23:24
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shanmugamgsn wrote:
Citing the frequency with which gum disease and heart disease occur in the same patients, many dentists believe that periodontal disease is a cause of a variety of cardiovascular problems, including Coronary Artery Disease.

Which of the following, if true, would most weaken the claim that periodontal disease is a cause of Coronary Artery disease?

A) Bacteria present in infected gums can become mobile and enter the bloodstream, causing arterial plaque to accumulate.

B) People who brush and floss their teeth regularly are also more likely to exercise and eat a healthy diet.

C) Infected gums are more prone to bleeding, which allows bacteria to escape the mouth and irritate arteries.

D) People who experience loss of teeth due to periodontal disease usually cut back on many foods that are harder to chew, such as lean meats and vegetables, and increase their consumption of processed foods like pudding and ice cream.

E) Patients with no history of heart disease are much less likely to have periodontal disease than patients who have had a cardiac transplant.

This ques seems very simple... But i doubt OA

Source: Grockit

Gosh took more than 3 minutes to arrive at the correct answer. I was stuck between B and E. Finally picked B.

Option E)
No HD -> No PD => PD -> HD actually the conclusion (Strengthens the conclusion)

Option B)
No PD -> No HD => HD -> PD Weakens the conclusion.
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Re: Citing the frequency with which gum disease and heart [#permalink]

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19 Feb 2014, 11:16
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hey Plumber250,

thank u for such an elabrative explanation. that really helped.

+1 kudos

msj
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Re: Citing the frequency with which gum disease and heart [#permalink]

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28 Feb 2014, 04:56
plumber250 wrote:
Hey MSJ,

I agree, this is a tricky one. It's deffo a 700+ level question. And at this level they love to play tricks, and a key trick is with messing with lots of negatives.

In this question. You need to flip the logic a couple of times.

B says: Teeth brushers are excersisers. Therefore people who have healthy hearts have healthy teeth

non teeth brushers are not excersisers. This gives a 'nurture' argument for the link in the two diseases. Therefore it weakens the 'nature' argument in the passage.

So B is correct.

Tricky

James

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Re: Citing the frequency with which gum disease and heart [#permalink]

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02 Mar 2014, 00:06
AnmolKukreja wrote:
plumber250 wrote:
Hey MSJ,

I agree, this is a tricky one. It's deffo a 700+ level question. And at this level they love to play tricks, and a key trick is with messing with lots of negatives.

In this question. You need to flip the logic a couple of times.

B says: Teeth brushers are excersisers. Therefore people who have healthy hearts have healthy teeth

non teeth brushers are not excersisers. This gives a 'nurture' argument for the link in the two diseases. Therefore it weakens the 'nature' argument in the passage.

So B is correct.

Tricky

James

instead of thinking too hard, I just thought cardiac transplant is way far away from cardiac disease. cardiac transplant is not at all necessarily caused by cardiac disease (it could be from accident or could be from baby birth). at least this fact should not be a general concept GMAC assumes you to know. so I concluded that E is out of scope by saying "cardiac transplant" instead of "cardiac disease". possibily a shell game?

however, B also sounds odd, yet I can imagine GMAC assumes you to know the general idea of "if you exercise, you are generally healthier" thus it is reasonable to pick B as the answer.
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Re: Citing the frequency with which gum disease and heart [#permalink]

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03 Mar 2014, 11:52
I think the answer is actually D. Why is the OA B? Can someone explain? Here is my reasoning for D. Tell me where I am wrong. |
One way to weaken a corelation-causaility question is to show another source that causes the supposed effect (heart disease). D does this by showing that it is not the tooth disease but perhaps the dietary habits of folks with the tooth disease that might be causing the heart problems.
Current Student
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Re: Citing the frequency with which gum disease and heart [#permalink]

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25 May 2014, 17:01

Thanks!
Cheeers
J
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Re: Citing the frequency with which gum disease and heart [#permalink]

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26 May 2014, 00:43
plumber250 wrote:
Hey MSJ,

I agree, this is a tricky one. It's deffo a 700+ level question. And at this level they love to play tricks, and a key trick is with messing with lots of negatives.

In this question. You need to flip the logic a couple of times.

B says: Teeth brushers are excersisers. Therefore people who have healthy hearts have healthy teeth

non teeth brushers are not excersisers. This gives a 'nurture' argument for the link in the two diseases. Therefore it weakens the 'nature' argument in the passage.

So B is correct.

Tricky

James

If it can be B..then D is a plausible answer too...Why are we rejecting D-For the reasons that we don't know what processed food or ice- cream has to do with the respective diseases
In B
1. I am not sure what the diseases are and how are they caused..So does brushing teeth prevent this pre... disease is one

Not a good question I believe..Can Carcass or some also throw light on there rejection of D in POE
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Re: Citing the frequency with which gum disease and heart [#permalink]

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26 May 2014, 23:34
Citing the frequency with which gum disease and heart disease occur in the same patients, many dentists believe that periodontal disease is a cause of a variety of cardiovascular problems, including Coronary Artery Disease.

Which of the following, if true, would most weaken the claim that periodontal disease is a cause of Coronary Artery disease?

A) Bacteria present in infected gums can become mobile and enter the bloodstream, causing arterial plaque to accumulate. --strengthener

B) People who brush and floss their teeth regularly are also more likely to exercise and eat a healthy diet. -- here we are assuming that brushing and flossing can avoid pirodental diseases further exercise and healthy diet avoid heart diseases -- to much to assume.

C) Infected gums are more prone to bleeding, which allows bacteria to escape the mouth and irritate arteries.

D) People who experience loss of teeth due to periodontal disease usually cut back on many foods that are harder to chew, such as lean meats and vegetables, and increase their consumption of processed foods like pudding and ice cream.
Strengthener -- gum problem --> cut in good food --> heart disease.

E) Patients with no history of heart disease are much less likely to have periodontal disease than patients who have had a cardiac transplant.
It just describes the simultaneity of two factors not reverse causality.
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Re: Citing the frequency with which gum disease and heart [#permalink]

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14 Sep 2014, 13:43
I chose E in this one.
It reverses the cause and effect - people who already had heart problems develop the dental ones. This weakens the logic that the dental problems are the ones which cause the heart problems.
In B there is too much for me to assume... exercise is out of scope for this one, no?
When are we allowed to introduce new facts and when are we not?
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Citing the frequency with which gum disease and heart [#permalink]

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15 Sep 2014, 20:00
plumber250 wrote:
Hey MSJ,

I agree, this is a tricky one. It's deffo a 700+ level question. And at this level they love to play tricks, and a key trick is with messing with lots of negatives.

In this question. You need to flip the logic a couple of times.

B says: Teeth brushers are excersisers. Therefore people who have healthy hearts have healthy teeth

non teeth brushers are not excersisers. This gives a 'nurture' argument for the link in the two diseases. Therefore it weakens the 'nature' argument in the passage.

So B is correct.

Tricky James

hi plumber,
how do we know that periodontal desease is only all about brushing your teeth......what if one has this desease despite brushing his teeth every day....
cant " brushers of teeth" be a different sample than " periodontal desease" carriers...

how can ans B be right when it relates a different sample group?

am i to assume that any body brushing his teeth is free from periodontal desease ? no heriditory or other factors..
could you please throw some light on this......
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Re: Citing the frequency with which gum disease and heart [#permalink]

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16 Jun 2015, 23:25
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hamm0 wrote:
B for me. It indicates that there is no relation between coronary artery disease and gum disease. It's a person's habit that leads to the occurrence of both the diseases.

As far as D goes, I think it strengthens the argument, since it would explain one way that periodontal disease indirectly causes consumption of unhealthy foods, which would increase the occurrence of negative health effects.

Are you sure OA is C?

I am unsure about the option B because we are using an outside information that healthy foods decrease heart related ailments. The question does not provide this information. Is it ok?
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Re: Citing the frequency with which gum disease and heart [#permalink]

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11 Jul 2016, 19:16
can someone explain how B weakens the conclusion? B has absolutely 0 to do with anything in the stimulus
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Citing the frequency with which gum disease and heart [#permalink]

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21 Jul 2016, 11:25
nycgirl212 wrote:
can someone explain how B weakens the conclusion? B has absolutely 0 to do with anything in the stimulus

Quote:
Adding my two cents on E:
As there are enough reasons to eliminate A, C, D:
Reason to Eliminate "E" is:
E) Patients with no history of heart disease are much less likely to have periodontal disease than patients who have had a cardiac transplant.

Here, basically E talks about the “more likelihood” of the patients with cardiac transplant to have periodontal disease.
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Re: Citing the frequency with which gum disease and heart [#permalink]

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21 Jul 2016, 14:01
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nycgirl212 wrote:
can someone explain how B weakens the conclusion? B has absolutely 0 to do with anything in the stimulus

The conclusion of the passage is periodontal disease is a cause of a variety of cardiovascular problems, i.e. disease of gum and teeth causes heart disease.

Option B states that people who take care of their teeth also live a healthy lifestyle. These people do not get heart disease not because they have healthy teeth, but because they lead healthy life.

The conclusion states a causal relation, whereas option B shows that the relation is not causal, but a correlation.

The logic chain can be thought of as follows:
Conclusion: X causes Z
Weakening statement: X and Y happen together, and Y causes Z. (i.e. X does not cause Z)

Here X = healthy teeth
Z = healthy heart
Y = healthy lifestyle.
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Re: Citing the frequency with which gum disease and heart [#permalink]

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14 Aug 2017, 23:19
Merged topics. Please, search before posting questions!
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Citing the frequency with which gum disease and heart [#permalink]

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20 Oct 2017, 07:35

But now B makes more sense.

Here is my reasoning:

People who brush and floss their teeth regularly are also more likely to exercise and eat a healthy diet.
which means people who DON'T brush and floss regularly (subject to periodental disease) are less likely to exercise and eat a healthy diet. So actually less exercise and healthy diet is causing heart disease and not periodental disease. Alternate cause => WEAKENS
Citing the frequency with which gum disease and heart   [#permalink] 20 Oct 2017, 07:35

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